all right the last chapter that we have to go over is chapter 13 social site which it is come to an end of our long pursuit and I’m sure the person building this is glad to see this last chapter at all how soulful psych is probably one of the more interesting chapters to wrap it up book deals with how we simply interact in social society social our society so social psych looks at simply how our thoughts feelings and actions in fact us and affects the people around us in social settings now some terms associated with this self-concept is getting as Carl Rogers it’s your perception of yourself as well as it’s tied your self-esteem how you doing yourself often well about the way you feel about yourself which is your self esteem social comparison we often in terms of interpreting ourselves or interpreting other people we compare ourselves to those around us in a way of judging and evaluating yourselves reference groups we always have a reference group and we use this comparison to ourselves with in whom we have that final strongly what’s a reference to require friends now relative deprivation is being denied access to what we feel we’re entitled to have when we compared the reference group relative deprivation innocent jealousy so when one of our friends gets a car in other words we’re jealous because we don’t have a crime problem is I’m using a reference group if when one part of the group tends to stand out the rest of the group feels bad we’re gonna be less good now temporal comparisons using our past experiences is good job to evaluate ourselves in the current moment so what’s happened to us in the past we’ve got you know applauded for doing something in the past we feel we should get applauded for doing something of similar nature and the precedent now social influences on itself this is kind of a big one in group is the group that we belong to it’s our in group of friends okay now often within group we have an in-group bias in other words we think the group we belong to is the best group and had every other group in the school or community or whatever is not as good or they’re different or they’re weird so in other words in group biases you just put your boss whatever your group does is what is good for the group okay that’s the problem with it because you don’t see any other group as simply being of equal to you so you look down on now I’ll group is a group that you don’t belong to how people the gem the effect is the tendency to see all members of an output like the group you don’t belong to as simple a similar so one or two people within that out group smoke and everybody within that group is seen as a smoker in other words the same birds of a feather flock together now self schemas member schemas are mental frameworks or interpretations of situations or events so self schema is our blueprint about what we have about ourselves so how you would describe yourself what thoughts come to your mind quickly when it comes to describe yourself it’s called a self schema now schemas often influence how we judge people how people match our schemas of different ideas ations stable about certain group of people okay and then we see other people that match that scheme over quickly you know going to label that and that’s all from the origins of stereotyping okay now self-fulfilling prophecy is that when a person unknowingly behaves in a matter that helps the justifier fulfill the expected outcome self-fulfilling prophecy if you believe that you’re no good at something then self-fulfilling prophecy basically means that you’re going to unknowingly start to live up that expectation what do I mean by that if you believe you’re not a good athlete what you’re gonna have a tendency to do is give up quickly okay when you fail at something because you have this belief already okay that you’re no good in other words the time to fulfill the prophecy or your belief that you’re not good at something now on the next screen okay here’s a good example of self-fulfilling prophecy the technology in effect okay psychologist Robert Russell and Lenore Jacobson conducted an experiment that demonstrates the power our self of prophecy they’ve convinced an elementary school to administer another tuff’s in addition to the valid intelligent test they were giving that would predict future academic success now teachers were then given a list of the top twenty percent of students who scored the best on the academic predictor test the see of teachers would treat these students their women house was interesting throughout the school year the teachers did treat these students differently from giving them more attention in encouragement and as a result this twenty percent group and increased academic performance while the other 80 percent fell behind the teachers son will normally behave differently towards

