You’re here for a real treat So thank you for all coming out My name is Anne Helmreich and I’m the Director of the Baker-Nord Center for the Humanities And on behalf of my colleagues at the Center and the College of Arts and Science at Case Western Reserve University, I welcome you to our event this evening Through the generosity of the Campen family, the Baker-Nord Center is able to present to our community a lecture devoted to architecture I don’t want to thank the Campen family for their support, and there are several members of the family who could be with us tonight So thank you very much And I also want to acknowledge one of our past speakers, Bob Madison, who I just saw a minute ago So thank you Thank you And in fact, there’s a number of alumni of our architecture program in the audience tonight So can we take a moment to thank all these people who support architecture in our community? [APPLAUSE] Tonight’s speaker is Doug Farr, an urban planner and President and CEO of Farr Associates Architecture and Urban Design Doug Farr has earned his reputation through his ecologically sensitive, sustainable urban constructions His Chicago-based and award-winning architecture and planning firm has recently been named by The New York Times “the most prominent of the city’s growing cadre of ecologically sensitive architects.” Farr Associates was the first firm to design three buildings certified as Platinum, the highest distinction under the Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design, LEED Currently the firm has completed its fourth Platinum building, and the fifth and sixth are in the works Farr’s work has been featured in Architectural Record, The New York Times, The Chicago Tribune, and the PBS documentary The Green Machine In his highly acclaimed book, Sustainable Urbanism– Urban Design with Nature, Farr and contributing authors introduce models for sustainable urban design that pay equal attention to urban planning and architectural design And in fact, Sustainable Urbanism will be on sale following the lecture, and Doug Farr will be available to sign copies And you’ll find that at the top of the stairs here Absolutely I may be at the head of the line, but if you beg me, I’ll go to the end Time permits me to highlight only a few of Doug Farr’s accomplishments, but you can see why we were delighted that he accepted our invitation to speak as part of our theme this year, “Cultures of Green: Nature and the Environment” and to contribute to our campus’s continuing exploration of sustainability Please join me in welcoming Doug Farr [APPLAUSE] I’m delighted to be in Cleveland, delighted No place I’d rather be tonight So who are you? You’ve heard about me Who are you? Who’s an architect? Who is a graduate of Case Western Reserve Architecture School? Right? Great Welcome back Who’s a planner? City employee, municipal employee? Elected official? Mayor? I guess it’s not you You’re the only one So there’s no governors in the audience either, right? So who else do we have? Who are you, artists? Developers? It’s a rare profession right now So you all know that Who else are you? Students? OK Engineer Great Who else? That’s it? [INAUDIBLE] OK Citizen who would like to generate enthusiasm How great How about voters? How about people who don’t vote? Put your hand up really high, because we are coming after you All right Well, I’m delighted to be here A couple rules We’re going to ask that the lights come down because I have a PowerPoint I believe in showing a lot of pictures If you start snoring, I will throw something at you, so please don’t do that But I’m delighted to be here to talk– first of all, to thank the family that sponsored us tonight It’s just delightful And a great family in the second and third generation of interest in the topics of architecture and the humanities What I want to talk about is sort of insights that I’ve learned If we can put the lights down, that would be just wonderful Insights I’ve learned– those of us who are trained as architects are trained to believe that answer is in the built work, and that ideally,

that the built work is a building And as you can see the title of tonight’s talk, “Sustainable Urbanism– The New American Dream,” my thinking has evolved to believe that what our opportunity is, of this generation and probably the generations to come, particularly in the United States, is to reposition the things we dream to want, the things that we aspire to have And so that’s a lot of what you’re going to hear about tonight So the new American dream You see the picture here, not actually a picture of the United States Scary picture to some people I’m sorry to do this to you But I’d like to start with this to say that Richard Nixon is still today, I believe, our country’s most environmental president What gives me the cause to say this? He enacted the Clean Water Act, the Clean Air Act, the Endangered Species Act, NEPA, created the Environmental Protection Agency, all under Nixon Now they were all reactive They were all after the fact They were all in response to a problem that we had created and now were trying to of clean up But to this day, including Clinton and Obama and Carter and others, Bush One, you know, he is it And so the thought that the federal government is somehow going to be a heavy hand and going to come in and wave a wand and make our world a great place to live is not true in this country And so what I believe is what Nixon would have said had he been asked, that all sustainability is local, which is to say, the work of people in this room– and it was actually great to kind of hear the diversity of people’s daily lives and work– is that we in this audience are those are the sort of protagonists We’re the actors in this next generation of change And the young woman here who said, I’m here to get myself and my neighbors excited about making things better That’s absolutely what I think sustainability is about It is local And so Cleveland has the same story Now another sort of perspective I’ve gained over the years is this idea of sustainability, which if you haven’t heard it, it’s a buzzword out there But it was actually defined by the Brundtland Commission in the ’80s as being, essentially, meeting our current needs without burdening future generations That’s fair That really is fair that our children or grandchildren shouldn’t pay for things that we do But what I find is– and this is where I want you to sort of expand your mind, so check at the door whatever training you had or what specialty you had and think broadly, and I think you’ll get a lot more out of the talk– but that every one of us, myself included, approaches sustainability from some narrow silo of some sort, and that this prevents us from actually getting to great outcomes And so for example, I believe that if you read the papers, you can discern this pattern, which is to say, when people report about and talk about sustainability, this trinity often appears– the light bulb, the Prius, and the green building And if only the devices of everyday life these three objects were more efficient in their consumption of energy, we would have solved it Don’t change how I about my life or how I organize my stuff Just make it all more efficient and let me do what I’ve always done And that is essentially the dominant way that journalism reports on this sort of stuff Now there are ironies with all of this One is that as cars become more efficient, we drive them more miles because it is rational to do so It’s cheaper per mile, and so with the Prius, actually, people could have a longer commute for the same money, for example, and that’s not the intended outcome So efficiency alone won’t get us there Of these three things, tonight the smallest scale I’m going to talk about is the standalone building So this is a picture, by the way, of Farr Associates’ first zero net energy house, designed actually by a Cleveland native My colleague and partner Jonathan Boyer has this zero net energy house, the first in the midwest I want to talk about culture And this is an interesting story On November 6, two days after the Obama election on that Tuesday, this was the story and NPR And this gentleman, I’m sure a very nice man, Sean Durkin, built himself a 4,000-square-foot house What was the story about? Well, after Sean had built himself a 4,000-square-foot house, he found he couldn’t afford any sort of renewable energy systems We’d love to have the panels, something tacked on after the fact, if we could afford it Now this story– this is a laugh line, by the way, because Sean built himself a 4,000-square-foot house and then couldn’t afford solar panels Sean, we, need to have a talk, right?

