Namaskar in the series our next topic is the self and related concepts When we are talking about self and related concepts let us first revisit about a humanistic perspective, self-theory where Carl Rogers discussed about different type of selves the ideal self, self image and the true self we discussed in the last classes The ideal self is the person you would like to be, self-image – the person you think you are and the true self the person you actually are Then next point which we discussed over there was incongruence among these 3, and congruence among these 3 If these 3 are mismatched then we may have some problems, on the other hand if these 3 are matched with each other then we would be having characteristics of a fully functioning person So, if it is a mismatch or incongruence then we may have problem with our self-esteem as well as we may have high level of anxiety and defense mechanisms Self esteem suffers when there is a large difference between one’s ideal self and self-image On the other hand, if self-image does not match with the true self then we have high level of anxiety and defensiveness or can say broadly high level of neuroticisms or high level of anxiety stress and tension and this is the cause of abnormal of behavior as per this theory So that is very important to know how we may have low level of self esteem as well as anxiety and defensiveness, on the other hand if we have good level of congruence then that is positive for us And we have high level of positive self as well as we would be having characteristics of a fully functioning person let us understand this concept a little bit more The self-concept is the sum total of a person’s beliefs about their own personal attributes So, totality about you what do you think about yourself, what are your cognition, what are your emotions, what kind of behavior you perceive for yourself So, these beliefs can be about your affect about your behavior, about your cognitions, about your motivations etc It means what kind of emotions you think you have, what kind of behavior as well as cognitive processes like thinking, reasoning, problem solving etc Motivation level and in which direction you think about it, so totality about affect, behavior, cognitions, motives etc, is your self-concept Sometimes evaluation of these beliefs is considered part of the self concept that is self esteem So, if we see evaluation it means how do you evaluate yourself positively or negatively, if you evaluate yourself positively then you have positive self concept as well as high level of self esteem On the other hand, if you evaluate yourself negatively then you may have negative self concept as well as lower level of self esteem Self esteem means self worth or personal value how do you perceive, that is, your perception, in fact, about yourself Self esteem should be viewed as a continuum and can be high, medium or low and is often quantified as a number in empirical research This point will be discussed in detail in next slides, ‘who am I? the self’ that is And then we focus on various aspects of self, for example, self-concept – who am I? That is the answer, self-knowledge – how can I explain and predict myself that is part of self, self-esteem – my sense of self-worth that is self and social self, my role as a student, family member, friend or my group identity So, all these are in fact perceived roles What do you think, what kind of student you are, what kind of family member you are, do you have positive evaluation about yourself? When you are thinking about friendship as well as group identity – which ever groups you have, in these groups what is your role, is it valuable enough and you perceive it positively? So, if you perceive it positively then that is positive social self we can say So, self means it has various dimensions, dimensions may be some more as well as self

concepts, self knowledge, self esteem, social self etc. and this totality is yourself Then next point is there are various other aspects which are addressing self concept I think now you can easily understand individualistic verses collectivistic cultures which I discussed a number of times in previous lectures In individualistic cultures we have independent view of self, on the other hand in collectivistic cultures it has been observed that we have interdependent view of self, interdependent view of self means when you are thinking about yourself, your relations And role of other people is part of yourself, for example mother, father, sibling, co-worker, friend, so all are part of yourself On the other hand, in individualistic culture it has been observed that broadly we have independent view of self You have yourself as well as you know your relations, you give importance to these relations but these relations are not part of yourself, this is difference between independent view of self and interdependent view of self Next point is collectivistic and individualistic cultures really important for us to understand how they define self So, when we talk culture wise about self, then we can say that collectivistic culture people are protected in exchange for loyalty So, in this group extended families are important rather your immediate family, immediate family means you, your brother, sister and parents, extended family we can say community, we can bigger group We can say part of society or culture or community, in this group identity is based in the social system and given by one’s group