okay so let’s talk about schedules of reinforcement or schedules of punishment we’re talking about a schedule this means like when something is gonna happen right this class has a schedule happens on Monday Wednesdays and Fridays so we talked about then reinforcement or punishment habits for simplicity understood snake schedules of reinforcement but this also applies to on a punch means love so we can have a continuous schedule of reinforcement with the continuous schedule of reinforcement this means that every time the operant response its main we’re going to reinforce or punishment so every time that a kid gets an a out of paper we’re going to say great job every time that the dog poops on the floor we’re going to kick it or say no that’s bad every time so the continuous every behaviors reinforce this produces the fastest learning think about it with continuous reinforcement every time they make the operative response its associated with the outcome right so every response to number one this can be expensive though if you’re training a dog and you want it to come or to sit or to roll over and you give it like a piece of bacon or a treat every time that it makes the correct with the desired response you’re going to have to feed it a lot right so this can be expensive it also leads to rapid extinction so once the behavior stops producing the outcome then the animal is very quickly able to identify that the association has changed the situation isn’t the same so I’m not going to bother making the same response anymore does that make sense we can contrast this with partial reinforcement where we don’t reinforce or punish every single behavior we reinforce you’re some of the times this produces smaller learning because the Association is miss strong am I going to get the outcome because I produced the behavior now maybe maybe not it’s not a perfect correlation so it’s going to take longer for the Oreo to pick up on the Association this is way cheaper though you don’t have to reinforce or punish something all the time and because of this we’re not doing it every time it’s more resistant to extinction you didn’t get the reinforcement this time does that mean that you’re not doing the reinforcement anymore or is it just that you didn’t happen to get it this time you could get it in the future right but the continuous it’s obviously this is less so something that you can do if you’re trying to train dogs cats or people you start with the continuous schedule right reinforce them every time they make the response to get the learning that happen quickly and then once they’re demonstrating the behavior a lot then you can switch to partial to save money and to produce an association that’s not going to be as fast to become extinguished all the time does that make sense okay so you can also talk about difference between interval and ratio scales so in an interval scale the thing that’s important is the time think about a time interval how much time has to pass before you produce the behavior and the reinforcement will be there again so with an interval schedule the reinforcement follows the first behavior after some time interval is passed food carts right so if you’re hungry and want to get to lunch you can go to the cafeteria and this is set up on an interval schedule of reinforcement the cafeteria is open every day 11 or 12 but anyway if you go to after 11:00 within that certain time frame you can get reinforced for using your car now imagine that you could only use your card for lunch Wednesday right sometimes you might be really hungry in you can use it twice but let’s imagine that you can only use it once once people lunch one day you have to wait about 24 hours until their reinforcements going to be available again does that make sense so you can get reimbursed for using your car but it’s dependent on the time right you have to go after 11 ratio scales on the other hand it’s not the time that passes that’s the important thing for determining when and her reinforcer is going to be available it’s the amount of behaviors that matter so reinforcement follows some number of behaviors think about the people that were consulted on selling tops and maps

and postcards I don’t know about those of you who appear more Turkish but like me when I go it’s obvious that I’m a former and when I walk around they’re always asking oh hey you want to buy a present for your kids Oh you wanna buy a postcard it doesn’t matter the amount of time that passes for them to get reinforced for coming up to someone and asking them to buy right what matters is the number of people that they ask so they ask him they’ve not asked him maybe not they asked her she buys right it’s the number of behaviors that will produce greater amounts of reinforcement or punishment but the more behaviors you engage in the more times you ask someone to buy a top or a noun the more often you’re going to sell it and get that reinforcement is that they’re so with interval it’s the time that matters with ratio it’s the number of behaviors that matters of course according to the Thorndike’s law on conditioning is situationally dependent so this depends on the situation if you want to get reinforced for use from your car to get well if you need to go to the cafeteria I’m actually here that’s not completely true because you can go to cap the amount of the step right but you need to go to either traffic cop or the cap attorney if you came to my office and hand me your card and wanted some food you’d be out of luck same thing with selling tops you need to sell the tops and the maps to people who might be interested in getting a souvenir who who who might be interested learning about where things are salt anomic since there are a lot of tourists in this area this is a good place to do it so this works in Sultanahmet this might not work inside my once this might not work here in Istanbul State University all right fixed versus variable schedules of reinforcement with the big schedule reinforcement you know exactly the when reinforcements going to be available and this could be knowing exactly how much time has the past or how many behaviors you have to do to get the reinforcement important thing is even predict exactly so with the cafeteria you know food is available every 24 hours this is fixed it doesn’t vary enough does this make sense this is different from a variable schedule of reinforcement as the name conclude you with the variable schedules you can’t predict exactly when the reinforcement is going to be available so with the example of the person selling Maps the salt month this is a variable schedule of reinforcement right you might sell fare someone to him not to him not to her not to her but to her right you might sell like five times in a row and then not so many twenty times in a row there’s variability it could be that there’s some fixed schedule if every fifth person bought one you would know that that it’s fixed right but everything person doesn’t buy one so this is very again both of these depend on the situation’s Thorndike’s live updates we can drop another outcomes matrix and talk about how these different types of schedules interact so we can look at whether we’re using an interval schedule or a ratio schedule and also whether we’re using a variable schedule worth fixed schedule okay so I’m breaking my promise do you come up with an example of a fixed interval schedule of reinforcement taking the medicine right so if let’s imagine that you have headaches every day and you need to take the medicine every 12 hours so after 12 hours you’re starting to feel back again if you take the medicine boom you’re feeling good again if you take the medicine before the 12 hours is up it’s not going to have this effect right because you’re already feeling okay so the reinforcement is available after fixed interval of time the example of the cafeteria is also an example of a fixed interval schedule how about a variable interval schedule what behaviors are reinforced after some interval of time passes but you don’t know exactly how long that time is going to be but okay when you gamble does the amount of time matter when you gamble I mean certainly it’s there is some variability of when you reinforce in time when you’re gambling but does it matter if I wait an hour or if I wait ten hours does this change the likelihood that I’m going to

