FEMALE SPEAKER: –examine the ancient climate and migration patterns in Africa Currently, Professor Ampim is a tenured professor of history at Contra Costa college in San Pablo, California in the east bay And he also teaches in African American Studies department at Merritt college in Oakland He also created a seven step primary research methodology home study course at advancing the research His latest work is the formation of the Save Nubia Project, Which aims to help preserve the archaeological sites of ancient Kush and Nubia in the Sudan, which are threatened by the construction of dams Anything else that I was remiss in saying, Professor Ampim, I’m sure, will let you know Without further ado, please welcome Professor Ampim MANU AMPIM: How’s everybody? [INTERPOSING VOICES] MANU AMPIM: OK Good to see you all Everybody was nice and quiet and patient and whispering and– or on their laptops I like– that’s what I tell my students When you come in, you should be focused on something constructive rather than talking about the news of the day Anyway, good to see all I have the pleasure of really sharing with you the fruits of my primary research over the last quarter century I want to thank Umani for her effort to help bring everyone together and Duane really informing people about African civilization because most times people only focused on this topic when? Generally, when? What time of year? AUDIENCE: Ferbruary MANU AMPIM: In February What I say, as a historian, is that we really should focus on it 366 days a year because it is that much information that has to be shared So I’m going to just focus on math and science as some of the African contributions because they don’t get discussed very often And I teach at Contra Costa college And we have people in the scientific areas, and they more often than not– not always– more often than not, they overlook Africa They look at the history of engineering, on math or science And I just find it strange because I’ve gone to so many countries around the world to do firsthand research I’ve gone to institutions, libraries, and museums throughout the US, Canada, Europe, and I’ll find the complete opposite of what’s taught in the classroom That Africans have made a tremendous contribution to technology and many other fields That’s really what I’m going to focus on today And our Save Nubia Project– I have a brochure I’ll pass around, but this is the fruits of some of my research in Sudan, in Egypt, and Ethiopia where you have classical African civilizations now, maybe ancient Kush and Nubia, that are under threat But since we don’t have a lot of time, I’ll just will move forward Anybody know who this– why this individual is important, Dr. Carter G. Woodson? What is his role? What is his contribution? Why would I want to dedicate this presentation to Dr. Woodson OK, let me help you out He’s a founder of what we now call African Heritage Month, or Black History month He found, what was then called Negro History Week, in 1926 because he said that the contributions by people of African descent really is a part of US and world history, yet these are the missing pages And Dr. Woodson though, back in 1926, that it would mean a lot if we included these pages back into the historical text And he’s one of the greatest historians of our time He’s done quite a lot I mean he’s wrote more than a dozen books, Dr. Woodson His organization, The Association for the Study of African American Life and History, founded in 1915, is still the leading African American historical organization in the country Every year, they have an annual convention And the Journal of Negro History has been updated Now, it’s the Journal of African American history It’s the leading journal in the country So we know Woodson quite a lot And he founded the occasion more than 88 years ago And there was a stamp in his honor And one of his classic books, he’s wrote more than a dozen, on the miseducation of Negroes and really focuses on the American education system that really leaves out students of color, in particular people of African descent, from their own contributions to the world And so he’s one of the great historians of our time So now, you all know the great Dr. Woodson And moving forward– well, I won’t to focus on northeast Africa and contributions mainly from ancient Egypt

And as you can see, this is a map of Africa And I was there last year, and I can assure you that Egypt did not detach itself from Africa and float off to the Middle East I double checked I triple checked And when I was in Egypt, I was on African soil So it’s still part of the African continent, even today, even thought it’s not really taught that way So this is the area here So I’ve done research in different parts of the world, but today, I’ll focus mainly on Egypt But a lot of my work on classical Africa has been in Northeast African corridor And so the three classical African civilizations are Kush, Nubia, and Kemet People know Kemet as Egypt But this is the Greek word And there’s no reason really to use Greek words because we know the original word from the hieroglyphic text So we use the word classical because it’s more important if you use that that than ancient We here about classical music, classical– what– classical theater, classical dance, classical art So what does classical mean? Why would I put emphasis on classical and not simply ancient Even though ancient civilization– African civilization would be technically correct, but what about classical? What does the term actually mean? And we do here We use it We read about it Anybody? Yes, sir AUDIENCE: Maybe it stood the test of time It st– AUDIENCE: It stood the test of time MANU AMPIM: Stood the test of time You’re correct I like that Anybody else? Yes, sir AUDIENCE: It’s still relevant MANU AMPIM: Still relevant Yes, absolutely You both are correct So when you say classical, we mean anything that’s the standard, the model, the guide, the highest rank, the highest class As you’ve said, you’re correct Anything that has permanent and lasting values That’s what’s meant by classical That’s why we call these classical African civilizations And the oldest of them is Kush This a map of Kush Kush is the area of northeast Africa, but not only northeast Africa, but across the Red Sea into Saudi Arabia and Yemen All of this was a part of the ancient Kushite empire You can see it here in the inset That’s the area That’s the oldest of the civilizations And Kush was based in modern day Sudan That’s why I spend a lot of time in the area This is the area where there’s massive pyramids and elaborate temples and great writing and science And so most people are not aware that there’s twice as many pyramids in Sudan as there is in Egypt Civilization spread from south to north, not the other way around And so that’s why I’ve done extensive, firsthand research in order to document this This is one statue made out of granite One of the powerful Kushite kings Can you imagine standing under a 30 foot statue made by one of the most powerful rulers of the time So this is why I spend so much time because the public, in general, is not too familiar with these powerful Kushite rulers This is a 2,800 year old statue here And then, also, some of you possibly could have seen this image here Sometimes, people have it on posters or handbags If you go to the African flea market in Berkeley, I’ve seen this sometimes on t-shirts But these are Kushite princes And this is a 3,5000 year old mural or drawing And we know that they are high stature, notice the crowns on their head Notice the almond-shaped eyes Notice the skin variation Here it says in the glyphs, it says Kush so we know where they’re from Notice the nice jewelry, the sandals who you have the attendant assisting And here you have an assistant with his arms outstretched He has something draped over this arm What do you think this might be that’s draped over his arm here? OK It’s an animal Yes, it’s a leopard skin outfit worn by priests and kings to what purpose? I’m glad you asked For the purpose of rituals and ceremonies And then, the same assistant is carrying– you see three rings, here another three And so three indicates plurality When something is pleural or in abundance, you see three So it means there’s a lot of whatever this is Anybody have an idea what this would be? What is the assistant carrying? AUDIENCE: A whole lot of scrolls? MANU AMPIM: OK Good try Not exactly Something a little more hard AUDIENCE: Gold MANU AMPIM: Gold And there’s currently, right now in 2014, there’s actually a gold rush in Sudan now Literally, there’s gold everywhere In fact, the word Nubia– the root, nu or nub, it means gold So Nubia, more likely than not, means the land of gold And now when you go to Sudan, there’s people panning for gold everywhere literally So anyway, if we had time, we would talk about that But really today, I want to really talk about the third of these classical African civilizations,