as well as emotional dependency is there Group membership is promoted in collectivistic culture, expertise, order, duty, security or provided by the largest system Trust is placed in group decisions On the other hand, when we talk about individualistic culture and our role as a self in individualistic culture – everybody is supposed to take care of himself or herself, so you have individuality and that is your responsibility to take care of you as well as you may have relationship with your immediate family Identity is based on individuality, inner attributes of the self are promoted in individualistic culture, emotional independence is there, individuals initiatives, achievements and leadership qualities are emphasized in individualistic culture Trust is placed in individual decisions, so these are the differences between collectivistic and individualistic cultures and that is why we have influence of culture on self Now for understanding self, next point is what is positive self concept it could be negative self concept but being positive psychology, our focus is on more positive aspects of human personality So that is why we will be talking about positive self concept, the mental picture that someone has of themselves – whether it is positive or negative is self concept And our objective here is to explore positive self concept Parents and teachers play the biggest role in creating and maintaining positive self concepts in children The environment of a child also plays a crucial role in the way they view themselves and this fact will be discussed in detail in resilience chapter by Erik Erikson’s theory The strengths and weakness are those that are learned as a child, are internalized as concepts and affect the way one acts later So, all these theories are saying that childhood experiences are very important and they are giving due respect or due weightage to psycho-analysis and psycho-dynamic as scholars who have focused on childhood experiences And they observed that all these intra personal characteristics developed through different developmental stages And this fact will be discussed in detail in resilience chapter with the support of Erik Erikson’s theory and some other theories So broadly here the messages we have – 2 selves’ actual self which is real self, and ideal self – what kind of self we want to have If there is congruence or match between 2 actual and, you know, ideal self, then we do not have any problem On the other hand, if we have much difference between 2 and congruence or mismatch between actual-self and ideal-self then we may have negative self, on the other hand in this case

we would be having positive self Now next point is social construction of self-esteem Hewitt in 1998 concludes that self esteem reflects the emotions flowing from person’s appraisals of their overall effectiveness in the conduct of their lives So overall appraisal or evaluation is important and again I am repeating whether it is in positive or negative direction that matters Self esteem is the personal judgment of worthiness, what do you think, what kind of person you are, do you perceive yourself positively or you perceive yourself negatively? So that is your self esteem, the contemporary psychological understanding of self esteem is rooted in 4 ideas Number 1 acceptance, do you accept yourself or you do not accept yourself or have certain problems? Second is evaluation, how do you evaluate yourself, evaluate yourself positively or negatively? Next is comparison, most of the time when we evaluate our self we compare ourselves with others So, if in this comparison we observe we are at higher front then that is positive one On the other hand, when we compare and find we are lower than others then we may have low level of self-esteem Similarly, self-efficacy is important which will be discussed in detail Self-efficacy means your attitude toward the work ‘I can do that’ Self esteem is an objectively real fact of human existence, it is built early on a foundation of security, trust and unconditional love So again, it is supporting Erik Erikson’s theory So, because again and again we are talking about this theory let us know overall view of this theory and we will discuss the theory in detail in resilience chapter This Erik Erikson’s Ego psychology, it is based on certain points In this theory he has mentioned that we have crisis at each and every stage of our life And he has identified several stages from childhood to adulthood, so in all these stages we have certain crisis Crisis means an important turning point and a during this crisis how it is resolved that is very important There are 2 possible ways one possible way is positive resolution and second one is negative resolution If we have positive resolution it means we will be strengthening the ego and therefore a greater adaptation On the other hand, if we resolve this crisis negatively in our life or at this particular stage then it will weaken the ego and inhibits adaptation So as per this theory we have various crisis, one by one, stage by stage, there are 2 options to resolve these crises, one positive another negative resolution Positive resolution will increase our adaptation or greater adaptation we would be having during next stages On the other hand, if we resolve it negatively rather than resolve it positively or in positive direction then it weakens the ego and inhibits adaptation, so after that our adaptation would be reducing In each stage, for