So if Sean had built himself a 3,800-square-foot house, he would have had solar panels If he had built a 3,400-square-foot house, he would have had photovoltaic panels A 3,200-square-foot house and he would have had geothermal systems And you get the idea, that there’s a trade-off between size and quality And quality, in this case, the measure I’m using is one of sustainability So the house that I showed you, the zero net energy house, costs more But if you can afford the bigger house, you can afford a smaller house that does all these right things And so this is the change of culture, the Walmart culture that we have in the United States, which is, we will drive 10 miles to buy the $1.79 gallon of milk, which is the American way It’s cheaper there You’re not paying more, are you? You’re an idiot But when it comes to houses and architecture, there’s a lot of sort of coupon clipping that goes on in the country So here’s LEED It’s a powerful tool, right? And many people have heard about it I can’t see– if I were to ask for a show of LEED accredited professionals I’m sure– shout it out If you’re LEED AP, who are you? Woo hoo OK A few of you OK Very good So in the mid-’90s a very powerful, influential movement that has really reshaped, I think, the architecture profession, everyone would agree If you don’t have a LEED Accredited Professional sort of initials on your card, you’re considered sort of ho hum or you’re not competitive or you’re not paying attention There are now 135,000 LEED Accredited Professionals which fills the largest stadium we have in this country and I think in the world But anyway a term that was coined in 1996– hold that thought– so it’s now 13 years old, which is half a generation And it shows you– at the same time, I should say 135,000 LEED Accredited Professionals, total number of certified buildings in the world, about 3,000 Now there’s 100 million buildings in the United States So we’ve got 3,000 are green So in half a generation, 3,000 out of 100 million are green buildings So obviously we’re not going to quite get there that way Now get to where we need to go by doing it one building at a time And then there are problems with green buildings So look at this What you have here is a building The image of the building– this is maybe offensive to some of the architects in the room– but the image of the building has actually been perp’d out Why would I do this? This is a LEED platinum building, right? So this is the best green building that we can think of, right? It does all sorts of amazing things But look at where it’s located Oh, my lord So this is a land use that I often describe as mixed Mixed land use What do I mean? There’s asphalt paving to the top and concrete paving to the bottom So it’s mixed It’s diverse, right? And then you see on the right-hand side is what is called a Houston highway Now a Houston highway is a highway where if you see a pedestrian, it’s because their car broke down So here’s the ability to deliver a green building, an object in isolation within the property lines Virtuous, wonderful, saves energy, saves water You can eat the walls if you need to It’s that sort of healthy, right? But look at what it’s doing in terms of building a place If anything, it’s hostile to all that sort of stuff So the building, the green building agenda, LEED, as virtuous as it is, is a silo And it’s half right and it’s half wrong And I debate whether it’s a better thing that this had been a LEED Platinum building or the project not have gone forward at all And I think the latter is preferred So here’s another one Remember when the economy was good? When was that? ’07, ’08 So we had an intern that summer that we paid to do some research for us, and one of them was to ask the question of the green buildings One of the most popular areas is green schools, right? So we had this intern do this research on, take 10 sample green schools and ask this basic question, which is, what was the nature of the school project? Was it a school from scratch? Was it a replacement school? All those sorts of things And what we found was, three of the 10 schools seemed to fit this description First of all, I can’t see your hands, but how many people grew up walking to school? And then how many did not? And I think you’ll see– I can’t see you, but this exercise in the past is that young people didn’t walk and the older people did So we’ve had a generational shift there, where two generations ago, 75% of kids walk to school and now it’s about 20% And there’s issues with that So what we had here in three of the 10 sample school cases was the phenomenon where this was an existing school in a little town called West Brazos, Texas And it was a neighborhood school, no parking lot All the kids walked to school What happened? The school board got this idea they needed a new, bigger

school Why? There were two schools a little ways away and they were paying a lot of money for their cafeteria service because they had two cafeterias So they decided to consolidate them Where did the school go? Out on the highway three miles outside of town When you read about the new LEED certified green school, one of the great features of it was the storm water system that captured, filtered, and recharged into the ground all of the storm water runoff off the huge parking lot of this green school So before all the kids walked to school And maybe it was an older school and didn’t have as much insulation or the quality of windows that we have today But it was part of a community It was a building block of a walkable system, if you will The new green school was oblivious to all of this and destroyed it all And so again, here’s a green building It probably got a very nice plaque on it But I would submit to you that it was better, that the community is a net– it’s worse off for having this new green building It’s better that this project never have happened Yeah, we clamp on the side of it our green plaque And then there’s laugh slides like this So could this be a green building? Absolutely What would the LEED system ask of this picture? It would ask, are the escalators efficient? Not, are they absurd and a bad idea? It would ask, are the escalators made of recycled stainless steel? And rather than asking, do we need the escalators at all? So you could certify this presumably a LEED platinum if you chose to Nowhere along the way does the question come up and say, do we actually need this? Is this a good idea? And the tubby guy that’s taking the escalator to his health club, what’s with that? So nobody asked that question So again, LEED is a tool It gets us a distance, but in and of itself, without sort of critical thinking, isn’t the answer Now probably in my world, the issues– I’m trained as an architect twice, and then function as an architect and planner But the issue that probably green buildings are not engaged in yet as much is the one of sort of physical activity And so I want to sort of shock you These are interesting images But these are images provided to any of you on the Centers for Disease Control website If you Google in obesity maps, you’ll get these So here’s the country And you can see it’s 1988, so this is essentially 20, 21 years ago And you can see the little thing in the bottom A lot of states there’s no obesity data And then the two categories are 10% and then between 10% and 14% obesity And you can see how we do in Ohio We’re in the 10% to 14% obesity in 1988 Fast forward 10 years So the chart has grown to include two more categories And so Ohio has moved up one notch to the 15% to 19% obese category, as has most of the country This is in our lifetimes, everyone here and in the last little bit So fast forward 10 more years, and you see the country And so you can see we’ve added two more categories Again, Ohio has sort of tracked, as it does in presidential elections, tracked the nation And there you go So the nation went brown Ohio led the way going brown, which is 25% to 29% obese This is a bad trend, right? As we are about to adopt national health care, we collectively will pay for this trend, which is a very expensive trend and manifests itself in the form of type 2 diabetes and other non-directly called obesity issues Anyway, so this is the worst public health epidemic, I am told, the fastest growing thing And it particularly is painful when it applies to children, which is where it’s going And I submit to you, this is how we’ve laid out our country and our cities and our daily lives, to live there, work there, recreate there, and connect them all with car trips, something that wasn’t true a generation ago and certainly not two generations ago, and that this is one of the opportunities going forward, and I think especially for Cleveland So one of the statistics that also goes with that is this one This is a chart that shows where 11-year-old, English-speaking Californians– why that I don’t know– but where they spend their time And you can see 85% of a California kid’s time is spent indoors, and another 4% is