which is actually listed on the glyphs here So let me point out what glyphs I’m referring to And it’s these glyphs here And this spelled Kemet, or so called ancient Egypt So this is what do you think? It’s an owl Yes, it represents the em sound And this is a burnt piece of charcoal This is a half a loaf of bread This is a crossroad This is where– it’s the locale where people lived This the actual name There’s no such name as Egypt until the Greeks come along much later So many of the African countries, these are not original African names So I just wanted to point that out And all right, let’s focus on writing before we deal with more of the hard sciences here African contributions in the field of writing most of us– Most of us are not always necessarily familiar with the source of what we have in front of us on a regular basis, paper So this is actual papyrus plant It grows in marshes So they would take the papyrus plant And then, they would cut it into strips And then, they would eventually make paper So from papyrus, we get the word paper And this is an important contribution This is some of the writing, the text here You always read the text from top to bottom This is text inside a pyramid, so people call it pyramid text And even without ever studying the language, I bet that most of you can figure out some of these images without ever having taken any class or seminar or training So for example, this here is the shenu, or what people now call a cartouche It’s the ring of eternity It’s the name of the King you see inside of here But what is this symbol here? You see this is not the best resolution, but– it’s kind of pixelated here, but I guess you can see– you see the ears? OK, this is a rabbit This is a ripple of water Anyway, this is the King’s name What about this? There’s a bird, yes An owl, yes This is a chick You see this here? It’s outstretched arms So if I said to you where is the place of Memphis in Egypt, and you say I don’t know This means not to know something But you can make these out So we would just have to give you training on what the sound value is, but you can actually make up some of the images without taking a class But anyway, so I wanted to show you some of these And this is scribal equipment that– there is a scribe’s palate And I’m showing this to you because I’m going to show you the first writer in the history of the world And these are actual scribes here with their writing utensil, their board This is a scribes equipment And so what they have in their hands is this pallet here And so you see this everywhere in Egypt, or Kemet And here’s another palate in different colors The two main colors were always black and red This man here is a scribe He’s a writer Does anybody see any indication of him being a writer or scribe? There is actually three things that indicates his profession AUDIENCE: He’s writing in his book MANU AMPIM: OK, great observation Who said that? Very good This is actually a scroll You see it’s rolled up here So he’s using his kilt, not a dress But he’s using his kilt He’s pulling it tight, his kilt, in order to use that as a writing service You know like when we write, we usually want something hard And then, in his hand, what’s broken off is the reed in that he would have been writing This is the scroll Here is another indication of the fact that he is in fact a scribe This is a scribe’s palatte This would have been black and red So we know his profession by the symbols, but also the glyphs tell us his profession as well And here you see black and red This is actual paintings This is a stone surface But if you notice that on the left is darker than on the right Do you see that? Any idea why it would be two different colors? You might say maybe one was exposed to the sun No, not that one But notice that this one here still has the horizontal lines So this is an unfinished piece It’s not finished It is a trial piece, but it still is interestingly is two different colors Here’s why This is the image that was drawn by the master And to the right is what the students were practicing on Notice that they were practicing arm and the hand Notice this one here almost looks like the thumb is broke

The student did the best he could or she could but– So they were practicing an arm and a hand You see here they are practicing This is the quail chick And so why is this lighter? Because when students practice, sometimes, they have to erase So that’s what they’re doing here They’re practicing and erasing But the master is not erasing And this is a science by the way This is science You have a King sitting on his throne We know that because of the sceptor here in his hand and the mace, the royal beard, his name is [INAUDIBLE] But not only that, but what we have here is the science as it is seen by the modern viewer So that’s from the soldier’s feet to the hairline, when they’re seated, it’s always 14 Not sometimes, not most the times, but always They could make a small trial piece into a colossal statue And then, it’s built to absolute perfection So if you count, we have 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 and then 14 at the hairline If this was a standing figure, it would be 18 There’s no variation when this is done by royal artists who are trained by the state So we all know rules, regulations, procedures They believe that this is divine art given to them by the creator, so there’s no such thing as artistic license You must follow the rules Anyway, so let me move forward and show you the writer of the very first book in the history of the world I didn’t say one of The author of the very first book This is Ptah Hotep and he was a prime minister, high priest And by the way, no one could hold high office like a prime minister, which is similar to our vice president, second in line to only the pharoah, unless the person was a priest or priestess So they had to be a spiritual practitioner first He’s the author of the world’s first book This is an image of Ptah Hotep Here he is This is about 2,400 BCE, or before the common era And this is Ptah Hotep inside of his tomb And this is his tomb here Here’s a close up of his tomb So 2,400 BC That’s the same as 2,400 years ago And Ptah Hotep wrote the first book in the history of humanity This is it It’s part of the text, so this is cursive So when they wanted to write fast, like we write in cursive So they didn’t always write in glyphs They wrote in glyphs if it was something on temple walls So what does this contain? 