hello welcome back tonight we’re going to be talking about constellations and so I’ve got the constellation part kind of dividing into three different sections one of them deal with the circumpolar of constellations which everybody needs to watch and then I’ve got both a summer constellations and the winter constellation so whichever one you don’t need to watch you could just go ahead and skip that but I do want you to be paying attention to what’s going on outside of the sky and you need to go to sky maps calm and they will give you a download every month for what’s going on and so you’ll see the map and then you’ll see you know the kinds of objects that you can see just with the naked eye well a small pair of binoculars would let you see as well as anything that’s going on special during that month so again I encourage you to make sure you’re heading to sky maps calm every month to see what’s going on so now you can see that I have an entire universe in front of me okay so there’s my universe or at least a part that we’re going to talk about today and so you can see that the earth is in the center and remember when we talked about the celestial sphere so this is our celestial sphere right here and here our IR equators excuse me those are not our equator so those are our axis is our poles and so this is the North celestial pole that’s a South celestial pole and then of course we’ve got our equator right through here well we’re going to use that to determine where our constellations are that are the more common ones that I think you probably need to know and so imagine that you’re sitting on the earth and it’s night and you’re looking out and so we’re going to look at these constellations that you’re going to see over a period of about a year I’m gonna go ahead and look at each one of them like I said guys I’ve gotten broken apart into summer and winter and in this circumpolar circumpolar is basically what you’re gonna see right up through here that are visible all year and if you lived in the southern hemisphere you would see the southern or the South celestial excuse me the South’s circumpolar constellations down here but that always then will give you a feel for which direction is north and you can always locate yourself on where the Big Dipper or the Little Dipper is things like that and then we’re going to talk about how you’re going to sky jump or star jump from each constellation to be able to find your way around so guys with that let’s go ahead and start talking about constellations and the constellations that I want you to know now if you look and you see this picture right here you notice it just looks like a bunch of dots now unfortunately there are no lines in the sky that really talk about where those constellations are and so the first time you go out and look it’s probably going to be kind of hard to try and put some focus on those constellations that we’re looking at and remember that the constellations are something nothing more than a region within the sky itself we are going to use most of time the ancient Greek and Roman names for the constellations and for their definition the constellations were just these star patterns themselves and so those are what I want you to go ahead and know okay guys so let’s go ahead and start talking about our constellations now the website that you see right there is the one that I referred to before they always gives you the map for the particular month that we’re in I realized that this will be used in a variety of semesters so we’re going to do the north circumpolar constellations and then I’m gonna do summer constellations and winter constellations so just kind of pick whichever one of the two that you need because you’ll always need the circumpolar constellations and then like I said either depending on the winter or this summer time when you’re taking this course now if you look at this picture right here notice you see just lots and lots of dots well it’s really kind of hard to go ahead and start putting constellations to them unless we have some place to start and so the way that we’re going to start is by looking at where the celestial equator is where the celestial then or where the ecliptic is and then kind of go from there with where we’re putting our constellations and being able to identify where they are now this is a map of remember I talked about the middle part of that celestial sphere so I’ve taken off the top and I’ve taken off the bottom and this then is half of that celestial sphere made out of a map that I can just lay out flat this actually happens to be

the winter constellation part whereas this one then is these summer constellations now the purple line that I have drawn right here is a celestial equator so remember take that celestial article equator extend it out to the celestial sphere and that becomes a celestial equator so here it is on the winter constellations there it is on the summer constellations in between and you have your as you’re transitioning from winter to spring her from spring excuse me from winter to summer or summer to winter you know you’ve got this spring and you’ve got to fall constellations in there I’m not really going to talk about those but you can see on both of these maps you’re going to see those transitions as you go from those winter to summer constellations now the other important thing that we need to look at in the sky is where is the ecliptic and we’ve talked about the constellations of the zodiac that lie along the ecliptic remember the ecliptic is the apparent path that the Sun takes