spent in what they call enclosed transit, which is bus, plane, train, automobile So 89% of their time is indoors Now this is not Alaska This is not the desert This is California This is the land of milk and honey This is where you go to recreate and be happy and fun and outdoorsy, right? So think about Minnesota, think about North Dakota So we are an indoor species, is what this says, and the architects of the world have made it very comfortable for us To our success, we’ve made being indoors very comfortable, so much so that we virtually choose not to leave it So one consequence of this, the average American by the age 25 has spent one year in a car, one year And I will daresay most of that year, the car was running So we didn’t have Priuses that if the car was idle half the year, six months of it was running on batteries or not running at all So anyway, this is the sort of snapshot state of our country And this is, I think, the last of my quote, downer, slides So it’ll pass in just a minute Size does matter But with it is this statistic that we are likely to be the first generation where our children will have shorter lifespans than the parents And it’s these lifestyle issues of obesity, inactivity, and with these pretty alarming statistics Architects are trained and state licensed to deliver on life safety, to make sure that people’s lives are not endangered in the things they design And so this is not something that has traditionally been the domain of architects But I submit to you it needs to be So that’s pretty exciting So Farr Associates, we have a mission to design sustainable human environments So we’re for profit, mission-driven, all that sort of stuff And we practice in these four areas of master planning and urban design Form-based coding, which is a cool thing you’ll see some pictures on in a minute High-performance architecture, and we really– for all of my running down of the deficiencies of LEED– we totally embrace LEED in every project we do We aspire to LEED or another new rating system called The Living Building Challenge So we’re critical but completely embedded Just love it And then historic preservation So here’s what I want to share as my aha moment as an architect This’ll be pretty obvious So in 1998 we got a commission to do this what’s called a transit-oriented development plan in Chicago We have the El You’ve heard of El is short for elevated And this is on the west side So a little neighborhood plan at the intersection of Lake and Pulaski And we were a little firm In hindsight we were a little firm then, kind of a startup And you can see we weren’t making a lot of money because we seem to only have two pencils, drab green and drab brown And so you almost can’t distinguish But what you’re seeing here is in the foreground is the El train And then you see kind of a U shape of buildings organized around a park And if you can’t actually see those things because the drawing’s not that good, play along like you do So anyway, so there you have it And the premise here is that what we have in Chicago, and I think Cleveland has this in many parts, like Shaker Square, is a little spot where the train stops And there’s always been where there’s a mode of transportation starting or stopping, or you get off a boat and get on a train or transfer trains That’s where commerce happens That’s why cities are often founded at the crossing of two railroads or the thin patch of a river, things like that So we are designing this And so we thought of this as a really sustainable project What was sustainable about it? It was bringing economic activity to an inner– kind of an overlooked inner city neighborhood in Chicago It was providing goods and services to a depopulated neighborhood that hadn’t had them in a long time, shopping, restaurants, dry cleaners, daycare center, things like this It was providing a place to walk, a secure place to walk It was providing transit ridership All these things, we thought it was a brown field, meaning a contaminated site So we thought, this whole list of things This is incredibly sustainable We’re really excited about it The next year, 1999, 10 years ago, we got our first LEED commission This was a project championed by our mayor for life, Mayor Richard M Daley, who said, we want to get into this green thing, and authorized a project to take an existing building, pictured on the left here, a former office building for the Kraft Foods company, and to convert it into the city’s, indeed the region’s, first LEED Platinum building And when the mayor says you can do it if you deliver Platinum, we were quaking in our boots the whole time because we really didn’t know what we were doing It was the world’s third Platinum when it was done But again, we thought of this as an incredibly sustainable

project And it had all the virtues and attributes of a LEED certified building, energy efficiency, water efficiency, recycled and local content materials, high indoor environmental quality We policed out all the toxins from the glues, adhesives, and sealants, things like that And then it was an existing site, transit-served site And so we thought this was incredibly sustainable project Other things that we really kind of drilled down in this project was the idea of integrated design Integrated design is the simple idea that you have components of a building, all of which do more than one job So for example, in the picture on the left, we have photovoltaic solar panels mounted above the south window, south-facing windows in this building And they do double duty, maybe triple duty They generate electricity They are mounted at an angle such that in the wintertime, when we would welcome direct sun penetrations in the window, the angles allow that in the summer When we want to shed heat, it’s designed that way It also keeps water off the steel lintel at the top of the window, and I think lengthens the life cycle of that facade So there’s an example of integrated design, a component doing multiple things Also in the left image, we used geothermal heating and cooling, which is where you put wells either deep into the ground or laterally, horizontally, and you use the ambient 52-degree temperature of the Earth to either extract or reject heat And we found, thanks to talking to our engineer, that if you do that in saturated soils, the efficiency of heat transfer goes up quite a lot, so that not only is this our detention pond, it is also essentially our heating and cooling system So integrated design on the left, new terms on the right So you may have grown up calling that thing on the right-hand side a ditch It’s a bioswale So you can impress your friends, impress your neighbors The lady that wanted to get her neighbors excited about stuff Teach them about bioswale So bioswale isn’t technically a ditch, but new nomenclature gets us all feeling like we’re in the in club But we thought of that as a highly sustainable project And the aha moment was to realize there was no overlap in the agendas or the achievements of these two really sustainable projects And so we made money at CCGT So we bought some markers And we re-rendered the first drawing, and so you can actually see what’s a park and what’s a building and things like that So here you have it It’s that same U of buildings But we’ve re-thought