get reinforced for making a bet so if we change time from trying there from times you try we’re not looking at the time anymore we’re looking at the number of behaviors at time it is you’re absolutely right time does pass right the more time you spend the more time you spend doing something the more time passes yes but the thing that matters is when you’re talking about gambling when you get reinforced doesn’t matter how much time has passed it matters how many responses you’ve made right if I you guys all know what a she is and put the money in you pull this lever and these cylinders go around and you need cherries the lineup or something it doesn’t matter if you do one pull and then walk away for an hour and then another pole then walk away for 24 hours right then what matters is how often your point it’s this way well you have to do the poll in order to the potentially being reinforced right but when you reinforce that it doesn’t depend on the time there’s some random number generator that determines whether or not you winner right and this isn’t dependent on the time if it was dependent on the time people would pick this up and they would go pull this at 11:01 right they figured out that at 11:01 i was gonna win right but it doesn’t matter you can put it 11:01 maybe one day can win 1101 on a different date you want so the gambling it’s not dependent on time it’s depending on how often you’re doing it yeah I think that’s a pretty good example so if you want to get a rabbit residence permit you need this to sign up for a time on the website and at different times there are different numbers of availabilities right and if you press it refresh refresh refresh refresh refresh it doesn’t necessarily change what matters is not how quickly you can pass refresh but how much time is elapsed to allow the new spot to open up so that’s a great example I know the grocer example and that’s going by relieving oneself is a primary reinforcer you you have to go to the washroom this is uncomfortable you go to the washroom this is negative reinforcement right you’re getting rid of an uncomfortable feeling so imagine we all like negative reinforcement when should because of the fight if I went to the potty right now I wouldn’t get that negative reinforcement because I don’t have to go right so what matters is that I do this what I need to go and what’s going to determine what I need to go it’s not how often I go into the bathroom it’s how much time is best right if I a lot more time than X then I’m going to be more likely to need to go I’m going to be more likely to to get reinforced with that behavior does that make sense all right a fixed ratio scale this is like commission sales imagine that you have a job and you’re paid every tendon items that you stopped when I was in America they had this program called taco and they would any of the students every after I think every time ten times that you made a sale then you would get a commission check right so it didn’t matter how quickly you could get those ten times what mattered is when you got the ten times right so someone could get 10 sales in one day and they are get the reinforcements someone else could take a whole year to get those 10 sales and they would get the reinforcements the key thing here is not the tournament passes but how quickly you can get to the 10 seconds right the continuous schedule where you’re getting reinforcements every time and do something this is a special case right you know that you’re gonna get reinforced whether you do it right now or whether you wait 10 minutes or whether you wait 10 years right it’s continuous every time you do it you get me in first finding the variable ratio the the biggest example of this is gamma so you put the money in you don’t know if you’re going to get reinforced right now but the more often you put money in

and do this the more chances you have of winning now the casinos are set up so that your chances of losing overall are greater than the chances of winning but people think that they’re lucky people think they’re going to beat the system so let’s do this anyway yes sorry what yes so with with football you get more points the more shots you take right the more shots that you take the more likely that one of them is going to make you don’t have to be like wait okay let’s look five minutes go by and now take a shot right take a shot after shot after shot if you can so make sense exactly the variable ratio produces the most frequent consistent responding that’s the most resistant to extinction and think about it you you’re gambling and you haven’t won twenty times but you know next time you might miss right and the faster you can book the faster you might get to that point where the behavior isn’t the right one it’s the awkward response that it produces now right so because of this because you’re not sure when it’s gonna win and what matters is how fast you can do the behavior this produces very high rates of responding and very resistant behaviors all right so interval is after a certain amount of time ratio is after some amount of navier’s with fixed you know exactly when you’re going to get the reinforcer and with variable you’re not exactly sure you might have some idea like on average it takes you know 24 hours for the cafeteria to open but some days they might open up have any of you guys eaten before they officially open so I have I’ve been there like a couple of minutes before the starting time and I’ve been able to eat which suggests that there is a little the variability all right shaking so some of you guys may have seen this video on YouTube there’s this earth squirrel any wire seeds it’s really really cute every time Google YouTube waterskiing squirrel you see is dude how do you speed a swirl of water steamer often we with operant conditioning ideas that we’re going to reinforce or punish somebody that’s already there right but the waters there with squirrels you don’t see like the squirrel just on its own like hop on skis and go waters so how do you get this world water speed if it never produces this response on its own normally answer shape but she I think about play what I made the pot right in that play what do you need to do to the play you need to shape it right what is this involved with shaping play how many of you have ever made like a base or something with clay and that little wheel the churns let you start with yeah you start with this block of the play and you modify it a little bit at a time right it starts off not looking like a base at all but you take away some of it and then it starts looking a little bit more round and then you take some of the weight some of it away from the inside and it starts looking more like a vase we can use operant conditioning in a similar way we can reinforce behaviors that approximate water speed we could go to a park and we could leave some water skis down on the ground then you can leave skis on the river and eventually the squirrels you know they’re walking around at some point they’re going to get close to the waters they’re probably not going to jump on and go whoo-hoo but they might get close to it and what should you do if you wanted to order see you needed to get close to the skis right so you can throw it some popcorn when it gets close to the skis and much of this increase should increase some behavior if it’s reinforcing right should increase the likelihood that what behaviors produced going closer to the skis right now just becoming the skis more often and then once you’re having it going around the skis you might not reinforce it for going into skis but don’t you reinforce it when it actually physically touches the ski does this make sense because sometimes when it’s