37 lessons on ethical or moral conduct So the first book ever written in the history of humanity had nothing to do with fighting, warfare, or conflict It was quite the opposite, presenting moral and ethical conduct and social wisdom on how to avoid conflict, how to avoid social problems, how to show respect for elders So now we have two main colors We have black and red Why do you think that you see intermittent red here? Why would the author, Ptah Hotep use red at different places in his text And by the way, this is a text used in the school system We know that because there’s different versions of this text found throughout Egypt So clearly this is what young boys and girls would have learned Yeah, girls wrote as well, and they were taught Red represents a different lesson So whenever you see red text, that’s either if it’s a medical document, it’s a new case If it’s a mathematical document, it’s a new problem But, in this case, it’s moral lessons taught so it’s a new chapter And that’s what we have here So this is the first book ever written These are the instructions of Ptah Hotep if we typed them out And it says, the wisdom or the maximum Ptah Hotep And it says his title as a so-called prime minister But anyway, this is some of the text of Ptah Hotep in the second stanza He’s talking about leadership and that all leaders must have character Character means to build Today, in our country, a person can be almost an outlaw, a former outlaw and be a leader later on, not so much the case in classical Africa One must first have character and everything was based on Maat, truth, justice, and righteousness Just everything was bound by Maat So if we had more time, I would focus on it more But I just want to show you some of what he talked about Leadership, known as Ptah Hotep– he says, do great things which will be remembered long after you So it’s your reputation that Ptah Hotep is discussing And not only that, but he also mentions, as all of the wisdom texts discusses, that is hearing well He owned the most commonly used verb in classical Africa is the word or the verb [? sejum ?] [? Sejum ?] means to hear or to listen So it’s always wisdom text regarding hearing well

And this is what he says “If a son and daughter accept the righteous teaching of their parents, none of their plans will go wrong Teach your children, then, to be those that hear well, and they will be valued by those of weight and substance and their speech will be informed by what they have heard Respected are those who listen well.” So think about it We have two ears, two eyes But how many mouths? Just one So Ptah Hotep reminds us of how we should communicate Some people don’t listen as well as they should That’s why I put great emphasis on listening So that’s why you have this as the most commonly used verb Anyway, so that’s writing But I really want to focus more on math here and the other sciences since we are at Google and you all deal with a lot of technology Well, here is the eye of Heru, or Horus And by the way, if you see words like Horus– Some you might know Isis, these names If it ends in is, us, os, more likely than not, it is taken on as Grecian form The original words would have ended in other letters, but os, us, is, is usually the Grecian form So the Greeks couldn’t really pronounce the word, so they did the best they could So you have the all-seeing eye of Heru in different capacities Here is a nice beautiful bracelet And this is the eye They call it the Uoajat Eye, or the Sound Eye It has to do with medicine but also mathematics So every aspect of the eye, the eyelash, every aspect of the eye represents a fraction And if you added up these fractions, it would be 63, 64 So we believe that this symbol that you see everywhere in Kemet is also the RX symbol that’s used today in pharmacy And there’s many things that we can point to to go back to this area because it’s also a medical symbol as well It’s called the Sound Eye because, in the mythology, Heru loses his eye and, through magic, Djehuti restores the eye of Heru And so it’s also called the Sound Eye And so anyway, but we believe this RX symbol goes back to that But anyway, here’s the Eye of Heru This is mathematics This is some of the writing You can actually learn the writing One stroke represents one Or, you have an arch here representing 10 So you can actually, if you see these images, you actually can figure out the writing But nevertheless, this is a very elaborate system of writing and numbers that could be learned But they were very sophisticated So here is the oldest mathematical text This text is not totally complete, but it’s the oldest mathematical writings in the history of the world that we have on papyrus, or paper It’s called the Moscow Mathematical Papyrus It has nothing to do with Moscow other than the fact that that’s where it was taken to So that’s how history is distorted when people name documents based on who found it or where it happens to be now There’s no reason to call this the Moscow Mathematical Papyrus Anyways, it’s 3,800 year old papyrus Here’s some of the writings And this is a focus on calculating the volume of a cone or pyramid So a lot of those sophisticated algorithms, they have an origin They don’t have an origin in Greece We have it in writing that’s pinned by ancient scribes So the Moscow document is very important, but let me show you one that’s even more popular or famous or perhaps even more important as a much more complete mathematical document In this one here, this is a copy of a book that’s called The Rhind Mathematical Papyrus, an ancient Egyptian text The only issue here is that Alexander Rhind purchased the document more than 3,000 years after it was written So why is it now named after him We actually know the name of the African scribe, Ahmose, who wrote the document In fact, Ahmose made it very clear that he did not write these mathematical equations and create them He was simply copying them for a much older document Because at 1,600 before the common era, 3,600 years ago, there was no copy machines, no fax machines, no scanners So what did the scribes do? They copied by hand And all Ahmose is simply saying is that he followed the instructions of the pharaoh to copy the document, the much older document by hand into the new document And that’s why we have his name He’s not claiming to know or to be the one who invented the knowledge So here we have with this document 87 advanced mathematical problems without one single error Trigonometry, calculus, geometry, arithmetic,

not one single error, and this is important to know So we don’t typically learn these things We have to come to a seminar like this to see the document Anybody know where this document is by the way? So it’s not just general information OK Anybody name a famous or popular museum in England AUDIENCE: The Brooklyn Museum MANU AMPIM: Which one? AUDIENCE: The Brooklyn Museum MANU AMPIM: OK, the Brooklyn museum is a good try Yes, you said the– the British Museum I’m going to say we’re going to give you half credit cause you said b for Brooklyn But it’s actually British Museum But good try because the Brooklyn Museum, they do have a lot of material So the British Museum, you’re going to the British Museum OK, so the second part of the test What city is it in, British Museum? AUDIENCE: London MANU AMPIM: OK, it’s in London All right So you go to London, British Museum, second floor, you’ll see the Rhind Mathematical Papyrus So all right So 87 advanced mathematical problems This is how it starts off Notice it’s a red This is the beginning of the text And then, you have black And the problem is the word Rhind So I think it’s a good idea to get rid of the name because it’s totally inaccurate And why don’t we call it what it should be called And what do you think we should call it to make it more accurate? AUDIENCE: Ahmose MANU AMPIM: Why not Give Ahmose credit for what he did He copied it from an older document And if we take a look at the beginning of the papyrus here, this is actually what it says It’s not simply math, but it’s much more deeper than that It says as it starts off here It’s almost like a title of it It says accurate method of counting for grasping the meaning of things and knowing everything that is, all mysteries and secrets That’s a bad document So this is how it starts off, so very powerful All right, so take a look at this So we know that, in California, every 10th grader has to learn the so-called Pythagorean theorem, which is a squared plus b squared equals c squared This is how it’s always presented It is presented in math classes, social studies, but we don’t always go deeper I do, but most people don’t So what do we know about the Pythagoras Remember the date I gave you for the document? We’ll remind you in a minute But Pythagoras lived about 