it, re-thought it First all, every building here is of course a green building in the manner of CCGT Everything that isn’t a green roof is a solar panel Everything that isn’t a solar panel is a white cool roof, et cetera, et cetera So the buildings evince– are arguably festooned with evidence that they’re green buildings Now what the sort of bigger rethinking– and this is my aha moment– is in the park So as I mentioned, at CCGT, our sort of open space, or detention basin, was also our heating system So what we’re proposing here is that this part, this sort of commons, be a park that was what we called a stormwater park And by that we thought we could catch all the excess stormwater, rainwater, off the streets and any overflow off the buildings, direct it to the park, and recharge the groundwater there, and at the same time make underneath the park a district geothermal system which would be the common heating and cooling system for all the buildings encircling the park And so here it was in a nutshell, the invention of this term, sustainable urbanism And so what you can see here are, it’s a walkable place It’s served by transit That’s the El line And then there’s green buildings, high-performance buildings all around it, and then a new term that we coined called high-performance infrastructure And so low-performance infrastructure is the sewer pipe or the stormwater pipe that conveys rainwater off your street, pollutes it, discharges it into a river, and considers it progress That’s infrastructure, but it’s low performing High performing is the stormwater park that filters the water and reintroduces a natural hydrologic pattern, for example So there we were We were really excited about this So we thought that this integration of all these things was really going to take the world by storm We went through some false steps, but we knew we had sort of hit on pay dirt when we got a commission from the town of Normal, Illinois When your town is called Normal, you have to try a lot harder Same with Peoria, and places– maybe my hometown of Detroit But anyway, Normal completely went for it And so we proposed, not surprisingly, a stormwater in this case, circle So it was a new downtown plan, 10 acres and what is now a quarter billion dollars of either built or projected construction

So Normal bought the program, and also became, in 2002, the first municipality in the US– Cleveland– the first municipality in the US to require private sector buildings to be LEED certified So Normal was ahead of– let’s make the list– Portland, Seattle, San Francisco, New York, Chicago, Boston, Austin, Boulder So Normal, Illinois brought distinction on itself by leadership So I think leadership is one of the things I want to cultivate So here it is at the ground level How does this sort of circular street, circular intersection, circular plaza work? The premise is that we catch water off the streets when it’s available On the dry days there happens to be a stormwater pipe going underneath the site So we grab that and filter that in a double helix So you can see there’s a kind of a treatment train that goes once around the outside, and then a cleansed, what’s called a batheable, touchable level on the inside So kids can play with the water that falls from the heavens And so this idea that infrastructure, in this case, high-performing infrastructure, water that takes and cleanses water, becomes the civic art, right? How many times have you seen the sort of the steel sculpture that the town hates, and that every year the graduating seniors spray paint their school color, and then the municipal crews come out on Monday and roller paint back the right colors, the art you hate So this is art This is civic art And it’s high-performance infrastructure at the same time So it delights in water It’s a joy to do And it puts water in a very unexpected place in an urban center Now to deliver this town of Normal rotunda, this sort of drum of a public space, we needed to invent a tool Fortunately, we didn’t Others invented it We appropriated this tool, called form-based coding And to the architects in the room this may seem like an infringement on one’s freedom as an artist to sculpt as they see fit on a given building site But in this case what we were after is to create that sort of drum, that rotunda of space And so essentially, you can think of this as sort of a cake mold to say, build it as tall as you want, use a variety of materials, whatever you want But as to the surfaces, it needs to touch all these surfaces So we’re trying to avoid setbacks and things like that We want the building sort of tied to the street So form-based code You’ll hear more about that later The first building was locally designed by an architect under the code was the children’s museum So here it is Lots of features and so on The punchline, though, is that all of this integration of all these things together broke so many rules, rules about which I now need to tell two jokes How many architects does it take to change a light bulb? Does it have to be a light bulb? How many engineers does it take to change a light bulb? Change? What’s change? So this was the issue The idea of a circular intersection caused a brain scan meltdown There wasn’t anything in the cookbook that you pull off the shelf and approve by standards to do that Well, we could all cite a number of them, including, arguably, a couple places in and around Cleveland that were essentially circular intersections But the engineers could not fathom what this was And the thought of actually having people in the center of this intersection, that broke every rule in the book And then the thought of having water next to the people in the middle of intersection We were a mortal sinner at this point So add two years to the approvals process, because that kind of joke about change, we were up against it So we were really pushing the limits on buildings and civil engineering and how these things all integrate together Anyway, this is about a year-old picture It’s quite far along now Very exciting So here’s sustainable urbanism, which is what the book is about And what I submit to you is the thing that I actually think we could get pretty excited about as a society and in each individual community, the thing that we might aspire to do Walkable, transit-served urbanism integrated with high-performance buildings and high-performance infrastructure So what’s the operative word here? It’s the word integrated with, that these things are interdependent They rely on one another to function And this is very much stolen from Europe I mean, this is essentially the trend that Europe’s on Many cities aspire to sort of have their bones that point to Europe, that the best places are urban in the way that Europe is and so on In sustainability, the United States is between 15 and 20 years behind Europe And so this is in some ways back to the future stuff, to say, this is the direction, the trend we want to go And it especially makes sense when there’s a master planned development or redevelopment going on So equipped with that sort of aha moment