a crisis there are 3 stages immature phase, critical phase and resolution phase Immature phase when we are just entering in this stage, critical phase where we are resolving it and third is the end of this stage where we just have resolution phase He has mentioned that this psychosocial stage is determined by heredity as well as social environment and he has given significant weightage to social environment So, if we resolve these crises positively, then we would be adding one virtue in our personality Virtue means when the crisis characterizing a stage is positively resolved, a virtue emerged in one’s personality and these identified virtues are hope, willpower, purpose, competence, fidelity, love, care and wisdom So these are the ways to develop certain virtues in our personality, so you just see at first stage we develop hope in our personality This theory will be discussed in detail once again in resilience chapter and more clarity then you will have about this theory Now again let us know a little bit more about self esteem

Self esteem is enhanced when the person is able to make favorable comparison with other people or with an ideal self So, it means both are important when you compare with others you have favorable comparison and second one is your real self and your ideal self are quite close to each other And it is enhanced when the person acts effectively in his or her physical or social environment, so whenever you are doing effective work in your social and physical environment you are getting positive feedback and that is why have higher level of self esteem When we discuss about comparison then it is just like, for example, you are standing here and when you compare yourself with this person you feel better On the other hand when you compare yourself with this person you feel lower, for example you got 70% marks you will feel happy or high level of self-esteem if you are meeting another person who has 50% marks, on the other hand when you are talking with the person who had 90% you may feel low So that way, we compare our self with others, we feel high or low self-esteem when we talk about self-esteem then we have various questions, and answers are in terms of self esteem For example, am I a person of good standing in my family, peer group, community or in profession? If you think yes you are, then high level of self-esteem, on the other hand, may have low level of self esteem, am I a worthy person, how do I compare with others, am I effective in my work or in my family life So, if you have positive evaluation then positive or high level of self esteem, on the other hand if your answers are in ‘no’ then you may have low level of self esteem The individual should ideally be able to experience and manifest feeling of worth, value and positive self-images, then you have high level of self esteem Therefore, self-esteem derives from the social world that surrounds the individual and so the collectivity, the family, the peer group, the school is obliged to treat its members in ways that will enhance their self-esteem So, it means not only you but your social environment should be supportive In your social environment – your parents, your teachers, your school, your friends should be supporting then only you will have positive self esteem In last classes I have been talking about some psychological tests, here let us experience what do we do in psychological test, so that you can understand about psychological test, its administration and what kind of psychological test we have to assess hope, optimism or here for example, self-esteem I have selected the scale Rosenberg Self-esteem Scale, first of all there are standardized instructions in all the psychological tests For example, in this scale instructions are below – it is a list of statements dealing with your general feelings about yourself, please indicate how strongly you agree or disagree with each statement I will request just take a paper and pen and answer these questions, so that you can understand how do we administer psychological tests, how do we do scoring, what is difference between raw data and scored data and finally how do we get result in terms of numbers And then we can say a person’s level of say, self-esteem or optimism or hope in other chapters So, in this psychological test this scale is 1 to 4, 1 to 4 means strongly agree 4 agree 3 disagree 2 strongly disagree 1 So, it means if your answer is ‘strongly agree’ then you mark 4, if it is ‘agree’ then you mark 3, if you ‘disagree’ then mark 2 and ‘strongly disagree’ mark 1 Let me read these statements one by one and you write your answer to each question First statement is on the whole I am satisfied with myself, so whatever is your response you just write that number Second is, at times I think I am no good at all, 3rd question is I feel that I have a number of good qualities, 4th question is I am able to do things as well as most other