this group because they were told that they were the smartest that’s an interesting thing so the Pygmalion effect just to summarize it’s on the screen these teachers were given a list of students that they said were the top 20% and the whole experiment was based on fact what these teachers treat these kids differ because they were smarter or perceived smarter than the other students and they in fact it now that they asked the teachers were you aware that you were giving these kids more attention were you aware that you were giving them more help unwillingly none of these teachers said they were aware okay but bottom line is they were trying to fulfill the prophecy and the prophecy was these kids were smart and they cater to that degree of their intelligence now the explain behavior attribution attribute means to attribute to explain other people’s behavior now that’s the process of explaining why a person behaves a certain way they do that’s attribution okay which often attribution could be used to explain your own behavior which we’ll see what several examples now you got to know this screen before I can explain kind of the rest of this theory internal or dispositional factors dispositional the P stands for personal factors behaviors explained as result of personal characteristics jim has no coordination and it’s always bumping into people in other words who are jackin Jim you’re exploiting Jim’s lack or simply bumping into people by his lack of coordination you’re attacking his personality all right it’s a personal characteristic external or situational factors again how you explain someone’s behavior is you explain it through the result of unavoidable or situational factors there was a big crowd and he cannot avoid bumping other people oh yeah the screen when you do this taking a bus home today buses will be departing in one moment you need to head your way down to the bus plane to catch your bus the buses will be leaving in one minute ok absolute is explaining still most behavior explaining someone’s behavior attacking it on a personal level is an internal disposition effective P stands for dispositional explaining someone’s behavior taking into consideration the situation or salong avoidable characteristics that is simply using an external or situational factor now some examples of this factors and attribution fundamental attribution error okay which is the tendency to explain me here or others as a result of internal or dispositional factors and not considering situational factors now what would be the dialogue of a fundamental attribution error is if you’re explaining for example somebody who got broken up in a relationship and you are basically looking at the person well the person doesn’t you know the person’s lazy the person that were put in the effort into the relationship the person was broom you’re attacking the disposition you’re attacking the personality and if somebody corrects you and say well listen you don’t know what happened between them in other words the person that cracks you says you’re not taking into consideration the situation so fundamental attribution error another good word for it there’s rumors okay you don’t take into consideration this situation because you weren’t there you only know the person so you simply jump to a conclusion and attack the person on their personality their disposition now after observer bias is a neat one okay it’s similar okay a similar outcome for you and others results of the tenants we agreed this day and I’ll give you a good example there’s also the tendency to explain the behavior of others as the result of disposition effect so in other words you explain other people’s behavior just similar as similar as in the fundamental attribution error you only look at their personality the disposition factors but the actor-observer is a little bit different because then it says you will explain your behavior but you explain your behavior through situational factors so here’s a kind of example remember after observe is a similar outcome so let’s say both you and your friend fail a test you have the tendency to explain your failure to a situation effect teacher dinh cover the material however your friend you fail to test you would say well they’re not that smart you attack them on a personality or a disposition level okay which probably some of you who can relate to now self-serving bias is simply explaining just your behavior okay remember actor observer here’s winning your behavior but also your behavior or the behavior of another person in the same situation self-serving bias is going to tendency to attribute the success that you have to an internal factor I’m the best I studied hard I’m a great person okay so your success but you explain it through a dispositional factor however when you fail you explain

it simply to an external or situational factor so I feel the task because of the teacher dinh common material there wasn’t enough time completing the test in class so when you’re successful it’s all you all right it’s a disposition when you fail it’s everybody else you know everybody else is falling now unrealistic optimism disbelief that favorable autumns are more likely to occur to you than other people now an example of that is blaming the victim people get what they deserve some people have been totality so if something bad happens you would say because that person is a bad person they deserve that they never studied so they deserve to fail however this is good things only happen to good people can tell it’s called adjust for all hypotheses bad things happen to bad people good things happen to good people and some people really do believe this that because they’re a good person nothing but good things are going to happen for them some people leave you know that’s just gonna work out in the end okay because they’re just a good person okay self handicapping is limiting once potential for success by offering explanations failure before it done takes place self-handicapping is kind of common you say you’re going to build a times before you take so you handicap yourself secure anymore in a seminal time is now 1042 which is well past the end of the academic day and you know students not under the direct supervision area code your teacher neither people building at this time once again the academic day is over and the building has been closed any students under the direct supervision of a coach or teacher about things at the