among the stars so here it is during the winter months and notice guys in this case it goes above the celestial equator where if I get over here in our summer constellations it then is below the celestial equator the points where it reaches the maximum above and maximum below as well as the point that it crosses the celestial equator then our our days of the first day of spring the first day of summer the first day of winter and the first day of fall when we talk about seasons then we’ll look at those individual points so let’s talk about the circumpolar constellations they are Ursula major Ursa Minor and a Big Dipper and the Little Dipper probably the ones that you’re more familiar with instead of the years of Major and Ursa Minor then we have Cassiopeia Cephas and Draco and out of those five circumpolar constellations there’s really only one star I want you to be familiar with and that’s Polaris that’s in the Little Dipper and Polaris is our pole star so take these the Earth’s axis and North axis extend it up to the celestial sphere and where the Earth’s axis runs to the celestial sphere at the North Pole then is a star Polaris and so that’s what the entire sky appears to turn around this is that same kind of map that I showed you earlier that’s laid flat out only now we are looking simply at the upper part or the North circumpolar constellations circumpolar constellations guys means that these constellations will be visible 365 days out of the year and again that’s assuming that you can actually go outside and look up and you don’t see clouds but they’re out there they’re just going to all appear to turn around Polaris and we’re gonna find Polaris is right there in the center of this map and I will be sending you links on blackboard on how to download these maps that I’ve been using so let’s talk about those five circumpolar constellations you see they’re all in red now the one at the bottom you can see is Ursa Major or the Big Dipper now there are more stars within this constellation than what I’m talking about because we’re just going to concentrate on that more common component of the Big Dipper then you see that I have a bright yellow arrow and that’s pointing toward the star Polaris and Polaris is in the Little Dipper or Ursa Minor so you see the Big Dipper there you see the Little Dipper then between the Big Dipper and the Little Dipper you’re going to see a constellation that kind of just slithers between those two well that’s Draco the dragon and then I have Cephas and I have Cassiopeia so I have circled the Big Dipper there’s two stars that are in the dipper part that do act as the pointer stars and so notice if I take those two stars and I’ve circled them in green they are going to point toward Polaris so you can always find where Polaris is based on being able to find the Big Dipper so that’s the first constellation guys that you want to learn how to find what is the Big Dipper and where is in the sky now hint guys it’s always going to be in the north make sure you stand looking toward the north find it it will point you directly toward the Polaris which is going to be again that star that the entire sky appears to turn around and so that’s why I have that yellow arrow so I take those two green stars run a line through there and that points to Polaris and I’ve got Polaris circled in green and then I have two other stars that are in the dipper of the Little Dipper dipper part of the Little Dipper well those two stars are the ones that you most commonly see the stars between those stars that I have in green for the Little Dipper are really very very hard

to see generally you see Polaris pretty well and you see those other two stars in the dipper part of the Little Dipper and unless you’ve got incredibly bright skies you’re going to lose the middle of the Little Dipper okay so I’ve got Big Dipper I’ve got the pointer stars I get two Polaris now I’m going to find the head of Draco the dragon so you can kind of see that red constellation that goes between the Big Dipper and the Little Dipper and kind of slithers around there and those four stars then that I’ve got circled in purple are the head of the dragon and that’s pretty easy to go ahead and find and so once you find that then you can kind of backtrack toward the body of the serpent or the dragon and then now if I hit Draco the dragon and I head up to the top following that little blue arrow I’m gonna head up a little bit north toward the north then I’m gonna get Cephas now Cephas at least for what we see right here looks like a house I’m going to find out that Cephas is a king and happens to be married to Cassiopeia and the next section that we talked about on blackboard guys we will go over the mythology of the constellations and kind of give you a feel of what those things look like in the sky with pictures and in the descriptions of what did the ancient people think of those constellations and why did they put those particular constellations in the sky what was important about Cephas what was important about Draco the dragon okay what did Cephas have to do with Cassiopeia and what did Cassiopeia have to do with Andromeda so I think it’s always interesting to look at some of that mythology and to look at the groups that were put in there when we put the ancient people when I had a name their constellations now we’re using the ancient Greek and Roman names for the most part but realize every culture every ancient culture that we have out there had their own set of names for these various stars they weren’t necessarily in the same patterns