people, 5th one I feel I do not have much to be proud of Then 6th is I certainly feel useless at times, 7th I feel that I am a person of worth at least on an equal plane with others 8th question is I wish I could have more respect for myself, 9th all in all I am inclined to feel that I am a failure, 10th I take a positive attitude toward myself Now after completion of this administration let us know about scoring, you must have observed that some statements score is negative So negative statement in this psychological test are number 2 number 5 number 6 number 8, 9 and all these statements would be having reversed scoring So, for positive, strongly disagree 1, disagree 2, agree 3 strongly agree 4, on the other hand reversed for negative item So, first score will be our raw score then 2nd step is let us convert this raw score in scored score, when I am saying scored score then you have to do scoring as per negative as well as positive items For negative items, here scoring ‘strongly disagree’ means 4, ‘disagree’ means 3, ‘agree’ means 2 and ‘strongly agree’ means 1 So, after doing that scoring or reverse scoring, add all the scores in the psychological test Higher scores indicate higher self-esteem, so that score is level of your self-esteem and in this scale, range will be 10 to 40 And it has been observed in one of the studies when I was trying to search some norms, I could not get exact norms for the psychological test But in one study I observed that 21 or less than this is counted as very poor self-esteem, so this is the way to use psychological test And you must have observed 2, 3 things here, at very initial point we convert your behavior in numbers And then in psychological test we do statistical analysis with these numbers and then we could say what is your level and correlation with other constructs So, like in this case if we have some more psychological tests, we can study correlation among the variables For example, correlation between maybe self-esteem and self-efficacy or maybe self-esteem and personality, so by having other psychological test we may collect data from various psychological test and then we could do statistical analysis as per our research plan Generally, after administration we have norms and we compare individual’s data with these norms and as per these norms we say whether you have high level of self esteem, low level of self esteem or moderate level of self esteem And this way we are able to assess someone’s self-esteem, same procedure we follow for other psychological tests s In this series our next concept is self-efficacy Self-efficacy means I think I can, how efficient you think you are to do a particular task The basic premise of self-efficacy theory is about people’s beliefs in their capability to produce desired effects by their own actions Similarly, Maddux in 2002 has described self-efficacy as ‘what I believe I can do with my skills under certain conditions’ Self-efficacy beliefs determine how people feel, think, motivate themselves and behave Such beliefs produce these diverse effects through 4 major processes these include cognitive, motivational, affective and selection processes So, in self-efficacy we have role of cognitive processes like thinking, reasoning, problem-solving, motivational factors, emotional factors Emotional factors for example at the time of positive emotions we may have higher level of self-efficacy On the other hand, when we have lower level of emotions or negative emotion then our self-efficacy may suffer And selection processes are important in this direction, self-efficacy theory also maintains that these efficacy beliefs play a crucial role in psychological adjustment, in psychological

problems and physical health as well as professionally guided and self-guided behavioral change strategies That is why self-efficacy is very important, because if you have high level of self-efficacy then you will perform better during psychotherapies, during intervention programs or during some skills and training programs Self-efficacy is not a perceived skill It is what I believe I can do with my skills under certain conditions Self-efficacy is concerned not with what I believe I will do but with what I believe I can do, so here not only a simple statement I will do but it is I can do, so that is your efficacy to do the task Self-efficacy beliefs are not causal attributes, intentions, self-esteem, motive, drive or need control outcome expectancies or personality traits, so it has its unique definition as well as understanding Now next point is self-efficacy is a learned human pattern of thinking rather than a genetically endowed one and that is why psychologists are taking more interest Because that is learnt behavior, that can be learned, that is why it is important for us for 2 reasons One it has positive impact in our life, on our health, on our performance as well as positive impact on our quality of life And second one is it is learnt behavior and that is why through training, through intervention programs it can be enhanced It begins in infancy and continues throughout the lifespan Like self-esteem, self-efficacy is based on the evidence of social cognitive theory and this theory is talking about various factors First, humans have powerful symbolizing capacities for cognitively creating models of their experiences And second by observing themselves in relation to these cognitive models’, people then become skilled at self-regulating their actions as they navigate ongoing environmental events Thus, cognitive reactions influence the surrounding environmental force that in turn shapes subsequent thoughts and actions There is back and forth interchange of environmental and thinking processes People and their personalities are a result of these situation-specific, so we have reciprocal interactions of thoughts, environment and then thoughts So, it is a reciprocal interaction between thoughts and environmental factors This model gives us a little bit more information about this point