building at this time thanks that show pictures down your excellence today now a good example from what we discover lewis was walking through a crowded hallway to a third period class rather than of stop short Luis immediately decided that the person most inconsiderate and mean loose is guilty of committing what now they’re attacking the person on the personality level so you look for dispositional okay now which one of these simply does not take into consideration the situation that maybe other people in front of all to stop before now that is the rumor block okay that’s fundamental attribution error fundamental attribution error is you just look at the disposition just look at the personal characteristics and do not take into consideration the situation now another good question Ranma believes he failed the psychology test because he had to work late the night before and he didn’t have a chance to study however he believes that the other students who failed the test did so because they are stupid rich psychological principles Randall demonstrated it again you look for the actor observed on this one actor and observe our two people so in this situation there’s two people now this person is just explaining the fault of failing their task to a situational factor however they are using the fundamental attribution error to explain everybody else why they built a test and that is called the actor-observer discrepancy now another good question from that which of the following best illustrates the concept of self-handicapping again can give an excuse or an outcome before you even try something so joke throws paper airplane during the crowd at school something all kind of your complaints of the sort of throwing and our report is scheduled to give a speech interesting and most of you would say that sounds like it right away and that is so in other words instead of you know waiting to give a speech he already gives them mixed excuse if this speech doesn’t go as well as he plans to yeah and now attitudes our reaction to the situation you measure objects based on previous experiences so bad attitude you’ve heard that before now attitudes are they include police feelings and behaviors okay any problem as attitudes do not necessarily predict behavior okay after who makes the drunk driving commercial and then gets caught drinking and driving so sometimes attitudes don’t line up a behavior people will say one thing or happy attitude about one thing and then do the direct opposite and active and act in the direct opposite now many attitudes are formed through classical opera and observational learning Harvard implicit association test the IAT shown that participants were exposed to negative works like hate or fascism compared with a particular political party a lot of a negative attitude towards the party this is often what you see in political campaigns they will put someone’s face up there and then put a bunch of negative words about the person by just having the person pair the negative work to the picture they will develop a negative attitude towards the person okay and sometimes you see this quite a bit when there’s elections now mere-exposure effect or the microplane effect the more person is subjected to a novel experiment experience the more he or she will grow to enjoy the experience the example I

use with this one is it’s basically saying the more you are around something the more you’re going to have a tendency to like it so that first you might not like it but then after constant exposure to it you grow to like it it’s like a soggy first you didn’t like it then eventually you hear the song a few times and it starts to grow on you that’s mere-exposure effect okay now changing attitudes how do we change people’s attitudes well you know obviously marketing and businesses hope to do that all the time but the elaboration likelihood model persuasion persuasion is to persuade some of these to change their attitude there’s two routes to persuasion they say now you can change somebody’s attitude the central route persuasion is a careful examination of the masse during the blood of the argument central ruff focuses on the facts you give somebody the facts so if you’re selling on the car you give them the facts that’s a fast car good gas mileage good engine very hardcore evidence all right that can’t be disputed that’s central rather the perfect peripheral rod persuasion is the use of outside factors okay to influence or persuade someone wonder what I mean by outside factors use actors or celebrities to sell the car okay so in other words let’s say you’re you know trying to persuade people to take a diet pill you give the evidence of the diet pills this you know stats how it works how much weight you’re going to lose that’s the central rock if you have a well-known celebrity peddling the diet pill you’re using the proof you’ll rub you’re using an outside factor okay you’re using the you know for example you know the nature of the person doing how much influence they have being a celebrity now cognitive dissonance is a big one all right you know what cognitive distances it’s guilt often what people have is their thoughts don’t let match their actions they have two different you know it’s just impossible aha now here’s a good example of that when I say it’s guilt that led me by this dumper resulting from conflicting cognitions or conflicting thoughts Moore believes that people should should not download music off the internet or download the illegal music off the internet well order later finds herself downloading a song and now feels guilty because her beginner an attitude of manage so