but at least they were the same stars that then the different cultures made various patterns out of but it’s always interesting and will include just a little bit of some of the other cultures when we talk about the mythology as well okay so I’m back to cephas you’ve got those four stars that form the house and then you’ve got the roof line that extends above that and notice that that roof line goes kind of toward Polaris so that’s another way of finding Polaris if you want to come in on the opposite direction and then if I had again up then I’m going to get to Cassiopeia Cassiopeia we’re going to find is basically the Queen’s throne and depending on what season you’re looking at Cassiopeia can look like either a Big M or a Big W now remember guys these circumpolar constellations are visible 365 days out of the year however they’re always going to rotate around Polaris so sometimes you’ll see the Big Dipper down toward the bottom of the sky sometimes you’ll see a toward the top of the sky it just kind of depends on your particular season and that sky Maps calm will always go ahead and show you where those circumpolar constellations are as well as all the other constellations and relative to those circumpolar constellations so what we’re going to find the easiest way to steer your way through the sky is either to constellation jump or to star jump some constellations don’t have really bright stars so that’s we’ll have to rely on the asterism the actual star patterns themselves as opposed to the bright stars now then I have two stars that I have circled in blue here again one of them is Polaris and I certainly do want you to the know the name of Polaris but the other two are part of a multiple star system out of the Big Dipper and they’re called Mizar and Alcor and when you look at those two stars through a telescope it does look pretty obvious that those two stars are really close together which leaves you to believe that they indeed are going around each other that’s not necessarily true you could have two stars that just happen to be really close to each other and we’re just looking at them but one of the activities that I will have us do when we get into stars which would be our third unit is something called proper motion and that’s the actual motion that the stars have and so we will plot the Big Dipper and we’ll also plot a constellation called Leo and see what the motion of the individual stars are doing are they just looking right now if we’re talking about the Big Dipper they’re forming a Big Dipper now what are they going to look like in 26,000 years well we still see the Big Dipper and we’ll come back and we’ll look at Mizar and Alcor and try and decide our Mizar and Alcor moving in the same direction or are they moving totally random of each other they’re moving in the same direction and that

does give us a good indication that they are indeed a multiple star system they’re going around each other or at least around their common center of mass they’re totally random then it just means I happen to be right in the same orientation when we look at it and so that’s one of the reasons why we do that proper motion lab also it kind of shows you the motion of the stars because unfortunately over our lifetime unless those stars are really really really close we’re really never going to see any motion of the stars themselves okay so now let’s talk about winter constellations so we had this North circumpolar constellations see those things all year-round they’re just going to rotate around Polaris in terms of winter constellations there are several constellations I’d like you to be aware of one of them is a constellation Leo with a bright star Regulus then cancer Gemini with the two bright stars castor and Pollux Taurus with a bright star debbye run Perseus Aries Orion and we’ve got two bright stars in Orion they give Betelgeuse which is the way most people call the common tongue and Rigel then we have if you’re a hunter like Orion you certainly need your two faithful dogs so that’s Canis Major in canis minor Canis Major has a bright star Cirrus and that’s one of the brightest stars in the sky canis minor has the star Pro Sian then we have Cetus and we have Pisces now if you look at those constellations that I just gave you you will notice some of them are indeed the constellations of the zodiac so remember guys those are going to lie right along the ecliptic so here’s that same map that I showed you earlier it took all the marks off of it and so this is where we’re gonna find those winter constellations okay now I’ve put back the celestial equator and the ecliptic so now let’s start looking at the individual constellations and find out where they are okay there’s all of them just marked in red and we’re going to go through we’re going to talk about them each individually but you can see where that ecliptic was there’s your ecliptic that yellow line that a lot of those constellations then lie along the ecliptic remember the ecliptic is the apparent path of the Sun takes through the background of stars now it also means when you get your Sun Sign is that’s where the Sun was during the time that you were born so let’s go ahead and start looking at each one of these individual constellations and the first one we’re gonna look at is Orion and so I’ve circled it here and you can see that Orion is a hunter and I’ve circled the two bright stars Betelgeuse is a one toward the upper left and right jewel is the one toward the lower right we’ve got to find that Rigel is an extremely big hot blue star whereas