and armed with this definition, we sat down to write the book And it was a great experience It was a top-selling planning book of 2008, which doesn’t mean you really have to sell that many copies I mean, planning books, a bestseller is Michael Crichton here, bestseller here But it is a very good-selling book So it has a thesis, and here it is in a nutshell Global domination by 2030 Let me swallow the microphone and say it again Global domination by 2030 So the premise is that this is such a good idea, that this is so appealing in terms of how we shape and reshape our existing and new communities, this is what we should all aspire to And I’ve got a couple of case studies I hope gets you excited about that I also come equipped with some advice And this is advice that I share around the country to communities that say, you know, gee, I was really excited about that, but what do we do? And so here’s my advice So you didn’t ask for it, but I’m going to leave you with it So step number one is initiate an aspirational development And you’ll hear about this in a minute So this is an idea of take something and you say, let’s not do it like we did it last year, or 7% better than last year Let’s just swing for the fences, aim for the stars, whatever metaphor you want to choose So at the back of Sustainable Urbanism, which will be for sale after the lecture, there are case studies And I want to talk about two of them But before I do, this idea of sustainable organism and the nature of master planned projects We thought, we asked the question, gee, is there a minimum size? Does it have to be big, and does this sort of prevent it from being actually that widely adopted? So the answer was no And what we found was, these are plan drawings to scale of one, two, three, four, five, six projects that range as small as a quarter acre and as large as thousands of acres So size, unlike the prior slide, size, in this case, doesn’t matter But there are two I want to talk about The first one is called Dockside Green, and it’s in Victoria, British Columbia The project is– I believe it’s 15 acres And if I get it wrong, please correct me So it’s on the waterfront in one western corner of Canada It’s a brown field site, meaning it’s a contaminated site Prior human activities there have polluted the soil But it was an infill site A developer stepped up and said, we will develop it sustainably So you can read here all of the things that it does Reductions in energy use and water use and the creation affordable housing Incidentally, virtually all of the systems here are district systems So the idea that the architect designs one building at a time and each building has its own boiler or its own chiller and so on No, no, no Europe and this project, and I think the future, is all about district systems, because there’s an incredible operating efficiency to doing that Anyway, having said all that, I want to focus your attention on the top bullet All 26 buildings in this project are LEED Platinum Platinum So this is about two– what year was that? 2007, I think it was, when this was proposed It’s now mostly built. And the developer pledged a $1 million bond, forfeitable bond, if all 26 buildings didn’t achieve this very high level LEED Platinum So who would like this project in Cleveland? First of all, show of hands Pretty cool, right? So this is aspirational, by the way So this is not LEED Certified or LEED Silver or 7% better This is, like, way ahead, way ahead And it forces general rethinking about how you deliver projects, and in fact, what your goals are But when asked, the developer, a gentleman named Joe Van Bellegham, aren’t you worried about your $1 million? And he said, absolutely not We did this integrated design We optimized systems, not components And we’re totally going to get the LEED things At the time this was proposed, one 15-acre project in a corner of Canada, the world’s supply of LEED Platinum buildings, there were 24 in the world, right? So one project, a small, a tiny project really doubled them This is inspiring Here’s also what it looks like in the center Part of the larger sustainable– a common pattern, I should say, in the larger sustainable urbanism projects, is that there’s some sort of water feature You saw it in the first drawing we did You saw it in Normal Here it is in Dockside Green And what is the water doing? It is doing double duty as it performs a storm water recharge and filtration function It is also the polishing stage of the waste water treatment system So get this Check this out

So these are the townhouses They face interior to the project, and they’re the ones they charge the most money for What do they face? The sewage treatment plant So you have figured out your business really well– bidness, as my son likes to say, bidness– really well if you can charge top dollar for facing a sewage plant And so the technology is a different kind of technology They have figured it out So they’ve turned what is normally a negative– if you do any planning or look at a municipal plan, most city plans start with this Here’s the plant Here’s the city There is the river The sewage plant goes on the river And then industry surrounds the sewage plant because the technology was so bad, the odors perpetuated No one, you know– it’s suppressed The land values are suppressed It’s permanently affordable because no one wants to be there This is the flip side Through design, through intentional design, the architects and the engineers created value in what is otherwise, around the world, a waste stream and a waste product that suppresses real estate value So brilliant, a brilliant rethinking The second project I want to talk about is called BedZed That was aspirational This is even more aspirational, if that’s possible So this is a project which is in Beddington, England, which is outside of London And it’s a 4.08-acre site So it’s a tiny, tiny project 82 dwelling units, 26,000 square feet of office space And the goal of this project is to achieve zero net carbon emissions, and to live within the constraints of what’s called one ecological footprint Now if you haven’t heard the term, an ecological footprint is actually a metaphor It’s not technically a measure It’s a metaphor for the idea that our lifestyles have a combined burden on the planet So that is to say, if we all lived collectively at the rate of one ecological footprint, we would require exactly the output of the Earth’s resources and would be perfectly sustaining in perpetuity If you require two ecological footprints, you need another Earth to supply all the resources and cleansing and food and nutrients to support your lifestyle The American lifestyle seems to require 4 and 1/2 planets So the numbers, long-term numbers, don’t look very good on that being something we can keep up for a long time So BedZed set the right goal, which is to say, let’s make a development that aspires to the flatline sustainable standard, one ecological footprint And this is the resulting project You can see, also, the other targets and so on Here’s what it looks like Now this may not fit on your block It certainly wouldn’t fit on my block But what you have here is an absolute high level of integrated design The architect here is a modernist, Bill Dunster, one of the high-tech practitioners in the UK What you see are buildings They’re essentially attached row houses with south facing solarium And they have rooftop photovoltaic panels, and then the sort of peacock-colored ventilators are devices that take the place of what we would do as mechanically produced cool air So there’s no air conditioning They simply induce ventilation through the units And apparently that is possible in a somewhat more moderate cooling climate then we have But there it is, BedZed What was the construction cost premium compared to a conventional development for BedZed? Guesses? What did it cost? 20% more? 30%? Double? Zero Built for no premium through design An architect that counted every stud and every nail and every [INAUDIBLE] in the project and said, we would have spent this much We’re going to design it smarter, and we’re going to spend the same amount and get a much better outcome And that’s integrated design How did they do this? Again, systems integration The engineer, the mechanical engineer, was Ove Arup, which is a world leader in these sorts of things and appears in a number of the case studies in the book But here you have it So here’s a section through BedZed, or one of the bars of BedZed Rainwater falls on the roof, is captured, used to flush toilets, finds its way into a greenhouse, grows things, et cetera So nothing goes to waste The photovoltaic panels, when they’re not used by the residences during the day or the offices underneath them, are there to charge electric vehicles So they were, again, about 10 years ahead of their time in anticipating what I think is about to be a hot trend, and so on So systems integration Everything is optimized So one of the things that absolutely inspired me about this project is that the client for this was a not for profit called BioRegional