that is called Bandura’s triadic reciprocal determination In this model he has focused on 3 important factors – behavioral factors, personal factors and environmental factors And these all reciprocally interacting with each other, he has borrowed this idea from Kurt Lewin’s work where he has focused that our behavior is function of P and E, P means personal factors and E means environmental factors So, behavior is a function of the person and environment, when I am saying person it means personal characteristics Characteristics which we have in our personality or can say intra personal character strengths, personality traits On the other hand, environmental factors, so these personal factors interact with environmental factors and finally we have particular type of behavior On the other hand, behavior is interacting with both factors’- personal factors as well as environmental factors So, these both category factors are important to have certain type of behavior As a summary let us know where does self-efficacy come from As noted previously self-efficacy is not a genetically endowed trait and it is not genetically determined factor Instead self-efficacy beliefs develop over time as I discussed earlier also As per different stages we learn this self-efficacy The development of such belief begins we assume in infancy and continues throughout life, in psychoanalysis, and in neo-analyst Erik-Erikson’s theory role of childhood experiences have been highlighted Another important theory is social cognition theory – an approach to understanding human cognition, action, motivation and emotion that assumes that we are active shaper of rather than simply passive reactors to our environment

So, this theory says that our cognition, our action, motivation, emotion, all these factors have active role in our life and that is why we are active shaper of our life rather than being passive in our environment And that is why role of feedback and biofeedback is very important and it has been observed that whenever we have clear cut feedback, we have better self-efficacy There are 5 primary sources for efficacy beliefs as per Bandura’s view or Bandura’s theory These 5 factors are – first one is performance experiences, our experience at attempting to control the environment is one of the most powerful sources of self efficacy information Second one is the vicarious experience, observing others as they attempt to control their environment and the consequences of such behaviors So, we learn through social modeling, we learn through others, what kind of activities they are doing, what kind of work they are doing, how they have achieved their goals and by observing them we learn we would be having high level of self-efficacy for the task or not Next one is imaginal experiences; we can influence self-efficacy beliefs by imagining ourselves or others behaving effectively or ineffectively in hypothetical situations So, we imagine about the situation and then we just see whether we could do effectively or we could not do effectively Next important process is or factor is verbal persuasion, others can use words to persuade us about our self-efficacy in a given situation, importantly we are told that the persuasiveness of the person is influenced by his perceived expertness, his trustworthiness and his attractiveness as a source Next point is physiological and emotional states Being calm or excited, distressed or confident will undoubtedly have some impact on the self-efficacy beliefs So, these are the important factors which play important role and important sources these are Let us understand same sources with examples First is previous successes in similar situation So, we just observe our feedback, what kind of feedback we had from previous situations, calling on the source of positive thoughts about how well one has done in earlier circumstances So, it means if we have been getting success or positive results then we will be more confident and high level of self-efficacy we will be having On the other hand, modeling on others in the same situation – watching other people who have succeeded in a given arena and copying their actions So modeling, social modeling – it has significant role, 3rd one is imagining oneself, behaving effectively visualizing acting effectively to secure a wanted goal, 4th one is undergoing verbal persuasion by powerful trustworthy expert and attractive other people, being influenced by our helper’s words to behave in a given manner For instance, when Jambavanta makes Hanuman realize his immense capabilities and encourages him to fly across the ocean So, in this theory important factors are what kind of experience you had in the given situations or in the past situations and this past feedback has significant role for self-efficacy Second one is modeling – social modeling, what kind of models you have perceived, what is your view about those models Third one is how do you imagine, what are your imaginations about the effectiveness or ineffectiveness of task And another source is powerful people or significant social agents in your life Powerful, trustworthy experts who could pursue, who could help you to pursue the task So all those sources are important to understand self-efficacy theory, so for self-efficacy judgments we have these 4 factors which I discussed in the last two slides, performance outcome, past experiences important physiological feedback, emotional status input – very important source over there Vicarious experiences – modeling by others was important, verbal persuasion coaching or feedback or maybe sometimes you get certain training and through trainings you are learning