Betelgeuse is a really big hot red star so when we get into characteristics of stars we’ll look at why Betelgeuse might be red and what does that tell us about the evolutionary sequence of That star and what’s going on with Rigel when Rigel is still very very hot and very blue okay and you can kind of see that Orion does indeed look like a hunter he’s kind of there he’s got his arm raised over for a sword then we’ve got his belt and then there’s also going to be Orion’s sword and we’re going to find out that that’s actually got an interesting little Nebula material in there which we’re going to call the Orion Nebula you’ll come back and look at here and real shortly okay right now we’re just going to concentrate on constellations and on stars okay so that’s Orion and remember that Orion has two faithful dogs that’s Canis Major and canis minor canis minor is the one that’s a little bit above it’s a little bit to the north whereas Canis Major is the one that’s down a little bit to the south and you can see that right kind of right now it’s in red star that is probe solder excuse me that is Cirrus and like I said guys that’s gonna be one of the brighter stars in the sky I want you to get used to going outside when it’s kind of Twilight it hasn’t completely gotten dark yet and as it gets dark then and your eyes become dark adapted then those brighter stars are going to start jumping out and syrahs is certainly one of them it’s going to jump out really quickly the only thing that might interfere a little bit with being able to see Sirius is the brightest star is if we have one of our planets out if Jupiter or of Saturn or Mars is out that might cause a little bit of confusion but once you get used to where you’re gonna find these objects then you just

kind of look in that area I’m just gonna pop out and you won’t have any problems at all now if I go to canis minor notice that I just have about three stars in there it’s a small constellation and that brighter star in there is indeed Pro Scion so I got Canis Major canis minor big dog little dog we’ve got the hunter now let’s head over to Leo the Lion and it is one of the constellations of the zodiac and it is incredibly easy to recognize when you see Orion or excuse me see Leo right there you get the sickle part of Leo which is the head of the lion and then you can kind of see that body as it comes back out so the sickle part which is kind of looks like a big question mark in the sky and then the body is behind it so that’s a leo the lion then we have the next constellation of the zodiac and that’s a constellation cancer and it kind of looks like an upside-down Y in the sky and then if I come on over I get Gemini Jim and I remember it has the two stars called castor and Pollux castor is the one that’s a little bit to the right and up a little bit and those are about equal brightness hence the name Gemini the twins and then you see that kind of rectangle that comes down and Gemini is also a real easy constellation to go ahead and recognize then I come on over to Taurus the Bull and what you see there the horns of Tars the bull and they come on down to Aries Aries unfortunately isn’t a real big constellation and sometimes it’s a little hard to see there aren’t any really bright stars in there but it’s between Taurus the Bull and between Pisces and one of the ways that we can recognize Aries it also happens to be above the constellation Cetus which we’ll talk about here just second but it’s that constellation in red that’s right below Aries okay so Aries is a constellation of the zodiac I go ahead and hit Pisces Pisces is an extremely large constellation and in fact it goes from the winter part of the sky over to the summer part of the sky so it’s certainly one of those that is very noticeable then as we’re transitioning from the winter skies to the summer skies and you only actually see half of it right here we get in the summer part we’ll see the rest of it then we have Sita’s use a whale or a sea monster and it’s pretty easy to recognize because of the kind of squash squares in there and if you can see that upper square that’s right below Aries if you find that then you can find Aries pretty easily and then I have a Riga Arrigo looks an awful lot like a lopsided house now remember I said Cephas also looks like a lobster or a house and but you’re going to find that in the northern part because of those northern constellations those northern circumpolar regions and so yeah we kind of have two houses but one of them is definitely going to be different than the other because of the position that it’s going to take in the sky okay so you got a Riga and then the last one was Perseus not about you guys but I think Perseus looks like a big PI sign in the sky think about that 3.14 and think about your math and the big PI sign that’s kind of what I think Perseus looks like so that kind of gave us then the constellations during the winter months okay so we’ve got Leo got cancer got Gemini we got Taurus we’ve got Aries there’s Pisces we’re gonna hit Orion but it’s two bright stars we’ve got Canis Major in canis minor and God Cephas the dragon or the sea monster or the whale kind of depending on which way you’d like to look at it then we got a Riga and we’ve got Perseus now those are the bright stars notice now what you have is the red constellations with things circled in blue okay well those are the bright stars and I gave you on that list earlier but you can see that I have two of them in Orion again that’s gonna be Betelgeuse and Rigel you can see there’s Cirrus down with Canis Major there’s Pro Sian with canis minor then