she tells everybody not music but then she goes ahead and does so how does she deal with this she uses rationalizations she gives an excuse so in other words she later states it was only one song other people found long way more than that so in other words to make the inconsistency in other words make herself feel better about this guilt because she’s done two different things she gives an excuse and that’s what most people do in situations where they had killed they’ll justify the reason while I was rude because they were rude to me earlier in the day or I was rude because I’m under pressure to get the testing okay so again cognitive dissonance means distance to thoughts are distant you know that you stand against you know smoking but then you smoke once in a while so you have to basically inconsistent thoughts so a typical example okay what we just read local sports celebrity is an advertisement for a car the celebrity is shown driving the car with many of his friends riding along with them how are they trying to persuade people by the start they’re not using the central role because the central rob would be facts and figures what they’re using in the peripheral route they’re using an outside factor like a celebrity to peddle the market now Terence is normally quiet and reserved and decide that parties are stupid employment however this past Saturday parents went to a party in his friend’s house where he danced wildly the next day Terence said that the parties are right every now and then Terence is changing lead could best be and explain through and most of you would say well that sounds a lot like cognitive dissonance okay so obviously one thought was he thought parties are stupid but then you know as action once you went to one so obviously try to you know remove the guilt or feel bad about going when he once stated that they were bad he simply gives an excuse or uses rationalization now other factors that affect our attitude is prejudice and stereotypes prejudice is a positive or negative belief by the category of people prejudging is the best way to remember stereotyping is a generalization to a particular group that all people within a group do let’s wrap this way to think this way discrimination is basically treating people differently than you would treat other people because of a stereotype or because their guard about outside group or out group as we learned earlier now obviously there’s three parts that go through a motivational all right good example jacking your friends ready to go

fella blast me in order to increase their own self-esteem that’s their motivation to make other people feel bad alright to make themselves feel better cognitive okay is the thoughts that surround your attitudes okay you believe that all people all concerned you know group are this way because of a belief you have and the behavioral is your discrimination you act differently towards them now reducing prejudice kind of to summarize the screen muzaffer sheriff was more concerned with studying not what prejudice behavior was but how to reduce prejudice behavior and what he found was not summarized the screen in 1954 robbers came from state bar in Oklahoma he conducted this experiment now there was two groups okay 11 year old boys okay and he was interested in how quickly these eleven year old boys demonstrated Pradesh prejudicial behavior through in group an alpha member in groups the group you belong to and have reached a groupie doll now the boys were put into two groups and each group was isolated from the other group to ensure he grew bias so by separating the groups they basically thought their group was the best when the other group wasn’t mainly because they work hard now what they did was they put these two competitions and what he found was share found Plus how quickly they just basically disliked each other’s group because of this in-group bias they only thought their group was the best now kind of summarize this the reduced prejudicial behavior sheriff for force contact between the groups and this did not you know alleviate the situation by just making them you know interact with each other it does not it did nothing to simply put their dislikes you know aside they still had animosity towards each group so just hanging out with each other at a gathering and a social gathering did nothing however what he did find was the whole point to this experiment was the camp counselors came out and addressed both these groups and said listen we’re going to have to end camp this early this year because there’s a shortage of water supply and both groups were very disappointed that they attend camp but then the counselor said well if we’re able to fix it then we can keep the camp collect but the only way we can fix this everyone’s going to have to work together to solve this so both groups kind of came together and because they were focused on fixing the problem to fixing the water supply problem they forgot about their differences so what Sheriff concluded is when there is not so much they’re forced to interact with each other that helps it’s when they work on something together that’s when their differences go aside and that’s simply because they focus on what they have to accomplish okay there’s a couple movies that make reference to that now conformity and compliance okay and you may see these terms from time to time uniformity is a change in behavior due to real or imagined group pressure so conformity is you change something about yourself that you normally want to do so in other word what would be conformity you drink alcohol just because there’s group pressure you conform to