500 before the common era So there’s already an issue here And the issue about Pythagoras is that there’s no teachers There’s no teachers of geometry that Pythagoras could’ve benefited from to learned from There’s no schools of geometry There’s no books of geometry in Greece, not one And so where did he get this from? I’ll give you the sources, so if you want to go check it out, we’ll give you the sources We know from several Greek writers themselves that Pythagoras left Greece and went to Egypt, which is in Africa, and studied for 22 years under who? A priest And that’s where he learned geometry Then, he goes back to Greece teaching a subject that he didn’t know when he left And so documentation beats conversation, so let’s give you the documentation Because we can talk about these things, but let’s give you some of the evidence Here is Ahmose Papyrus So this was written 1600 That’s more than 1,000 years before Pythagoras’ mother even knew him So how in the wold did the man create something that pre-existed 1,000 years before he’s around? And take a look 87 lessons And notice, this is a squared plus b squared– we’re just looking at a right here on the actual document Told you where it was You go to the British Museum, second floor It’s there Or, you could purchase the book And you can get it there if you don’t get a chance to go to London So this so-called Pythagorean theorem has no basis in fact, so let’s get rid of it What should we call it Why not call it what it should be called it’s the Ahmose theorem Right? This is logical We’re in a place where logic reigns Doesn’t it reign and rule at Google? This is my assumption as a guess Ya’ll are employees so– it is how– don’t you think? AUDIENCE: Ahmose copied it from as well though MANU AMPIM: Yeah, but he copied it from his own people, so at least call it the Ahmose slash ancient Egyptian theorem, at least that But Ahmose would not have claimed ownership of it because Africans didn’t think that way He only said that he was faithfully following through on instructions to copy it But if we’re going to pinpoint individual, and here’s the details So that’s why this is very, very important to look at the historical facts and not give credit where credit is not do And it’s just a very, but it should come up with the next slide So here’s the sources So anyway, these are writers, Greek writers, who said the same thing, that Pythagoras, he goes to Egypt

He studies for 22 years under a priest And then, he goes back teaching geometry So these are the sources that document that Pythagoras was specifically learning mathematics under the priest So here you go here So anyway, moving forward Architecture, this also represents science There’s another class African contribution The first known architect in the history of humanity, the one we know by name, is Imhotep Here he is The Greeks changed his name to Escalapius So again, look at the ending And he’s also the first known physician in the world as well Almost 2,800 BCE, Imhotep this is an image of him holding the scroll And so, the Hippocratic Oath, there are some people who call it the Imhotepian Oath because Imhotep the first known physician that we know by name But I want to focus not on the medical part, but on his architectural contributions This here is the first stone building in the history of the world This is called the Step Pyramid today People, then, didn’t call it the Step Pyramid But somewhere around 2,700 before the common era, you have this massive structure, which is over 200 feet in height And notice that people today call it a Step Pyramid because it looks like a series of steps or benches So this is the first tier You can see the damage The second, third, fourth, fifth, so there’s six different tiers And this is the first stone building in the world This is in the northern part of Egypt The oldest surviving building, very massive structure And here you see it from another image But take a close look at this image in the box These are two people to give you an idea of the size of this massive monument So this is the first superstructure, some like to call it super building in the world, the first pyramid It definitely takes science I want to show you the ones in Giza But inside of this one, beautiful tile So if you go to the Metropolitan Museum in New York, which is not that far from the Brooklyn Museum, you can see the beautiful tile Or if you go to Egypt, you can see parts of the same tile I can imagine this in it’s heyday Beautiful turquoise Now, this is inside There is many different images inside of the Step Pyramid And is built for Zozer This is the king, the pharaoh, the ruler who commissioned the building of that pyramid that you just saw He’s got his beard, his locks The eyes were taken Now, this is part of the original skin color that you would see here He would have symbols of authority in his hands Those are broken off But this is an image of Zozer who commissioned the building of the pyramid you just saw And here’s another pyramid And all these pyramids I’m showing you now, they pre-date, they precede the first true pyramid Because I noticed that on the history channel, they’re interviewing Erich von Daniken This man wrote Chariott of the Gods decades ago and– have any of you seen ancient alien series Are you kidding me? So these people make us believe that there are aliens that left Mars And they went to Africa to build pyramids And then, they ascended back up That doesn’t make any sense because there are numerous pyramid in the area, not just the ones in Giza So when I take people on educational tours, we look at the evolution of pyramid building You can see how they went from the Step Pyramid to the Meidum Pyramid, and then, ultimately, to the true pyramid So you can see that this is an indigenous, local innovation and doesn’t require some interplanetary travelers to come around and built for Africans what Africans supposedly couldn’t build for themselves This is a very steep angle No one really knows, but sometimes, in the old literature, people call this the Collapsed Pyramid It didn’t collapse But, actually, we don’t know what happened This is a very steep angle here And here’s a man to give you an idea of the size of this But this would have been built in tiers as well This is the second one built after the one in Giza I’m sorry the one in Saqqara Notice this here It’s a place called Dahshure And notice why people would call this today the Bent Pyramid Notice the change in angle This would have been a very steep angle, but it’s now in the middle They changed it to a more gentler angle Some think, one theory is that may be the Meidum Pyramid so-called collapsed And the builders were concerned about the same fate of this pyramid, and they change the angle That’s plausible, but we don’t really know But nevertheless, we do know that this was built before the ones in Giza that supposedly the aliens built