you have Leo the Lion and you got a tourist there then notice we get to Gemini and there is castor and pollux then we get to Taurus Apple and Taurus the Bull has got the bright star Aldebaran and it’s extremely red so it’s real easy to find now let’s look at Taurus for just a second there is another constellation that’s a little bitty that I didn’t go ahead and refer to yet and I want to talk just briefly about the Pleiades well the plan is are really an open star cluster and so we’re gonna look at those as looking at something telling us about the evolution of stars and you can kind of see that that’s really a little open star cluster when you look at it in the sky you can see about six of them although sometimes they’re also called the Seven Sisters but I said they’re also really easy to find and then we get Auriga which gives us the bright star capella okay now notice that I’ve got several things marked in green now those are Messier objects Messier was Charles Messier made a chart because he kept getting confused between deep sky objects and he was looking for commas so he wanted to come up with a list of things that he knew was not a comet so that when he was out there trying to discover a comment he could already mark those things off because he knew that those smudges that he saw in space were not then something that was going to become a new comment so that’s why we have this Messier catalog and you have on blackboard you have references to Messier and I’ve got a URL for you to go ahead and copy the Messier charts off Messier objects are sometimes also called deep sky objects and so you see that I have four of them one of them was the open star cluster looking at the Pleiades and that’s the one that’s coming off a Taurus the Bull if you go back and look at Orion then I have circled the Orion Nebula which is a middle quote star in Orion sword then I have a cluster in cancer which is called the Beehive and then up toward Perseus I have hn KY which are a double star system excuse me which is a double cluster so let’s look at the Beehive cluster and this is a picture of the Beehive and cancer it’s an open cluster of stars which means that those stars all formed from the same material about the same time we get into stellar evolution that’s going to be real handy because we can say okay what is the difference in these stars when I look at them and I see what they’ve done in terms of their evolutionary sequence because they all formed around the same time they’re all made of essentially the same material we find that the only difference is going to be the amount of mass of That star has when it starts and so that’s why these open clusters number one are just really cool to look at but also give us a great deal of information now this is the center of the Orion Nebula it’s a big gas and dust cloud out there in space and when you look at Orion and you look at that middle star it’s just a tad bit fuzzy yeah and so it really takes a good pair of binoculars or a telescope then to go ahead and see that this is a dust cloud gas and dust and space and the very center area is what it’s called the trapezium and we have seen stars that have been born in that area so now what does it mean for a star to be born well basically when my that star starts converting hydrogen into helium then we now have a star and does that through thermonuclear reactions I just think when you look at it this is a really cool picture of the Orion Nebula now these are the Pleiades remember I said that was an open star cluster you can see that it’s certainly more open than the one I showed you earlier in terms of that beehive and when you look at it in the sky you try and count those stars you get about six but when I look at them there’s certainly more than six or seven there you know this is a small open cluster with the only place made about a hundred or excuse me about 50 to 100 stars in there that blue nebulous material that you see is basically material left over them when those stars formed and then this is a double cluster by Perseus as his agent I again see that we are a little bit further away because you’re seeing those open clusters as being a little bit more concentrated but just has to do with the distance that they’re at and so now we have two star clusters that form again at the same time the same material not only just in individual stars but then they form side by side and so they also look pretty cool through a telescope so now let’s go ahead and talk about the summer

constellations well here are summer constellations andromeda pegasus aquarius Capricornus self-honest probably haven’t heard of that one but I really liked that little constellation so that’s why it’s on this list we’ve got Cygnus with a bright star Deneb Lyra with a bright star Vega Aquila with a bright star Altair and we have Hercules Corona borealis booooo-whoo cheese which has a bright star of Taurus Sagittarius Scorpio with a bright star Antares Libra and Virgo so here’s that same map again only this time I’m on the other side which means I am looking at the summer constellations okay so there are all those constellations now you see one little constellation that I’ve circled in yellow well that’s the extension of Pisces remember we saw Pisces as a winter constellation but I said it also extended over into the summer constellations and that little circle it which is that’s what’s that little section that I’ve got circled in yellow is called it’s pretty easy to find and so that gives you a feel