the pressure of the group compliance is changing behavior due to attract requests another person so somebody tells you to try out for the golf team you comply with their order you don’t really want to but the learner here there is because you’re told to so some of you may experience compliance at home your parents tell you you’re going to go to this school even though they don’t want to you can ply with it or go along with it because you’re told to do so and that’s it now the difference between conformity and compliance is conformity people just go along with the crowd without being told to do so compliance they are told to so conformity is but like nobody’s telling you to drink you just go along with the group compliance is you’re being told to do something and you do it now social norms are implicit or explicit rules that guide daily behavior facing forward in an alligator’s are norm okay now the Pala social norms before users respond to a behavior with the same behavior being demonstrated so everyone faces forward in an elevator just because everybody else is doing it and that kind of falls with conformity now which of the following best illustrates the concept of conforming remember now you’re looking for just you know simply going along with group pressure because the rest of the group is doing it so kind of look for an answer dusky where shortened words short in the winter ROI bias is running a birthday present patty where’s the xenebrium closest of friends there it is she’s doing what everybody else does she’s going along with the group now Solomon Asch did a famous experiment called the Oz experiment in the 1950s to demonstrate conformity okay now to kind of summarize this for you one that stands out is you guys know what I’ve been better at this Confederate you’re going to see in experiments Confederates are people that go along or are being told what to do in an experiment so

Confederates were in on the experiment they knew the design these Ashville than how to act now the subjects that are being studied have no idea that there are Confederates so in other words that there are people in the you know of the experiment there are being told to do something so subjects believe these Confederates are just like that okay that they know nothing an animal you don’t have any idea why they’re being studied now this experiment basically participants or the subjects were so in a series of lines into cars and told the best match the lines and carbines in the line and car today so they were given two cars one card had four lines and one car at one line and they were told to match the one line which one it matched the one on the other car which one of the format’s that car a like the best now the Confederates purposely gave the wrong answer alright it was very clear they gave the wrong length of line that was so wrong that any everybody would see it what you know us was interested in studying was with the subject just go along with the group even though even though they know that it’s a wrong answer and 75% of the people being studied simply gave the wrong answer and went along with the group okay now why is this important study because a lot of people do bad things when they know they’re bad but just because the group’s doing it they do it anyways now the awesome experiment us wondered if the size of the group made a difference and the group was of smaller size the subject was more likely not to give the wrong answer okay I also found that it would be better if disagreed with the wrong answer then the subject was more likely to give the right answer so a blood Confederate simply spoke ops and no that’s wrong and disagree to the rest of the group and the subject follow the lead of that one Confederate disagreed and said yes that’s wrong so if somebody else woke up and then they were quick to you know simply get the wrong you know give the right answers love you also found that women and men both reacted the same way so in other words when I’ve said that the group was really big then you were less likely to disagree with the group and again if one person simply spoke up then the subject quickly spoke up as well now inducing compliance foot-in-the-door is a nice one when the door is you make a small request and then once the person complies to the small request then you can ask for a bigger request so when you ask your friend to say hey can you quickly help you with a couple problems if they comply to help you with a couple problems then you can hit them up for a lot more help with other problems so you get their foot in the door then you then you can give them do everything I love you kids will ask me one question and it’ll use words let me ask you a quick question and then once I answered their little quick question then there’s about five or six you know dozen more questions they’re going to come now Georgia what kind of the opposite some of you use this with your parents you make a big request knowing well that it’s going to be denied so you ask your dad for fifty dollars knowing that he’s going to say no but really what you want is just ten dollars so when he says no to fifty he says that over to the big request then he’s more likely to say yes to a smaller request so now 10 dollars compared to fifty doesn’t seem that bad now but that’s not all technique is simply you see the some infomercials they offer additional products or services to someone people reward presenting him with the actual product so they say order in the next ten minutes and we will double your order and allow you have throw on this I’ll throw on that will throw on everything low-balling is making a request