Now, at the same place of Dahshure, there is also the Red Pyramid This is actually the first true pyramid ever built in the history of the world This one here is about– this is probably about– this is right around 2,600, 2,700, almost 2,700 BCE Here you have people that are walking up to enter into the pyramid So if you don’t really know where you are, if you see an opening, that’s always the north side because it has the north star But this is the Red Pyramid it’s the first true pyramid And if you walk up into the pyramid, we have to walk up a couple hundred feet and then, descend And so inside of the Red Pyramid, as they call it, you go down about 200 feet And then, there’s a series of rooms inside of the actual pyramid as you go down And you enter in from the stairs to this area And there’s corbelled ceilings So notice that there’s like– they call them corbelled ceilings– Notice that these 11 of these part of the corbelled ceiling about 40 feet high And this is graffiti here, but this is inside of the pyramid where they use large blocks of limestone And this is inside the monument This is indigenous African innovation and architecture inside of the Red Pyramid So it had nothing to do with some people coming from Mars to do anything It’s unnecessary We can go inside There’s a series of three chambers This is the first chamber Here’s a third chamber as you leave the second one There’s a lot of graffiti You get an idea when people broke into the pyramid looking for treasure Somebody here made up a false year Someone said 1276 No, no one broke in here This is 1800s This person tried to make his date earlier than the previous person, so I guess, he thought his name could last longer Who knows? This one is the third corbelled ceiling more thant 50 feet in height But anyway, I’m going to move forward because I know time is moving But I wanted to show you all of those All those pyramids I showed you were all older than these Yes, sir AUDIENCE: What makes something the perfect true pyramid? What’s a true pyramid? MANU AMPIM: Anything that’s a true triangle This is a true triangular shape So that’s what we call a true pyramid And you all know these You’ve seen these Some of you might have traveled to Egypt If you haven’t, I know you’ve seen these So we’re told with the ancient alien series on the History Channel that these interplanetary travelers came and somehow built the monument Doesn’t make any sense I’ve shown you all of the– I showed you pyramids that were built in the process of coming to the first true pyramid, which we saw in Dhashure And then, you have the pyramids of Khufu, Khafre, Menkaura These massive structures And by what these are the original names Can you imagine a monument equivalent to a 48 story skyscraper? So when people say the great pyramids, they mean the three big one’s here Or, if they say The Great Pyramid, they mean the one built for Khufu The Greeks changed his name to Cheops But this is a massive structure And then, the one in the middle, built for Khafre, 471 feet And then, Menkaura, these are the three Great Pyramid builders of Giza This is about 2,600 BCE And notice they’re smaller I didn’t say small, but simply smaller pyramids here These are smaller, but they’re still massive structures These are people here You say I don’t really see them That’s the point I’m making They’re very insignificant These two are people Say I really don’t see them That’s my point Trust me There are people over here somewhere as well There is a vast area Let’s take a look here at The Great Pyramid, the one in the back, Khufu’s pyramid 2.3 million stones put in place without mortar without glue And you have people on camel 2.3 million stone built over 20 year period You’re talking about engineering and heavy transport techniques This in me a front of one of the blocks The blocks weighed on average two and 1/2 tons On the inside, you have 15 ton stones And take a look here So inside, you have– every pyramid is different Every pyramid is different, different chambers, different rooms And that’s what you have inside of The Great Pyramid here And if you take a closer look, this is math This is geometry on a sophisticated level This is math demonstrated on an extraordinary level This is all The Great Pyramid/ There’s three big ones that we just showed you, but this is The Great Pyramid of Khufu from different angles But look at it It is a perfect triangle And here you can see you’ve got a triangle here, a one here Here’s one in the shade and one on the backside

If you have four equilateral triangles that gives you a perfect what? Square This is math At a sophisticated level that stuns the world And by the way, there’s an old proverb the people still use in Egypt today, that all the world fears time, but time itself fears the pyramids These monuments were built for how long? For eternity And you’re looking at these Absolutely extraordinary And so these were not burials by the way No mummies found inside, no skeletons There was never any attempt for a burial in these monuments These were astrological observatories We know that because they– it helped them tell time of day In fact, you can tell the time of day based on how the sun casts a shadow on the monument You can tell the time of day, season of the year So let’s see So for example, this is the north This is the north side here This is the south side This would be west I’m sorry This is north, south This is east here, sorry And this is west on the left So given that, this orientation that I’ve just mentioned, what time of day would it be? Morning, afternoon, would it be evening? AUDIENCE: It would be afternoon MANU AMPIM: It’d be afternoon because the sun is on this side The sun sets in the west, right? So its sun is setting on this side So it’s casting a shadow here on the east side So it’s clearly later in the day But this is what helped them set their calendars is by these monuments So there’s rituals and ceremonies, but they were not burials It makes no sense for people to say that, but researchers don’t know all the details, so they make up things By the way, when planes fly above, you get these kind of aerial shots that I’m showing you And, definitely based on science, if you take a look here, notice there’s two big pyramids of Khufu, Khafre Menkaura, notice, is a little bit offline Why is it offline? Because it’s consistent with the Orion star system And the Orion system is what they actually used– Let me go back here But the Orion star system is what they use It’s like as above so below So this is deliberately set off line because it had to do with their astrology If we had an opportunity to share with you more, I would But I did a presentation, an international conference in Atlanta, and my presentation was on the origin and purpose of Nile Valley pyramid science to look at the evolution of pyramid building, where the idea came from, and what was the deep science involved But this clearly has to do with astrology and also astronomy as well By the way, in the back, you see the city of Cairo And, in fact, in that same area around The Great Pyramid, we find the oldest surviving asphalt in the history of the world This whole area was paved with asphalt Talk about more than 4,600 years ago Here are people– just to give you an idea of the asphalt that was in the area, a whole paved area This is a pretty phenomenal to say the least This is a image of Khufu Now, this is in the Brooklyn Museum, this image here And this is thought to be Khufu the one who commissioned to building of The Great Pyramid that you just saw This is a red– this is pink and red granite And the peak is red And now, nobody knows how the pyramids were built No one knows It’s nothing more than speculation The only evidence that we have, visual evidence of how large stones were moved is image here from the tomb of Djehuti-hotep Here you have 172 men Now, for every time you see someone here, it’s actually representing four men So if we had a great image of you can see it’s a person behind a person behind– so these are four for every time you see someone And they’re pulling ropes You see the different lines of men They’re pulling the rope, and this rope is securing this huge statue of Djehuti-hotep found in his tomb Notice this man is pouring some kind of a liquid It’s being pulled on the sled Why is he pouring the liquid? To reduce friction And what is this man doing here do you think? See he’s on the knees of the huge statue He’s clapping Any idea? AUDIENCE: Working MANU AMPIM: He’s? AUDIENCE: [INAUDIBLE] MANU AMPIM: He’s helping Yeah, he’s helping in the sense of creating a rhythm The work is a lot easier when you can sing and dance And that’s what’s happening here So he’s creating a rhythm