for being able to find Pisces based on where that circle it is and then you just kind of go over to go ahead then and look at the rest of the constellation so let’s look at Aquarius that’s again one of the constellations of the zodiac you can see they’re all gonna lie right along that ecliptic so that’s what Aquarius looks like this is what Capricorn looks like and it’s pretty easy to see as well it’s kind of this little bit lopsided triangle there now I come on over from Capricorn and I get into the constellation Sagittarius most people just find Sagittarius by finding a little teapot and that’s what’s called right there is a little teapot now one of the interesting things about Sagittarius and when you guys get your map and you look at it there’s all kinds of deep sky objects around Sagittarius well that’s because when we look at Sagittarius we are literally looking toward the center of our galaxy go outside you look up look toward Sagittarius and you’re looking toward the center of the Milky Way then I come on around the ecliptic I get into Scorpius from Scorpius then I get into Libra from Libra I get into Virgo and again a lot of times when you’re finding those constellations that don’t have too many bright stars or just big areas just kind of star jump I mean look where blue cheese is it’s kind of right above for a go so I come down from there and I then go ahead and find the constellation Virgo okay then the next constellation I’m going to look at is Pegasus and Pegasus what you recognize is the bright the big square of Pegasus so the big nice square of Pegasus now unfortunately guys you’re only seeing about half of it here because the other half is sitting over on the winter side of the chart but it makes a really nice big square remember Pegasus is a flying horse then I’m coming over to Cygnus the Swan now it doesn’t show up on this but a lot of your maps will show the fact that Cygnus is sitting in the Milky Way which means we’re sitting in this one of the spiral arms of our galaxy and so it kind of comes down and kind of an angle and head then toward Sagittarius and Scorpius when you go outside you let your eyes become dark-adapted then the Milky Way will gradually go ahead and show up really nicely okay then from Cygnus the Swan I’m gonna go to Mirai said my little favorite constellation Delphinus basically looks like a little dolphin jumping out of the water from that I’m going to go to Lyra Lyra is a very small constellation as well and it kind of looks like a little parallelogram with one in having a big bright star off of it then I’m gonna come down to Aquila from Aquila I’m

gonna go up to Hercules Hercules is a hunter as well think about your mythology and think about what Hercules did really big strong guy okay and Hercules is extremely easy to see in the sky you see the torso of Hercules and then you kind of see his arms at his legs coming off of there and more importantly right beside Hercules is a little constellation called Corona borealis which is a really nice little semicircle of stars and those little semicircle of stars then are real easy to find and once you know where that is you can also find Hercules by working backwards so either find Hercules and then find Corona borealis find Corona borealis and then go back to Hercules they’re easy to find in same way with the next constellation of witch’s booties malucci’s looks like a big kite in the sky and then you have the bright star down there and you have then the two strings that are hanging down off of that kite really easy to go ahead and find and then remember where I said that going back to Pegasus okay what you’re seeing right here are the winter constellations and Pegasus then just kind of finishes right there with that big square but then notice coming off at the top of the square that heads in back to the left is a constellation Andromeda and so Andromeda is actually Cassiopeia z– daughter and she’s on the flying horse and basically what you see is her hair flying out behind her and so when drama is also pretty easy to go ahead and find so there’s the other side of Pegasus as well now I’ve got a couple of blue marks on here which like they were before are my stars by really bright stars okay so if I look at my bright stars right here if I look at Scorpius which is down at the bottom that’s Antares if I look at pull whew T’s I have that bright star Arcturus and then I have three stars that form a triangle and those are called a summer triangle and those consist of the bright star Deneb which is in the constellation Cygnus the bright star Vega in the constellation of Lyra and the bright star Altair in the constellation Aquila now remember I said guys you want to go out there around Twilight you want to go ahead and let your eyes get dark adapted and you let your eyes become dark adapted it gets a little bit darker and I look up then those three stars are probably going to be some of the first stars that end up popping out they are very bright they’re very easy to find and they form a triangle and so if I can go ahead and find those three stars to Neb Vega and Altair then I can use those which anchor the constellation cygnus the anchor the constellation Vega the anchor the constellation Aquila then from those constellations I can jump to all the rest of them I can go from Cygnus to Pegasus I can go from Pegasus to Aquarius and go from Aquarius to Capricorn and continuing on along then the ecliptic war I can go from back to Vega I can go from Vega then is sitting right next to her Keeley’s Hercules is right next to Corona