and securing it and then increasing the fear of hidden costs or foresee circumstances low-balling use of gym memberships $10 per month but then once we get you to agree at 10 then also being checked they tacked on all these other charges okay so the whole block is to keep the bear game all right so wants to buy a new car our CEO has been off Chris will let so take the car home for the weekend so basically the car salesman is getting their foot in the door giving them you know a little request and then hitting with a big one of buying so that’s called foot in the door now here’s a famous experiment by Stanley Milgram and some of you may have heard that it’s done 1963 and the power of obedience first of all obedience is agreeing to a request just because you were told to do so by an authority figure so obedient means you follow your boss your teacher you know prints balls you know requests so Milgram wanted to test us and see how far people were willing just to follow somebody because they were an authority player now subjects were told that they were part of the experiment on memory and Punishment now two subjects were used for the experiment one was a Confederate member Confederate they’re in on the experiment and the other was the true subject the Confederate is

called the learner remember they were in out okay and the subject was called a teacher now the subject watched as the learner was looked up learner was in up okay hooked up to a shock machine and the teacher was bald was the subject that each time the lurker got a wrong answer he or she was told to deliver a shot now no shock was actually given in fact the learner okay was taken into another room where the teacher could even see him okay order now as the experiment progressed another Confederate gang Confederate xenon who acted as lead the expert the authority was telling the teacher to increase the level of the shock which was marked on the machine so in other words as the experiment went on this so-called authority researcher came in to the room where the teacher was in said to turn off the voltage okay in other words level 1 level 2 level 3 throughout the experiment to learn and the other room would often you know express displeasure as the shock were given even saying they had a heart condition and they can’t take it anymore so they’re in the other room screaming out this you know it’s hurting a lot of pee to see what the teacher would do well the teacher give in to the learner and stop giving shocks or just continue to give the shocks because they’re being pulled the new celeb lead researcher and as you can see at the conclusion 65% of the teachers who look at the highest shot even though the learner was saying I can’t take any more they continue to give the shot now Milgram suggested the reason that you know the teachers gave the highest shot was the teacher was being told to do so also they were being told they would not be held responsible for hurting learner so there was no obligation the prestige and position of the lead researcher in other words the lead researcher walked through the room looking very smart and so a lot of the teachers thought an expert would not allow them to cause harm to somebody because they’re an expert ok and the teacher could not see the learner which was probably big if the teacher could see the pain on the person’s face visually see it they probably would have stopped now the results of the Stanley Milgram shock experiment indicated people will not go against their beliefs just for an experiment all people obey others that they perceive them to be able to thirty figures exactly and that was the role of it an answer B now the power situation 1971 is so famous experiment by Bill Lombardo call the Stanford now he recruited 24 volunteers to serve as prisoners and guards in this prison stimulation experiment which took place in the Stanford psychology building the gold experiment was to observe the obedience levels of the prisoners the study was supposed to take place over 14 days but was stopped so remember if they are originally going to see if the prisoners would become obedient to the guards well what it happened was after 14 days or I’m sorry this will take place over 40 days after 6 days what happened was the guards basically took it too far because they were given authority and given the situation where they can have control over people they went overboard right they waited in fact there was a lot of you know conflict why they stopped it was they were worried that the subjects that were the prisoners were going to you know violently act out toward the guards because that’s how much they discussed it they just discussed we were disgusted by the guards now this is kind of similar like when a student gets put in charge of a classroom are they going to be you know easy beyond the rest of the kids are they gonna be more strict and most of the time kids are more strict give them you give people power sometimes and this is what was proven here it goes to their mind now aggression and aggression beat you’re born with in other words Freud believed were born with aggressive you know aggressive traits call be it good review question Android believed that aggression is instinctive and these aggressive impulses are allowed to build if they’re allowed to build because trouble people even in a theory called catharsis that people should let out their aggression in social acceptable ways okay and what that means is you should not bottle things in he says people are danger to others are danger to themselves if they don’t release aggression because then they basically blow okay and they you know when I say that it the way it becomes very destructive okay now other factors is people gonna have damage to the frontal lobe as we learned with serial killers their Olympic system could also have too much testosterone and evolutionary perspective says it’s more of a survival company nurtured aggression behavioral cognitive