Anyway, this only specific information we have on how they move And by the way, the text says moving a colossus This is the middle pyramid of Khafre This was complete with limestone, tura limestone This is how it was completed in the 18th– In the 1800s a man named Muhammad Ali from Turkey had his engineers climb up this pyramid and strip off the limestone Now, it’s used for bridges and mosques around Cairo That’s why you don’t see this completed now But this is math at a very sophisticated level So this what we mean by a true pyramid This is triangular shape There is something special about this shape It really is And if you see– this is Khafre who commissioned the building of the middle pyramid And then, the third of these big pyramids is Menkaura and his wife Notice the affection You always show a hand– there’s always affection between husband and wife Her name looks difficult But no, not if you break it into syllables, Kha-mer-er-nebty And notice this is a beautiful image Notice the left foot forward This is classic And so anyway, so these are these great pyramid builders This is Menkaura’s middle pyramid And this is math at a very sophisticated level And this is the whole area here It wasn’t built by slaves It had nothing to do with slavery These were African astronomers African astronomer– astrologers, blue collar workers, managers, scientists who created these monuments to last for eternity So these are the three great pyramids And this is the place, today, where a person can go and see the evidence of the city of the ancient pyramid builders because their tombs are right in the area near these monuments here And so that’s what you see in Giza, these great monuments And, on the back of the dollar bill, you can see the African influence there There is this Latin term, he has favored our undertaking You have other Latin inscription, new order of the ages But which are the ones that relate to Egypt, you might ask? Well, the one I mentioned to you, the eye of Heru Here it is This is not– And by the way, many of the presidents of the country were stone masons, including the first President, George Washington So it’s not odd that they would look toward Egypt for guidance and symbolism So many of them were masons, including the first president himself And then, not only the all seeing eye of Heru, but you have the pyramid They didn’t get these symbols from Greece, Rome, or any other places These are pyramid– symbols from Egypt, so you have a lot of the influence there And these are not only Masonic symbols, but this is science Take a look at this massive structure here This is Ramses’ image And you don’t see anybody here, but if you look closely, now you do Look at the size It’s a 65 foot high monument And this temple was carved from the mountain behind it Each one of these are Ramses He’s the greatest builder in history of Africa And you’re standing right underneath Ramses Let me show you the science involved here This is why I’m showing you this Here’s one of the sons of Ramses What a builder! This is about 3,200 years ago Can you imagine? Now, this is inside of the temple Ramses is given his crown as the king And then, inside of the temple, if you go through a series of rooms, about 180 feet back into the inner sanctuary, the sun creeps in and lights up the statues in the back only twice a year This is science at it’s best So there’s a mad rush, usually, on February 22nd and October 22nd Early morning, 4:00 AM, people go to Abu Simbel to see one of the great phenomenons in the world, where the scientists were able to orient the temple that the sun creeps in 180 feet and into the back of the temple and lights up these four statues only twice a year That science because the sun, it shines off of the Nile and it lights up these statute’s Early morning, people go to Abu Simbel They spend the night to see one of the great phenomenons But can you imagine the knowledge of astrology to be able to do that and to orient the temple in exactly that way? This is one of the great structures in the world Let me show you the Karnak Temple here You see this is the sacred lake This is part of the– Anybody see any structures here that might be familiar to us?

AUDIENCE: Obelisks MANU AMPIM: OK Obelisks And they’re where? AUDIENCE: On the right FEMALE SPEAKER: OK, very good Here’s one Here’s the other one So notice this So here you have Obelisks at the Karnak temple Here are two This one is built by Hatshepsut, Queen Hatshepsut This is 97 feet, estimated 320 tons, made out of one single block of granite Here’s another one here, a third one But take a look here This is the Tekhen, what people now call the obelisk, 1,500 before the common era, or 3,500 years ago Look similar? This is the Washington Monument Notice the reflecting pool And this was built for Georgia Washington, but if you take a look at the dates, this is in 1884 This is thousands of years later George Washington and others, as we said a minute ago, they were masons So this is why we get this image So you have the original and you have a copy Could there be any coincidence? Absolutely not Absolutely not The most people don’t connect this great U.S. monument to an African source, but that’s the reality of it You see it right there And let me just end by showing you– so the science, we could say more, but, just in case, you might say, ah science is good, but why do you connect it to Africa OK, well, let’s address that issue here whenever this comes up This is the greatest statue on Earth, the most well-known, the most famous statue in history of the world You know it as the Great Sphinx The original name is Heru-em-akhet, or the god Heru in the horizon Notice that it’s in Giza So this is the Great Pyramid of Khufu This is the one in the middle If you go down the hill, here’s this monument here Here you can see it It’s down the hill This is a man Give you an idea This is a 66 foot high monument As you can see, it has a head of a person and the body of a lion 240 feet long This is the greatest and most well-known statue on earth But I’m showing you this because most times you see the front view, where, obviously, there’s deliberate nose damage Some people think Napoleon trained his canons to blow it off I think not That would have been a heck of a cannon shot I think, more likely, they sawed it off, but not Napoleon The nose was missing long before Napoleon in around 1799, long before that But what we don’t often see is the profile view You don’t often see the Africoid profile view Because even with the nose missing, notice the cheek bones notice– uh oh, there they go Notice the juicy kissing lips These lips are meant for smooching and affection And this is clearly an Africaoid image, but you don’t normally see the profile view But here it is That’s it And so I have many other images of this, but that one you can see So the most well-known statue in the world, you see it It’s Africoid And there’s a reason why people don’t often get a chance to see the profile view because how do you explain this All right Let me show you other images That’s not enough for you You all are a tough audience So let’s show you some other images The tomb of Kagemni Most people don’t go there, but I take every group to Kagemni’s tomb And this is a tomb that around the time of Ptah Hotep If you have noticed, the color is off here on the projector But this is more reddish than brown here But you have different color images When they wanted to juxtapose one person to another But notice they didn’t use any really light colors Now on the tomb of Ramses III, I want– this is the King’s Valley Tomb number 11 That’s what KV stands for And this is about 1200 BCE, or 3,200 years ago What do you notice here? Notice you see a person a and what else? Person c Noticed this This is interesting because they’re dressed– They’re jet black and dressed identical This is actually in the tomb of Ramses III This is how the artist depicted themselves This says here ramesh, or it just means people It just means the people of Egypt This here says Nahesi Nahesi just means those to the south So it’s interesting that the people in Egypt, the artist in this case, in a royal tomb– this is not some side artist This is a royally trained artists, depicted the people in Egypt jet black and identical to other Africans from the South So KV 11, if you get a chance to go, you want to check that out You can see But not only that, but there’s other things too Someone said, well, those images don’t exist Are you kidding me? This is inside of the tomb itself And you still have the same black skin images So KV 11 Now, what do you think this is?