about self-efficacy or having higher level of self-efficacy, these are important factors When we talk about processes of goal realization then can say self evaluation, self-observation, self efficacy, self-reactions all these selves play role for goal attainment and motivation Another important point here is, why is self-efficacy important? There are various researches which are supporting that if we have high level of self-efficacy, it has positive impact on our well being as well as on various other positive personality traits Self-efficacy is very important because it has a direct impact on psychological adjustment being in control of our behavior, our environment, our thoughts and feelings is essential for happiness and sense of well being It has been observed that it has various positive impacts, low self-efficacy on the other hand – expectancies are an important feature of depression – it has been observed that if you have low self-efficacy then chances to have higher level of depression self-efficacy plays a powerful role in attempts to overcome substance abuse problems, and eating disorders So, if you have high level of self-efficacy then you could deal with negativity in your life more effectively Self-efficacy and physical health are positively correlated, self-efficacy and self-regulation again positively correlated with each other Social cognitive theory and self-efficacy theory assume that we have the capacity for self-regulation and self-initiated change and studies of people who have overcome difficult behavioral problems without professionals help provide compelling evidence for this capacity So, if you have high level of self-efficacy, self-regulation then you could deal with problems of your life I think on the basis of above studies we can say it may have very significant role in intervention programs also A strong sense of efficacy enhances human accomplishment and personal well being in many ways, there are various studies saying that it has quite positive impact on our various aspects of life For example, to be mastered rather than as threatens to be avoided fosters intrinsic interest and deep engrossment in activities, maintained strong commitment, heightened and sustained their efforts in the face of failure, quickly recover their sense of efficacy after failure or setbacks Effective outcomes produce personal accomplishments, reduces stress and lower vulnerability to depression So, these are the positive aspects of self-efficacy, on the other hand, when we have low level of self-efficacy people who doubt their capabilities or have low self-efficacy then they have various problems Like shy away from difficult task which they view as personal threats, low aspirations and weak commitments to the task or to the goals they have, focus on all kinds of adverse outcomes rather than concentrate on how to perform successfully, give up quickly in the face of difficulties, easy victim to stress and depression And that is why we prefer to have high level of self esteem and we want to have some trainings, intervention programs, where we can promote high level of self-efficacy in children as well as in adult Self-regulation depends on 3 interacting components goals or standards of performance, self evaluation reaction to performance and self-efficacy beliefs and these are connected with self efficacy Self-efficacy and psychotherapy – it has been observed that if you have high score on self-efficacy then more effective psychotherapy we have The phrase ‘seeing is believing’ underscores the importance of providing people with noticeable evidence of their success Hence self efficacy theory maintains that these efficacy beliefs play a crucial role in psychological adjustment, psychological problems and physical health as well as professionally guided and self guided behavioral changes strategies And that is why again and again we try to foster or we recommend to foster self-efficacy, sometimes we talk about collective efficacy also Collective efficacy – we can say a group of people who are sharing high level of self-efficacy,

group shares belief in its conjoint capabilities to organize and execute the courses of action required to produce given level of attainments Such kind of groups could help to have social and political changes Researchers are also trying to understand the origins of collective self-efficacy where they could discuss or can promote social and political changes Now next point is psychotherapy may use one or more of the following 5 strategies to increase someone’s self-efficacy level First strategies building successes often through the use of goal-setting and the incremental meeting of those goals, 2nd is using models to teach the person to overcome difficulties and through social modeling what one could learn how he could sort out or how he could solve different problems Third is allowing the person to imagine himself or herself behaving effectively 4th strategy is using verbal persuasion by a trustworthy psychotherapist and 5th one teaching techniques for lowering arousal, to increase the likelihood of more adaptive self-efficacy thinking I will discuss these phenomena once again in flow chapter it has been observed that if we have very high arousal level then we may choke under pressure And