closed it’s gonna accidentally touch the ski so that we can reinforce it and if this is reinforcing what’s gonna happen were up it’s going to it’s gonna touch the ski more on right so then what do you do it’s touching the skis but you don’t want it touching these these you want to either sleep so then you might wait until it actually stands Thomas speeds and then reinforce them and then we’ll be standing on this needs more on and then you can have something that pulls the speeds ever so slightly and you reinforce the squirrel and it stays on right and then you pull it into the water and do the same thing we of course when it stays on and then you’ve got a bar ski as well should mention with the shaping you can use shaping to manipulate children and spouses it’s easier to be like children than it is the manipulative spouses because the kids they’re not picking up on the fact that you’re manipulating them as easy a spouse’s or friends are right so if you’re going to use shaping with adults be careful it might do it because if they figure out you’re manipulating them they could get down there’s an example of shaping on a television show you YouTube if you go to you two and look for shaping you’ll find this video where this guy gives I think it’s his girlfriend chocolates every time it like she shuts up so they’re watching the movie she’s got the top she stops he gives her a chocolate right so he’s using operant conditioning to make her father at once okay finally how about superstitions sometimes good things happen without fuss konzi right like I’ll be walking along the street and oh there’s five liras this is a good thing right it’s possible that we did something and be making an association between the thing that we did in this how come even though it didn’t have a direct relationship this often happens in sports so often you’ll see like baseball with baseball players they do these very elaborate routines before they go up to bat you know they scratched this one and they scratch this one when they wet their brow and then they gone to that how does this happen well if one day they go up to back and they scratch their on before and then they get intense even though this might have had nothing to do with that they might think that I did right am I thinking that it did what should you do the next time okay I’m gonna scratch again and do this so you see some very odd things Michael Jordan key word these shorts that used to wear in college grin all of his professional NBA games because he had the superstition he could go in color 20 these shorts so it’s not that his practice fan then it’s these magical shorts right so we continued wearing these shorts in the professional so maybe if you wear Mitch mismatched socks and then take my exam and you do really well you might think aha these are my good luck Saxon that you wear them again in the future all right when I took enough food aversions I mentioned some results that were related to both classical conditioning and operant conditioning number one I talked about the dingos I said that they eat this twice and meat and what is the points that we make them do it makes them bill modulus makes me sick right so the dingo gets it and then later the dingo gets sick when it smells the Sheep so that it stays away from the Sheep which part of this the classical conditioning produce in which part did operant conditioning produce so two things two possibilities did classical conditioning make me nauseous when expose the sheet or that I think it’s stay away from sheet possibly yeah so when it gets nauseous around sheet this is through the classical condition right it’s this automatic reflexive response so I smelled a sheep yeah look now this is where operant conditioning comes in right it engages in some behavior it got close to the Sheep it felt nauseous so what can it do it can stay away from the Sheep it will reduce the likelihood of being by the sheep so when I talked about the Goldschlager I said I get nauseous when I have cinnamon flavored elbow this is the result of classical conditioning this is authentic feeling that I have when I taste lick my decision not to have that liquor anymore this is aa great initiative right I’ve

learned that the result of this behavior drinking and stuff produces a response earn I’m sorry produces an outcome that I don’t like so I stay away from so if we want to keep in mind the difference as we can think about classical conditioning being reflexive right we associate these two stimuli together wonder which reflexively produces some response and by carrying these two things together then that previously neutral stimuli will reflexively produce the similar response right whereas operant conditioning it’s not reflexive it’s not involuntary it’s something that you have control over right oh yeah I tasted the sheep before it made me sick I guess I’m not going to go by wishing today oh yeah I won that one time then I animal I’m going to gamble some more right this is not a reflex it’s not like someone wins one time and then they just have to any time they get around the machine it’s something that they’re motivated to do alright so