I want to end by just showing you a couple slides and I’m done I just want to show you the identity What do you think this is? Comb What kind of comb? It has a pick Afro pick And our hair– sometimes the teeth are broken You know in the old days? You know when people– so just if you look at one line of evidence, you can indicate the identity Sometimes, people say, yes, I agree it’s a high culture, but I don’t think it has anything to do with Africans Well, let’s address that issue If you just look at combs and hair, we can address that as we close Here is sister [? Hanoop ?] What is she doing? She’s braiding hair This is the hieroglyphic image for just that, braiding hair This is an African hairstyle People often say, I love your French braids Well, it actually doesn’t have anything to do with the French This is African hairstyle It goes back many thousands of years as you see here Take a look at this beautiful image of a princess Notice she has her jewelry, a bouquet, the almond-shaped eyes, and, yes, you have the beautiful braided hair, and a linen outfit because people wear linen a lot when it’s very hot Not only that, take a look at Queen Thepu Notice the beautiful skin tone, the jewelry, almond-shaped eyes And they wore wigs sometimes This is more likely her hair, but when they did wear wigs, it is always human hair And notice how beautiful it is here Not only that, but you can look at other images Here, this one is a wig here But it’s Ahmose-Nefertari, She is always depicted in this manner Notice her symbols of authority This is her name, so a high-level queen But the wigs are always human hair But not only that, but take a look at how kings are represented This is Amenemhet III And so running the nation, he was a king of the 12th dynasty He has on locks here, very powerful And so tell rasta that we appreciate the culture, but the rasta didn’t originate the dreads You them right here This is in the Cairo museum Amenemhet IIII, a very powerful ruler who ruled doing a very important time period This is the image of the first known dentist in the history of humanity The first known dentist by name, Hesy-Re And notice he had– this is not a wig This is his hair This is fro And Hesy-Re, when you go into the Cairo Museum, he is off to the side Most of the guys walk right past Hesy-Re And unless the person is curious, they have to actually go behind a little area to look at the Hesy-Re paintings There are 6 of these that have been found from his tomb Third dynasty, this is about 2,800 BCE He’s the first known dentist that we know of by name in the history of the world Notice the helical structure of the hair This is clearly in Africoid image There’s a couple more images here You have wigs in the Cairo Museum worn by priests Notice these Afro wigs Notice even the dolls they played with, even the beads representing what? Braided hair This one line of evidence here, just hair, combs And this is a man Here’s King Tut These are statue in his tomb This is original golden mask of Tutankhamen [INAUDIBLE] gold found on his mummy about 3,300 in– Did anybody go to the King Tut exhibit at the de Young? Yes And so you went to the– so this is Tutankhamen This is his mother Queen Tiye Now, if the new DNA tests are correct, and we don’t know that they are But if they are, that, instead of his mother, this would be his grandmother Either way it’s still all in the family, Africoid family I’m just showing you someone that everybody is familiar with If this is not his father, Amenhotep III, it would be his grandfather, still all in a family And then, this is Tutankhamen, original images of him And then, finally, this is what was in the exhibit You might recall this image of Tutankhamen This is like a mannequin of Tutankhamen And finally, this is just a brief, very brief information that I wanted to share with you about African contribution in math and science And thank you very much I’m Professor Manu Ampim Thank you very much FEMALE SPEAKER: Thank you all for coming

Did anybody have any questions? Yeah AUDIENCE: Yeah, I have a question You said a couple time, yeah this is the first book or the first stone building When you say it, you mean like this is the first one that you know of? Or, you actually have people who are saying oh this is literally the first time anybody’s seen this here We have the record of that this was created, [INAUDIBLE] MANU AMPIM: The first we know of Yes, the first we know of And that’s how I typically try to explain it But yeah, good ques– first we know of It’s like because– Like, for example, when we see Imhotep as the first known architect, but he just pops up and there’s a great building So we have to assume there has to be some period before that AUDIENCE: We just don’t know MANU AMPIM: Yeah, we just don’t know exactly Yes? AUDIENCE: It’s just the color in the paintings really didn’t necessarily represent the color [INAUDIBLE] MANU AMPIM: OK With this– AUDIENCE: Like the red and the black MANU AMPIM: But this, as you see, is pixelated and the colors are all off But outside of that, AUDIENCE: I mean that the people that are in the– yeah MANU AMPIM: Yeah, I know And I just wanted to say that so– the colors are off of what you’re seeing here I don’t know what’s going on But anyway, people like to say that this is stylized In other words, it’s stylized or idealized It’s not really how the people looked And so people like to– actually, if you take a look at– maybe it’s my eyes That one looks closer to the original here It’s not just me, is it? [INTERPOSING VOICES] AUDIENCE: That one’s probably redder MANU AMPIM: Yeah, this is more authentic I should have been– should have turned a– I should have walked to the back So that’s more accurate But that argument that oh the people were depicted that way, that it’s idealized No, because of if you see one image of Tutankhamen, you can tell If we had a collage of different images, you would always be able to pick him out Because these people try to say they idealized him People didn’t look like that No You can see, specifically, in the paintings and the sculpture It’s exactly how they look Mummies have been found They’ve been depicted by other groups as well It is very consistent People try to get around that because they would like the public to think that this had nothing to do with Africa, and these dark skinned images are really not the reality So now what people tried to do is use forensic art to come up with some brand new images of how the people looked And it’s not necessary to do that because we have from his tomb, for example, there’s more than 5,000 items And most of them have images of Tutankhamen And they’re very, very consistent not only from his tomb, but from other images of him as well So the idea– this argument that this is idealized and they just happen to look African is really not AUDIENCE: That wasn’t really where I was going MANU AMPIM: OK All right AUDIENCE: Where do you feel [INAUDIBLE]? I’m trying to think of the one shown where was sort of like some of them were black, and some of them were red, and some of them were yellow In those pictures, and you were saying that [INAUDIBLE] And so I was just– I have heard that that represents patience It doesn’t necessarily represent the color that the people that wrote them colored them to be [INAUDIBLE] You know what I’m talking about now? MANU AMPIM: Yeah, let’s see You might be– let me show you two I think you might be familiar with the Table of Nations This is the one on Kush You’re not talking about that one, right? AUDIENCE: Yeah, that’s a pretty good one MANU AMPIM: OK If we use this one, this is exactly how the people look Exactly In fact, if anybody goes to Sudan today, or the heartland of Kush, people look exactly like that There is various shades of brown There is like the black color It’s various shades of black There’s chocolate There’s a gray black blue, a blue black, super black, wild black, amazing black, perfect black I mean in Sudan AUDIENCE: The color is also better back there MANU AMPIM: This is much better Yeah, that’s much, much there But that’s exactly how– so when I first went to Sudan, I really didn’t know what to expect So it makes sense to me– and besides, the people who named the place the Lot El Sudan, that’s an Arab phrase meaning land of the blacks That’s literally what it means Even the term Ethiopia, is a Greek term which means burnt face, blackface or kissed by the sun So those images that you actually see are very accurate The people in Sudan and Nubians– Nubians are in southern Egypt and northern Sudan You can see those variations even today And not only that, but, the other one that you mentioned, they’re very specific