And they’re the people that have this mission to deliver what they call one planet communities that live within one ecological footprint And having set this goal of themselves–and in the UK their ecological footprint nationally is a little lower than ours, so it’s 3 and 1/2 planets instead of 4 and 1/2 And so they measured, how did we do? How did we do? And they believe they got to 1.18 planets Now the precision, I’m not sure, is justified But one simple way is, they came close They came close 3 and 1/2 to 1.18, which is great So people are not shivering in the wilderness They’re not getting rained on and so on This is viable, developed world stuff But then they asked themselves, how did we get from 3 and 1/2 to 1.18? And this is what they found They do this assessment You can see the categories But basically what they found was this 63% of the benefit or reduction of harm, however you care to describe it, came from the physical design, the bricks and mortar, the insulation, the solar panels, the shared walls, the plug-in electrics, and so on 37% was changes of conduct, changes in conduct So people just did things differently, had different values, altered their patterns in how they lived And so if you want to round these things to rough numbers, 2/3, it’s what the architect conventionally designs And 1/3, it’s the induced change in conduct And I submit to you, the architects in the room, that going forward our practices need to be responsible for both sides of this equation, the 2/3 and the 1/3, the designing and the conduct So that’s pretty exciting Number two, step number two This is for Cleveland Strengthen your existing neighborhoods and corridors So first of all, have people have heard of a website called WalkScore? Is that familiar? Go home, enter your address, see what you come up with As a preview of this I wanted to acquaint you with the tool and show you the walk assessments of three communities in metropolitan Cleveland One is downtown Cleveland, which I think takes us right to Terminal Tower or so And it’s on a 100-point scale Downtown Cleveland, 98 out of 100 Very walkable The second one I chose was Shaker Square 92 Very walkable So these are places that we think of you would go, and you would see people walking and so on And so those are assets Those are good places that we should invest in We struggled to figure out what the third one ought to be We picked a place called Avon Lake I don’t know where it is I apologize But it didn’t do as well It is 26 out of 100, auto dependent That is to say that if you wanted to live either car-free or be a family that had three cars and goes to two, or two cars goes to one, Avon Lake is not the place for you So anyway, we appreciate that across a region, there are these different kinds of places And I submit to you that going forward, we need virtually only very walkable places And I’m not sure what the plan should be for the auto-dependent places I wouldn’t choose them I’m going to clip past that But here’s a concept, a diagram for you to consider The sustainable neighborhood And what is it? It’s a place designed so well, people will willingly walk And this may seem far-fetched in Cleveland Like, people drive everywhere here And I get this across country Doug, other places, maybe, but not here It’s a universal Or they’ll also say, maybe in Portland, but everywhere else, no So but no, it’s coming here So this a requires a switch to be thrown in your minds to say that this is the thing to aspire to You have places that already are like this, and you can enhance them and grow them Now, one of the things that the book is dedicated to is this idea that, what are the rules of thumb of making a walkable place? And so the middle section of the book is devoted to this thing called these rules of thumb, designers’ rules of thumb about how the different human and natural systems work together And I’m going to illustrate a couple of them I’m going to skip through that, and just say that’s a way of mapping different corridors and so on Here are all the different standards in the book, and I want to get to one in particular, two Neighborhood retail A lot of people– who grew up with a corner store on your block? Few people? And now the young people, probably not So I had one two blocks down in Detroit And my sense going backwards, as I’ve remapped my neighborhood There was one corner store, and in our case, it was a family that lived above the store And when you’d come in and ring the door– and I was always buying candy, my mom always buying milk, or milk and bread But the family would often be upstairs doing something, and they would come down You’d ring a bell and they’d sell you something And sometimes it’s the adult Sometimes it was the kid This is two generations ago, or 1 and 1/2

But neighborhood retail And that was a nice thing It allows you to not have a car and get that quart of milk in the middle of the day, or the diapers, or whatever it was Anyway, so the question that I posed to an expert, Bob Gibbs, who provided this in the book, is how many households do you need within walking distance to support a corner store in 2007 when the book was written, or 2009? The numbers haven’t changed To support a little corner store pictured here on the top, you need 1,000 houses today 1,000 houses Well, guess what? If you apply this across the neighborhoods in Cleveland or Toledo or Detroit, or frankly, most of Chicago, we don’t have enough density within that neighborhood unit to support those walk-to options So consequently we don’t have the walk-to option, we drive And here’s the other set of requirements These are the rules of thumb And so if you’re a city planner, if you’re a mayor, or if you want to strengthen your neighborhood, get your neighbors excited, we think that one of the great opportunities is to add density And one of the best ways we’ve seen around the country to do this is to change one’s zoning code to permit this, what we call invisible density These are coach houses On the left, it’s an actual garage with a unit above it This could be a studio It could be what’s called– no offense– a granny flat Could be grandpa flat too But these are ways that on urban streets, subject to design regulations, can be something that you can change the zoning And if an individual family or homeowner wants to do this, you permit it And these can offer housing choices, a lot of affordable housing and so on, and add that needed density to begin to support those walk-to destinations Now another standard that I want to talk to you about– so that’s a standard in the book How much? You just look it up Here’s another one So we did a master plan, a smart growth master plan, for Toledo, Ohio And it struck us that the Maumee River is down the middle, and Lake Erie’s on the right I think you are familiar with this map more than I am But one of the questions we had was, how about the parks in Toledo? Because they, like Detroit and like Cleveland, have had a depopulation And so there’s a lot fewer people living there now than were there some days So there’s available land So the question in any kind of plan or master plan is, could we make more parks as we’re doing all this stuff? And where would they go? And so we did this map And the green areas, obviously, are their existing parks The white areas around them are those places in the city that are a five-minute walk from the park And then the sort of charcoal, the rest of the city, more than a five-minute walk from the park Now what this tells you is there’s a lot of Toledo, Ohio that really isn’t served very well by parks At the same time, the city has lost a lot of population It has a lot of vacant land So these two things strike me as an opportunity In the book, we say, well, that’s intuitive That’s sort of a neat idea But how do we know that there’s actual value behind this? So in the book we cite this study It’s an MIT real estate school study that basically says this If you can read this at all, this is a chart that says the sales premium that people will pay for a house based on its proximity to a park And double blind study, regression analysis, the whole bit But basically, if you are within 100 feet of a park, people will pay a 24% sales premium for that house 300 feet, it drops to 15%, 