borealis and Corona borealis is right next to then bulu T’s and so it does indeed get pretty easy to go ahead and find things in the sky because you’re either constellation jumping or you are star jumping just there’s kind of the ecliptic to remind you those constellations along the ecliptic and then we have some deep sky objects just like we did before I’ve got two of them on this map and I’m going to have one of them on the map that had Andromeda on it well if I look up at Hercules Hercules has a big globular cluster called m13 now globular cluster is very different from an open cluster it has different types of stars we find globular clusters are different places in our galaxy as opposed to what the open clusters are again is going to tell us something about the evolutionary sequence of those stars and so if you got a nice-sized telescope then you’re going to be able to observe m13 then if I come down to Sagittarius which is a teapot like I said guys you look in that direction there’s all kinds of deep sky objects because when you’re looking at that direction you’re looking toward the center of our galaxy there’s lots more

globular clusters there’s lots more nebulas all kinds of cool things as I look toward the direction of Sagittarius unfortunately for the most part since they are quote deep sky objects that means guys you have to have a pretty good telescope to be able to see them and then our third deep sky object that you see during the summer happens to be the Andromeda galaxy Andromeda galaxy is about twice as big as what we are it’s certainly our closest large galaxy and so eventually the two of us will run into each other what’s going to happened when that big galaxy runs into us so let’s go back and look at pictures as m13 and I think you can see by looking at that it’s certainly different from them those open clusters that I showed you earlier in 3rd teens gonna have stars they’re a whole lot older okay so that means they’ve already gone through a lot of their evolutionary sequence and you’re gonna find that these clusters are much more dense and much much larger than what you’re going to find within an open cluster now this is the Milky Way and I think this is taken in Hawaii but I wouldn’t swear to it and obviously this is a timed exposure to go ahead and bring out the Milky Way but when you look up and you see that Milky Way you are simply looking at one of the spiral arms of our galaxy one of them in the winter the winter Milky Way and then another one in the opposite direction during our summer Milky Way when you go outside and you let your eyes become dark adapted gradually what you’re gonna see is just a whole lot more stars themselves and it’s going to kind of look like this white milky material and then if I look toward Sagittarius I think I said there’s lots of gas and dust out there and this is just one of the numerous gas and dust nebulas that I have looking towards Sagittarius and we find too that anytime we are looking toward the Milky Way we’re gonna find within the Milky Way lots of gas and dust clouds as well the colors are indicative of not only the temperature of the gas and dust but also the material that the gas and dust is made out of and then you have the Andromeda galaxy now this is about twice the size that we are remember that we’re about a hundred thousand light years across hmm about four thousand light years in height will thin compared to what the length is I think I said the Andromeda galaxies is not quite twice as big as what we are has billions and billions and billions of stars you’re looking at this more edge-on so you’re seeing more of those dark spirals then within the spiral arms and then Andromeda has two satellite galaxies one of them that you see above and one of them you see it below and same thing like what our galaxy does is well we have a couple of satellite galaxies we also have a couple of galaxies that appear to be going through or have come out of going through our galaxy and so when we get into the last unit and we start talking about galaxies and interactions between galaxies you know what’s gonna happen when we go through the Andromeda are we going to notice it are we going to run into another star or are the distances so great between stars within the two galaxies that we’ll never know we’re doing that unless we happen to be in the core the core is certainly a little bit denser but I guarantee you guys that gas and dust is gonna go crazy when those two galaxies go through each other and so when we get into uniform we’ll go ahead and I’ll show you some galaxies that have formed because two galaxies have gone through each other they’ve left their gas and dust behind and the gas and Dustin has gone through and evolved into stars okay guys so at least that gave you a feel for what your summer constellations were your winter constellations and your circumpolar constellations now we did this on a very flat surface so the next section that I want to talk about the next section we’re gonna do is we’re gonna go to Google Earth and we’re going to look at the sky map on Google Earth and I want to take you on a tour of what this guy actually looks like as well as we’re gonna use some other websites to give you a feel for what those constellations look like out there in space as well as there’s some deep sky objects that we just kind of got started with some of our deep sky objects here and really give you a feel for what’s up there in the sky so with that guys I will plan on seeing you then the next section which case we’ll take a tour of the universe