They’re very specifically The artists were very, very detailed in how they portrayed things, not only people, but they are so specific you can see the species of plants, the species of fish, because they were very, very detailed in how they present it So here, when you see– there’s better, but how the people dress, their attire, the details, their beards, all these things are very accurate And this is how we’re able to tell not only from the inscriptions, but how they’re depicted So they really didn’t– They were not loose with how they portrayed people But some have said these are just generalized They are not generalized They are very specific And that’s why a person goes to a museum, they can see that, in many cases, you go to different museums, there’s no name of the person And the location, it will say provenance unknown In other words, there are assuming that this statue represents that person because of the stylistic– specific stylistic details And because of that, they say it must be this person You see that many times, assumed to be King such and such And they say provenance unknown because they don’t know They bought it from somebody And how could they assume who it is if they all look alike No, it’s very specific And you can see the variations of skin tone, dress So that’s a whole other argument, but it’s actually a great question though Yes, sir AUDIENCE: You said no one knows how the pyramids were erected Then, you also said that it wasn’t constructed by slaves Is there evidence some way or the other? MANU AMPIM: Oh, yeah There’s clear evidence that it was not constructed by slaves And let me show you here Good question Let me show this place here I took out a lot of slides, but this place here Nazlet El-Semman And this location here, as of 1992, the Giza mapping project led by Mark Lehner, we now know the tombs have been found of the actual pyramid builders We know their titles, what days they worked, what days they had off So they would work 7 days and then have 3 days off That was a week So a week was a 10 day period So there were 3 10 day weeks They worked 7 days, 3 days off, work 7 days, 3 days off, work 7 days off We know they were paid with grains of wheat, grains of barley, and with linen cloth So the records were very clear that these were paid laborers, that no one was involved in forced labor So the place of Nazlet El-Semman since ’91– actually, since ’92, now, the slavery argument it has no weight Before that, people argued it without evidence Now, the argument can’t be advanced anymore because of the evidence at Nazlet El-Semman and knowing when people were paying and how they were paid Yeah? AUDIENCE: So there’s evidence for all the different positions? MANU AMPIM: Yes AUDIENCE: I thought that’s why they depicted the different or other people pulling the sled And there’s the keeper or something But I thought that all the people were paid MANU AMPIM: Yeah, absolutely So you have evidence of– because there’s tombs Because when somebody has a tomb, the tomb is the person– like a tombstone today, it would have the person’s name, when they were born, when they passed away But there is a big tomb where it indicates all their life achievements, but also their titles, the titles of family members So we know the titles, what they claim to accomplish in their life And you see that at that location there, there’s– what’s been found is the bakery, the brewery, the tombs, their titles So they’re all laid out And not only their titles, but also how the– they call it a [? zha ?] or people translate it as a gang, not a gang of thugs, but a gang of workers How they were organized to do the work So, usually, they would work in 3 month shifts And then, they would go back into their communities So that it was a public works project built by Africans stonemasons And in fact, there was communal, cooperative, and collective public works projects It had nothing do with slavery But those tombs, and the titles, and how and when people were paid, that sealed the case of ’92 AUDIENCE: –comment Wasn’t there a documentary made when they were excavated? MANU AMPIM: Yes, it was And if you look up Mark Lehner, they had– So Mark Lehner’s got these theories of how the pyramids were built And so this is when the Discovery Channel showed it They had a bunch of men like pulling these stones They wanted to see how to build a miniature pyramid So the camera showed the men, heave ho heave And so they’re pulling the stones

So they showed the men and the ropes And then, when I went to Egypt a few months later, I’ll learned that what they didn’t show was the tractor that was really pulling in the stone So this is a joke, but nevertheless, that was because they did find the evidence of the actual pyramid builders Now, as I said, that argument really doesn’t have any weight anymore But if you look up Mark Lehner, you can actually see some of their evidece because he’s the one that’s really over the site now, Mark Lehner But that really just helped slay the argument AUDIENCE: A follow up here So there still were slaves, right? So was there [INAUDIBLE] edition that– who actually got a part at the job, and then, slaves had other roles? MANU AMPIM: Slaves The slave idea comes from two sources, from the biblical idea and then some of the later Greek writers, who had no idea how they were built, so they made up a lot of stories So many people think that there were slaves in the Bible that built pyramids The problem is the very first Hebrew was Abraham Abraham was dated to about 1600 or 1650 BCE The problem is that that’s 1,000 years after these were built So how could Abraham leap through history, 1,000 years before him, and build pyramids? So there’s no evidence of any slaves whatsoever What you do see though is that when Egypt– when other nations tried to invade Egypt, you do see captors You see prisoners of war, but you never see them being employed into any kind of labor So you see that You see bound captives And then, the Greeks came around and made up a lot of stories Herodotus is a very good source for Greek myth like, for example, Herodotus is saying that– Herodotus is a good source because he reports what he saw at the time, at 500 BCE, and he reports what he heard And so Herodotus relays myths And he said, look, I’m just going to say what the Greeks say So according to the Greek mythology, Khufu– those smaller pyramids were built because Khufu’s daughter, supposedly, was involved with prostitution And for every man that she slept with, she asked that they bring a stone Incredible And that this is how the monument was built First of all, there is no evidence of this This is silly This is the king’s daughter He has tons of wealth, so why would she need to engage in that But it almost seems like Herodotus is half embarrassed by reporting this But this is the Greek– the Greek’s made up stories for things they didn’t understand But those are the two sources And, of course, the Ten Commandments and all these other things have come out over the years This is what has presented to the public that there’s slavery But there is no slavery whatsoever I didn’t say that they were perfect I said there’s no slavery Because all we do see is we see captives that are bound in warfare But there’s nobody employed There’s is no text There’s no images of it But the idea of slaves building the pyramid, that’s been in the public mind for awhile And then, when the evidence was found at Nazlet El-Semman and you had people writing about slavery, then, they say, uh-oh The evidence is there We’d better back up So they backed away from those claims But a lot of the specialists were the ones promoting the slavery idea So that’s where we are And if we had time, I would really show you the evidence from here I didn’t include these slides because it’s interesting when you actually see the evidence of the actual workers, and the city that they worked in, and how they were paid You can see it It shows you Any other– Well, thank you for your time folks I really appreciative it FEMALE SPEAKER: Thank you I can give you guys–