600 feet, 5% And at a quarter mile, no premium No premium So you look back at this map of Toledo You say, how could you increase value in urban neighborhoods? Well, look at all the gray area that has no premium, right? So there’s a real opportunity This is hard-nosed real estate stuff And so you can view this as a capitalist and say there’s money to be made Or you could simply say that in a capitalist society, what we’re willing to pay a premium for is a clear expression of things we value And so clearly, access, walking access to open space, is something we value quite a lot And lots of cities, and I’m sure that Toledo may be one of them, probably has some opportunities to enhance it So what I want to do now is just to add to that list, the light bulb, the Prius, the green building, the neighborhood, and something I’m going to skip for time, the corridor, are the five things that we should be considering in this whole societal learning curve of, what is sustainability? Now growing up, my mom always said, if you have a lot of things to do, what you need to do is to make a list of them and start with the thing that takes the longest first Doug, you trick yourself if you start with the little stuff You’ll never get to the big stuff So as a society, we’ve absolutely obsessed on the little stuff with light bulb, light bulb, light bulb, and not at all with these bigger issues Guess what? We have to do them all eventually And I want to refocus our opportunities to the right-hand side of the slide And so reverse the priorities

Start with the big stuff, and do those, the projects and the density and the urban restructuring with sustainable urbanist projects You get the deal It’s also worth saying that the federal government actually has done a number of things right Not that I was saying it was done wrong, but this is the stuff that they can do The standard Edison A lamp is now outlawed in 2012 In three years you just won’t be able to buy them here, so that that efficiency argument is ticking these things off our to do list The CAFE standard’s going in 2016 But when will we get to the land use? And so that’s, in part, what I want to talk to you about tonight Number three this is something that is fix the rules, which is ask for the right things This is a down market in real estate And I don’t mean to– I have no judgment about that other than to say it is a strategic time, if we look at what we can do, to fix our rules Rules, what do you mean? Development controls, zoning, building, many of the things that are the physical side of the places we live in And I’ll illustrate what I mean This is an aerial view of what used to be called sprawl, what could also be called auto-dependent development places Basically, if you live there and want to go there, it’s a car trip Everything’s a car trip, and that’s by design And most of our country is zoned to deliver this as the easiest thing to get approved This is the time to fix the rules and get less of that Now that’s on the suburban end On the city end, we are working with the city of Denver, the District of Columbia, the city of Chicago, and others on their zoning codes to reverse things So zoning codes– and the architects suffered with this for two generations– is that you get a commission to say, design me a building And the first thing the architect does is pulls out the zoning code and says, how much parking do I need to provide off-street? Because that’s going to take up half of the lot, or 2/3 of the lot, whatever And that’s a minimum driven by the government And in this case, going forward, I think we want less of this stuff So why should the government– this is a case where I become a libertarian Government, hands off You’re asking for the wrong stuff You’re adding expense to projects Let the developer or the project prove that they need it Don’t ask for it out of the box And so we’re turning minimums into maximums, or as in the case of DC, District of Columbia, eliminating all together the idea of off-street parking minimums, letting the developer say, I do need the spaces to sell my units, or I don’t If you’re in a transit-served location, you could be a developer that comes in with very little It hasn’t happened yet, no parking, but very little parking And other things Off-street parking, street widths, brightness, and other things And here are the cities that are sort of tackling these reversals Now one thing that wasn’t in the introduction that is a little biographical moment This project, having said all the things I’ve said about LEED and being very committed to LEED, but finding deficiencies in approaching it one building at a time– I chaired the development of this project called LEED for Neighborhood Development, a three-way joint venture between these three groups, which is the first-ever sustainable rating system for communities, for master planned developments and communities So it exists It takes the 10 rules of smart growth, if you’ve ever heard of those, and they’re a mom and apple pie list of just sensible things in terms of how to invest public dollars and public funds And it also takes– so it takes the 10 principles of smart growth and the values of the New Urbanism If you haven’t heard of that, it’s a group that’s been around about 18 years now And it’s that big anti-sprawl group that really does focus on how you make urban places, how you make a walkable place– mixing uses, great sidewalks, street trees, low speed streets, and the like– and takes those values And here’s a quote from the charter of the New Urbanism Takes those two things and packages them in the LEED system Three-way joint venture, and you can read for yourself It’s organized into three parts, this rating system, which is available to you and can be used to rate your neighborhood It could be used by the city to evaluate new projects Sort of, where is your project, is the first question Where is it? And so part of Toledo’s issues, Cleveland’s issues, Detroit’s issues is, sometimes as the schools were perceived to be bad, people moved out, out in the edges So the preference in LEED-ND is to locate in or near existing built places We collectively have bought that infrastructure We own those streets We own those sewer pipes, those telephone poles, the wires and so on Why are we building out there where we have to buy all that stuff anew? So that’s simply conserving and avoiding sensitive lands, of course What are you doing? Making a complete neighborhood, compact, connected, and complete And then when you build it, make it green and high performing Sort of simple stuff What I want to introduce you to– and this is a longer document We won’t have time to go into it

But for the first time in the sustainability agenda are a lot of things that are, I’ll just call them human benefits A lot of times I think sustainability gets marginalized with notions in our head that it’s about polar bears or endangered species Yes, in the background, it’s about those things But I think if we don’t make it a lot more immediate, that it is about benefits in each of our own communities, that we miss a large segment of the audience There just simply aren’t that many people that can get passionate and make big decisions and life changes about polar bears Not that I don’t support it But so what do we have here? These are about sustainable communities, diverse mixed uses, diverse housing types, some bigger houses and some smaller houses and some coach houses and some for sale and some rental Actual affordable housing, so government or otherwise subsidized housing Walkable streets is now part of sustainability So if you’re accustomed to the LEED system and it’s about the standalone building, this raises all the questions of, does your building create a place? Is a part of a walkable neighborhood? Or is it that isolated thing between the concrete and the asphalt? And then some really exciting ones on the bottom here, which I think are actually some of the most fun things that have come recently to sustainability Access to parks We’ve talked about that a little bit Local food production Do you have a community garden? Do you have a farmer’s market? Are you a member