perspective says the suspects are reinforced a number of people that get cheered on that place okay become more aggressive just to please the crowd okay as was shown with the Bulldog spirit now environmental psychologists say aggression can come from living conditions John Calhoun for example showed that rats living in tight living areas committed more aggressive acts sports on their lips or other rats now good question which of the following best illustrates the concept of catharsis remember catharsis is letting on aggressive acts in a socially acceptable way friends cheering is video football team Janice is playing basketball about Matt likes to paint pictures mom’s Claude is an aggressive person who starts fight Ronda likes contains mal’chik blasts the answer would be a Maureen freud catharsis venting so cheering on your favorite sports team allows you to get a lot of energy on catharsis got more of a physical element so reading a book is really not an example of catharsis now professor Jackson is studying the effects of testosterone levels on rats that live in a crowded environment professor Jackson believes in which perspective now that mostly it would come down to that are a biological that hormone levels are related to aggressiveness now helping behavior arousal cost reward theory says waiting several options in order to reduce the unpleasant feelings associated with seeing a person in distress this is connect with cognitive you know dissonance okay so in other words if the cost or effort is too high or outweighs the reward then the person will not help but if the cost or effort is low in a person well in other words what this does is when a person makes a decision top another person they first look they first look at what they’re going to get from it and if it’s going to require a lot of effort if it’s minimum effort then there probably helps will be up so you know this you know when I say arousal costs the reward system it’s more of a selfish system if I have time or it’s not going to put me out too much Danijela help somebody okay now reciprocal altruism and altruism is again a genuine regard for the safety of others helping others genuine regard from that you know you care about other people reciprocal altruism is assisting another person with the expectation then you’re going to get repaid so you help you know a woman stranded on the side of the road because you as a guy are gonna ask her out one day and should be more crumpled-up okay obviously that’s not Chris you know type up way to help other people because if you scratch my back any means I’ll scratch your back now now I’m helping behavior bystander effect or bystander apathy is when the presence of others prevents you from helping an individual what this means is when there’s other people around you’re more you’re less likely to help the person why are you less likely to help when there’s other people around is because the diffusion of responsibility and that is you have this excuse in your mind that when someone says will lighten to help that person who fell down diffusion of responsibility is well nobody else was doing anything and it’s an excuse so not in their being in the presence of others because other people think that others are going to do something so you simply say well nobody else was doing anything another its diffusion of responsibility leads to the bystander effect which is bystander effect basically states when there’s people present alright people are less likely to help out now John Darley observed bison and in fact through the murder of kitty Genovese 1964 38 people witnessed the murder Kitty and Nolan intervened as they watched him in apartment building this was due to the fact that nobody else was helping so their excuse was when they felt bad okay remember cognitive dissonance you feel guilt right because you knew you should have helped but you didn’t do anything but then you use the rationalization diffusion of responsibility well nobody else was coming down there to help some other reasons our people may feel unconfident that they don’t go on and help they’re having a bad day so they’re not in the mood to help a great excuse it might be an unfamiliar environment so like for example if you’re out of state you’re less likely help somebody choose you’re not familiar with the state or you don’t want to be singled out for helping because if something goes wrong they’ll get blamed for now Tyler was running late to an appointment when he encountered a person lying on the sidewalk chai-li journalists have others in the area did not seem to be concerned and therefore he continued on this way which psychological principle – Tyler – stay or just play that again is your bystander effect you’re less likely to help when other people are present now kind of the last parts of this cooperation is working well with other people and you’re cooperating competition is obviously try to be better than everybody else and conflict

