hello friends so today’s lecture is about structuralism the key names are fardinand de saussure charles peirce the american philosopher de saussure we have we have been talking about him all along and he is a assuwas langues will be talking about the language system langue and parole through concepts given to us by saussure will also talk about science the way saussure talks about and what is meant by signifier and signified structuralism is concern with theories which are focus on the analysis of the surface structure of a system in terms of its analyzing structure in that system could be anything will be talking about it in detail soon structuralism developed out of the works of the formalist and the two theories formalism and structuralism overlap while formalism is concern with the devices and roles that go into the making of cultural artifacts ah with the author actively employed techniques to achieve is specific ends structuralize is however concern with the following works of meaning how a spectator or reader reads an a understand since within a text so this is important to understand formalism is concern with the roles that the that the going to the making of cultural artifact a text for example ah structuralist and concern with how a meaning is conway and how reader or ah spectator it can be extended to cinema as well so cinematic tax and how ah a movie viewer watches a film or how a reader reads a tax and how they understands since within a text structuralsit are interested on the walking of the human perception and the basic premise of a structuralism is that human activity and its products even perception and part itself are constructed in not natural and by doing this they where challenging certain establish norms about they where mining is concern is constructed and how meaning is derived so structure is the principal of construction and the object of analysis to be understood by its intimate reference to the concepts of system and value as define in semiotics so this is another domain that we that we venture into while talking about structuralism and how closely connected it is to the study of semiotic which is study of science therefore we language system science and two more important concepts related to science the signifier signified now each elements meaning according to the the structurlist in the options and therefore define again the background of other possibilities this is a radical view of meaning that meanings are arbitrary and not previously constructed for us um structuralism derives a lot from the works of ferdinand de saussure concerned and charls appears while saussure where since appears prefer the world symbol saussure a basic different language and parole language what is langue langue is the social aspect of language it is the share systems which we draw upon as speakers so language or sorry langue is the social aspect of language parole is the individual realization of the system in actual insistences of language so langue is the social aspect

is it is a share system and parol is the actual instance that the key basic difference the write of linguistic or right aim or right objective of linguistic study is the system which underlies any particularly human signifying practice not the individual utterance for saussure language is a system of science this is what you have to remember language is a system of science and this science are arbitrary that means random and define by difference from other words now this scienc can only be understtod within a cultural system and this telling you what is mean by ah saussure system on language and science so according to him this science and this system can only be understood within a cultural system therefore arbitrariness of language for example and this is a famous example given to us by saussure the world dog d o g is not common to all languages the french for dog the french word for dogish where is in ah for the german in the german language the word for dog is hund h u n d although all this words are refer to the same animal and animal that has four legs sharp teeth that wags its tail and ah so on you know so you know the image of dog that barks yet so all this things but every cultural system has its own specific word to describe this animal within each culture there has to be a consensus you know everybody should agree that this animal should be referred to as a dog or as a sheer or something else so its culture specific and ah there has to be a consensus that certain letters in a particular order serve to represent a certain creature ok so this is important saussure in states that there are only differences that language is only a series of phonetic that is sound phonetic i am sure you are aware of is um study of sound so phonetic differences matched with series of conceptual that is images so how sound matches images that defines meaning so um by this he means that each sign only has a meaning because it is different from others dog has no inherent meaning its meaning comes because of the way the alphabets have been arranged and i can give example from the english language d o g let’s assume that the words the alphabets are arranged as f o g it becomes fog or d o t it becomes a dot so ah the sounds and the order of those letters they explain they define our conception of ah a particular creature on an object and that leads ah and that gives us its meaning now what is sign the sign communicates information you say dog and you conceptualize ah the image so um it can be anything sign can be anything it can be an image it can be a gesture we’ll be talking about these things later on in this lecture it can be a word written or spoken it can be a shape or color so all these things are imbued with certain meanings so these are signs and they convey meanings the sign

is the first step in the process of interpretation however signs have no intrinsic meaning meaning is given to them and established by universal or cultural conventions a sign has to stand for something else let’s assume that a sign such as this this is a plus sign for most of us um it can also mean something else you say um let’s assume ah you are holding a remote control in your hands and there is this button so it doesn’t definitely says that ah add something to it it me it stands for increasing the volume increase the sound so ah a sign is determined by cultural the meaning of a sign is determined by cultural conventions a sign has to stand for something else it has no meaning in itself the sign is comprised of two components the signifier and the signified and these are two important concepts two important components of sign and we’ve we will be looking at these in detail as well the signifier is the form that the sign takes for example a specific sound or marks on a piece of paper the signified is the is the conceptual stage of communication this is when the sign stimulates a mental idea or image the discipline of semiotics plays an important role in structuralist literary theory and cultural studies semioticians apply structuralist insides to the study of sign systems a non linguistic object or behavior that can be analyzed language specifically semiotics examines the ways non linguistic objects and behaviors tell us something semiotics takes off from pierce charles pierce for whom language is one of the ah for whom language is one of numerous sign systems and structuralism takes off basically from saussure for whom language was the sign system um and he tells us that it’s a language is the sign system par excellence prior to saussure language had been thought of simply as a system for naming objective reality which was assumed to exist before and outside of language itself within this view of thinking the real world is clearly already there while language simply labels it all so you see there is a system before saussure and after saussure post and pre pre saussure period language was thought of simply as a way of naming things objects and with existed as a sort of objective reality ah for saussure the social element of language constitutes the field of semiology coming to semiotics this is the general signs of signs so signs of signs um and ah this was pioneered in the eighteen eighty’s by charles peirce charles sanders peirce and we will discuss the philosophy the language philosophy the language systems as proposed by saussure and charles peirce further in our class on semiotics when we apply the linguistic model to literature and literary criticism we need to first understand that literature uses language as its medium however this does not mean that the structure of literature is identical with the structure of language structuralist believe that little has a special relationship with language so see we are moving towards that ah period in literary criticism in literary in literary criticism and theory where ah language and literature ah started to have a sort of correlation ok earlier it was always there but people had not theorized it people had not talked about it and this started taking place after specially after saussure