that is why our performance may deteriorate, so for lowering this arousal level we recommend some strategies like meditation, mindfulness, biofeedback, hypnotism, relaxation or certain other intervention techniques through which we could lower this arousal level And after lowering it we may have high level of self-efficacy or better performance, as I mention if it is too high then we may choke under pressure and our performance may hamper because of this too high arousal level, Looking at the importance of these intrapersonal character strengths, Luthans has proposed psychological capital, Luthans and his associates have identified 4 factors Number 1 having confidence to take on and put in the necessary effort to succeed at challenging tasks, that is self-efficacy, 2nd factor is optimism making a positive attribution about succeeding now in the future, 3rd one is hope – persevering towards goals and when necessary redirecting paths to goals in order to succeed Fourth factor is resilience – when beset by problems and adversity, sustaining and bouncing back and even beyond to attain success So, these 4 factors are very important and these factors as you know Luthans and his associates have identified as psychological capital and highlighted a lot in organization sector One more concept related to self that is self-regulation, self-regulation refers to the capacity to moderate the thoughts and emotions that govern human behavior So, we have capacity to moderate our thoughts as well as emotions which is called self-regulation, given the extent to which emergent desires could influence behavior Self-regulation suggests that individuals consciously attempt to control behavior in an effort to mediate outcomes So, we are active shaper of our life not passive one Self-regulation has direct linkage to motivation The motivation to achieve success is presumably linked to self-discipline and adherence to the strategies that promote goal achievement For understanding self-regulation a little bit more, let us discuss about 3 general aspects – standards value driven expectations, motivation adherence to standards, and willpower impulse control These are primary determinants of self regulations, if we discuss all these 3 in terms of academic learning then these are as follows Self-regulation of behavior involves the active control of resources that are available to students such as their time, their study environment, who they study with, their use of academic support like faculty, tutors, etc So self-regulation of behavior by actively using those resources which are available over there Second one is self-regulation of motivation and affect, it involves controlling and changing

motivational belief such as self-efficacy and goal orientation So that students can adapt to the demands of the course, in addition students can learn to control their emotions and affect, in ways that improve their learning So, role of motivation and emotions how we can support with our motivation as well as positive emotions, our learning, so that we could regulate better our studies and have better marks Third one is self-regulation of cognition It involves the control of various cognitive strategies for learning such as the use of deep processing strategies that result in better learning and performance than students showed previously So, through this self-regulation of cognition or through some cognitive strategies for learning by using our thinking, reasoning, problem-solving and other mental processes, we could have some better plans, some better self-regulating plans So, it means when we talk about self-regulation there are 3 major factors or processing factors are there, number 1 self-regulation of behavior how you could have in better direction, self-regulation of cognition and self-regulation of motivation and affect So broadly this self-regulation theory is focusing on our behavior, our cognition, motivation and affect in positive direction or how it could regulate our behavior and have better direction or better results in our life After knowing all these concepts – positive self, self-esteem, self-efficacy, self-regulation let us know what is the role of all these factors in coping processes When we talk about coping processes as Holahan model described which is proposed in 1996, it described 2 main factors environmental system and personal system When we say environmental system, it means life stressors and social resources, so resources as well as stressors from our surrounding On the other hand, when we discuss about personal system – demographic factors as well as personal factors are important Personal factors mean hope, optimism, positive emotions, happiness, may be a positive self, self-efficacy, self-esteem, self-regulation All these factors have significant role in our life And these lead to life crisis and transition event related factors and then we have cognitive appraisal and coping processes So, during cognitive appraisal again role of self esteem, self-efficacy, self-regulation and other positive personality traits and then all these factors contribute to our health and well-being And that is why we positive psychologists emphasized on all those factors which have a positive impact on health and well-being I would like to conclude this class with this assignment ‘learn ways to improve your positive self, self esteem, self efficacy and self-regulation and practice them at least during this course’ Thank you very much