is you simply have you know all direct opposition with somebody else’s point of view in the group okay pretty standard words now some examples of cooperation competition conflict social dilemmas which is called the prisoner’s dilemma the desirable outcome is achieved only when all parties cooperate mutually okay I will admit to you know the crime if you do so we get a lesser pop lesser punishment so the center how come you simply want what’s best for both of you okay and the only way you get best best for both of you because if you both work together zero-sum game is gains or losses one person one person loses you know all two people want to add so fast when a crime zero someone’s saying if she goes with me that’s great if she goes with you the night lives so in other words zero so zero samus once the winner lost loser all right now we were talking about social psychology and group influences some of the things how groups influence our behavior in this chart is always going to have a few questions on the National exam line it’s social facilitation is you actually do better when other people are watching you so this is the type of person and I used an ecologic person that simply rises to the moment because they do better when other people are watching now some of us listen to this lecture it’s the opposite when other people start watching we do actually worse and that’s called social inhibition okay I know I was kind of that way when I was by myself eating golf balls I would always buy myself hit it a lot better but when someone came over like a coach or somebody who else I had to play with started watching me hit golf balls a lot of times I’d be more worried about what they were going to say and not get it is good now social loafing is a common thing that you know often kids in high school can relate to is you actually in a larger group like group work you actually do less when you’re put into a group and if you were an individual so if you had to write a paper by yourself you would obviously do more because you’re the only one working on that but within a group of five or six people often what happens is you just assume everybody else is going to do more and that you don’t have to do anything now Group polarization and groupthink a lot of times kids confuse these a little bit first of all group polarization is the best way to explain this to you is why people go to protest rallies or pep assemblies or you know other organizations so let’s say you go to a protest rally and you kind of have you know sort of so to speak a mediocre opinion about capital punishment okay you know you could care one way or another whether or not is institutionalized or used but then you go to a pep rally or okay or a protest and you hear a speaker in the you know a thousand other people saying you know in chanting that this should be used and they should have you know invoke the death penalty well because what Roux polarization says is because you are part of a bigger group that shared an opinion it will strengthen your opinion or make your opinion more like theirs so simply you start off at the pep assembly kind of with your arms crossed watching you know in your listening but then being around all these people share the same opinion you actually will take on the same opinion that everybody else has so in other words your opinion has become polarized or stronger groupthink is slightly different because groupthink is and most of you probably can relate to this if you’re listening to this right now is you’re four or five friends you know sitting you know at let’s say at your house have an opinion which you know it’s wrong okay but rather than disagree with all of them you kind of keep your mouth shut because here’s the thing you’re thinking of the group all right you don’t want to disrupt the group so in other words a lot of you have gone out with your friends at night and you don’t want to make a big deal out of something even though you know they’re wrong because you don’t want to disrupt the night or disrupt the harmony of the group okay now do Univision is an interesting one because this is kind of a lot of times you know your Spring Break example you know normally you’re not the wild and crazy type of person but when you’re with a large group of people you do dumb things so this is the person that does dumb things on spring break and the only reason they’re doing that dumb thing is because there’s a lot of other people there if there was nobody there nobody would act dumb I don’t know if you guys have ever thought about it like that but most people do things to see attention but they get caught up in the excitement at the moment now some questions that you’ll see from this and obviously there’s a lot which is the following best illustrates social facilitation remember social facilitation they do better when other people are watching so we read through the examples most of you would have picked out right away D is that their performance actually got better another question okay while the entire class was singing happy birthday to Jared Miko is moving his lips what was not singing because they were already 28 people seen so what

you know concept explains you do less in a group setting and that is social only if you were there was only two or three people in the room all three of you would sing happy birthday but when there’s thirty you can kind keep your mouth shut because you just look at the fact that everybody else is doing something you don’t have to do anything now another question Kareem recently attended a Halloween party was invitation specified that everyone was to wear a mask while at the party he began yelling to Sundanese that the other guys too because he didn’t think anyone would know who was behind the mask who he was acting stupid because there was a lot of people there and most of you would have picked right off because we just talked about that but that’s about the individuation your identity decreases and that’s it