so literature draws attention to the very nature and specific properties of language therefore we can say that structuralism is closely related to formalism so the first to apply saussure’s ideas about language ah was the russian formalist such as a roman jakobson boris eichenbaum and viktor shklovsky these are the academicians particularly associated with the um moscow linguistics circle structuralist principles have been used to formulate general rules to distinguish literary from non literary discourse so this is the importance of structuralism now roman jakobson outline the three stages of formalist research he talks talks about analysis of the sound aspects of a literary work secondly he talks about problems of meaning within the framework of poetics and thirdly he talks about um an integration of sound and meaning into an inseparable whole the formalist study of literature occurs within the mode general study of language which jakobson categorizes in terms of its functions so another important word that you should know roman jakobson and the theory of functions the main elements of this functional system are the addresser and addressee in between a complex set of determinants that include context message contact and a code known to both the addresser and the addressee addresser the person who addresses addressee the interlocutor so the main elements of the functional system are the addresser and the addressee and there is a complex set of determinants that include context message and contacts jakobson talks about two axis or levels of meaning upon which poetry draws the metaphoric and selective and the metronomic and combinative so these are the terms that we should know for jakobson the poetic function projects the principle of echovillance from the axis of selection into the axis of combination jakobson means that in poetry selection made on the level of metaphor are super induced onto the level of metonymy where they are combined with other words to create poetic effects jakobson’s definition departs from the simple fact that all words can be classified and categorized to give an example um of what roman jakobson means by ah super induction of language let’s take a word for which there is a perfect synonym ok ah let’s think um blossom can also be thought of as ah as flower that’s a synonym why would a poet a writer use a particular word a flower in some contexts and blossom in another so that’s the idea so we will have to choose between two equivalents which world we choose depends on exactly what kinds of emotions we want to project what kinds of emotions what kinds of um language we want to project whether it is too ah dignified language or too colloquial language all these things depend exactly specifically on the words that a poet chooses it is this principle of linguistic equivalence that poetry borrows from what jakobson terms as the axis of combination coming to viktor shklovsky his work on prose as a formal device reflects some of the innovative ah innovations offered by jakobson shklovsky held that the artistic work of art is autonomous free from social forces and that prose is essentially form so viktor shklovsky defining what is form shklovsky gives us the term defamiliarization which is also called estrangement and these things we have been doing um in quite ah some

detail all along so ah defamiliarization defamiliarization as perhaps we have already done is an artist device that explains the alienating effect of things most familiar to us and raises a question whether reality is or isn’t purely an effect another device that defamiliarises the objects of representation is laying bare laying bare a text of the authors techniques another important ah writer of structuralism and we owe a lot to this person claude levi strauss he is a structuralist anthropologist who developed a structural theory in a consideration of myth ritual and traditions he explains social structure as a kind of model and demonstrates that the behavior patterns ah and institutes um depend on methods of communication that are all characteristics of how the human mind works levi strauss for example analyses the odeipus myth in a manner which is truly structuralist levi strauss is more interested in structural patterns than in the narrative sequence his theories about myth had great influence in the development of the theory of narratology a further aspect of structuralism we will be soon looking at it now another key writer of this movement this thought is vladimir propp who perceived the analogy between the sentence structure and narrative and developed his theory of russian fairy tales and fairy stories his approach can be understood if we compare the subject of a sentence with the typical characters typical characters the hero the heroine villain’s etcetera propp talks about thirty one functions where a function is the basic unit of the narrative language and refers to the significant actions which form the narrative these follow a logical sequence the last group of functions is um a difficult task is proposed to the hero the task is resolved the hero is recognized the false hero or villain is exposed the false hero is given a new appearance the villain is punished the hero is married and ascends the thrown now consider the oedipus myth ah through the same prison of explanation now oedipus is challenged with the task of solving the ri[ddle]-riddle of the springs he resolves it he provides the solution um so the hero is recognized and he is married he ascends that thrown but that it doesn’t end here because oedipus as we know after all is a false hero he’s the one who killed inadvertently his father and married his mother so he is a false hero ah he’s exposed and he punishes himself at the same time balance and harmony is restored at the end of oedipus so um the last structuralist who i am going to refer to in today’s class is john piaget he discusses the three components or the rather the three key components of the concept of a structure the view of a system as a whole instead of several and many parts the study of the transformations in the system and the fact that these transformations never lead beyond the system but always engender elements that belong to it and preserve its laws piaget illustrates the concept as it appears in mathematics and logic physics and biology psychology ah and ah he relates the idea structuralism to the laws of just start and the structure of intelligence and piaget works have also influenced ah linguistics where he deals ah further on synchrocity and generative grammar so what have we learnt we have looked at certain key thinkers of early structuralism we have seen who was saussure charles roman jakobson

claude levi strauss john piaget we have also become familiar with propp and viktor shklovsky we will continue with structuralism in another part of this lecture thank you