of a community-supported agriculture contract, and so on, is now part of LEED That’s pretty fun People like that kind of stuff And then outreach And this is public involvement, going to public meetings, making sure that when you make a plan or you propose a change, that people are consulted and people shape the plan And inevitably the plan is better for it So the LEED-ND system has had a pilot program We’ve had 208 projects around the country, and lots of them, a number of them, in Cleveland Anybody involved in any of the LEED-ND projects here? If you are, I can’t see you, but come find me over cocktails later So one thing to say about LEED-ND is that it’s good for people and it’s good for the planet You can see here that we did an assessment The top part of the slide there says that it’s relevant to climate change and greenhouse gas And if that’s an issue that interests you, it’s good It delivers good outcomes And then on the bottom is, we had the Centers for Disease Control actually review the standard line by line And what they found was, it’s good for people These are good public health outcomes That is, either better health overall for public health or lower health costs come from places like LEED-ND requires And so the urbanism actually matters And it delivers benefits in a way that the standalone green buildings cannot deliver So it’s a very exciting confirmation of what we’ve done And I say to you, if you’re in a municipal setting, most of your regulations will make LEED-ND illegal You’d be surprised We do audits around the country to sort of prove this out So fixing the rules to make sustainability legal in your town is a certain first step to make more of it happen So the last point here, the last sort of prescription Live locally Advocate for living locally So I think there’s a lot of sides to this But I think it goes back to this one idea that what is sustainability about? There’s one set of expectations that it’s a Buck Rogers set of inventions, like I said, that will somehow fix our technologies, that we can go and still fly around everywhere and not harm the planet There’s another point of view that says, you know what, it’s probably going to be some of that And then it’s also going to be some looking back in history to an earlier pattern of human– how we organize our lives on the planet, whether it’s 50 years ago or 100 years ago or 200 years ago But I submit to you that the walkable, local living is absolutely going to be more of the future and not less And so local living is part of it So we’ve started this thing called The 2030 Communities Campaign, and trying to put out there the idea that used to be the kind of Ozzie and Harriet nuclear family, two adults and kids, big driveway, one car per adult, was the American dream And it’s gotten us a lot of material prosperity It’s also now the problem And so we’ve got to rethink what we want So follow along This is inspired by this friend of mine, Ed Mazria, who created something called The 2030 Architecture Challenge And it’s been adopted– I don’t know if it’s been adopted in Cleveland– somebody may know– by the city of Cleveland or by other organizations But it’s essentially a set of energy efficiency targets for buildings And we at Farr Associates have embraced this We’re members We are affiliates And we’ve figured out how to make buildings that do wonderful things energy wise So from left to right, 50% better than code, 55% better than code, 71% better than code

And then, as I mentioned, our first zero net energy house, it actually produces more energy than it consumes So we love this We’ve figured it out These are off-the-shelf components, and so on And so the thing that seemed, when it was proposed– The 2030 Challenge, I failed to mention the punchline, which is, by 2030 Ed’s protocol says that every building built will be a net zero building, meaning it will produce more energy than it consumes And when Ed said that four or five years ago, I thought, you know, I don’t think there was one building in the country that did that And now there are obviously a number We’ve actually done our first And so this is technologically possible It’s financially within the reach of a number of people that don’t necessarily value it but could certainly afford it And so the change of thinking that comes with setting a big generational goal, I think, is what we’re about here But the second part of this is the community challenge, which is to take this on about how we live our lives, how we spread ourselves across the land So here’s a chart for you The average American drives 10,000 miles a year, every adult. And so that’s from the North Pole down to basically Tierra Del Fuego every year, every year The average American family basically drives once around the planet every year These are Americans And so this is not, I don’t think, sustainable If your fuel efficiency were slightly better, I’m not sure that that’s making a big dent Clearly we don’t like where we live, because we seem to always want to be somewhere else, right? Which is why I come back to this idea of living locally If you lived in– pick the neighborhood You know your neighborhoods better, but pick the best place you’ve ever been, where you could say, wow, that’s a place I could live without a car That’s what I’m talking about And I will not tolerate, Doug, everywhere but Cleveland No, Cleveland, too You’re on the hook And here’s another way of looking at the same statistics VMT is vehicle miles traveled In 2000 we drove this many miles, 2.7 trillion miles A light year, which is the distance light travels in a year, which is a measure of distance, not time, 5.8 trillion And we’re on trajectory as a country In 2025 we Americans will drive one light year per year So this is like a series of little cars driving out to the nearest star These are big distances, proving the point it can be sustainable And at this part of the talk there’s often a suspension of saying, like, this guy’s smoking something We’re embedded We can’t choose, we can’t change these things It’s out of our power And I submit we need to start the conversation Here’s another way of looking at the same stuff, how much we’ve driven over the century 1910, we drove 100 miles year, 1930, 1,000, 1974, 1,000 2000, we drove 8,100 miles And the trajectory, even with the down economy– in ’73 and ’79, remember those blips? I’m from Detroit I know it as well as anybody, as well as you do, that there were blips, and then we resumed driving at the same rate And there’s no reason to think that we will not do that Why? Because we subsidize it This is part of our culture It’s things we value So one thing I would say is that as we have become this driving culture, the places we make and the buildings we design are devalued, right? If you experience a city or a neighborhood or a street or even a building at 50 miles an hour, or the only way you see it is across a 400-foot-wide parking lot, does it really matter if it’s made out of EIFS that you can take and destroy with a Bic pen by putting it through the side of the building? It’s a disposable building for an impermanent land use So makes sense We’ve cheapened our buildings because we don’t care By contrast, places where you walk, you get the most tenacious architectural approval fights People care because it’s their neighborhood They see it every day, and the architecture is there for the reward of the pedestrian So anyway, a major rethinking about all these things And here’s my proposal to you, a not immodest proposal Look at that green dot laying out there, like, huh So the proposal is that by 2030 we Americans would again drive as much as we drove in 1970 So basically half Now who could imagine your life today driving half the miles you do? Would you still have the same quality of life you have? Maybe you don’t drive at all, in which case you can raise your hand But if you were driving half the miles, would you still like your life? Would you have to sell your house? Would you have to get a different job? And what would you have to do? So it’s an interesting coffee table discussion or dinner table discussion So that’s the proposal Well, guess what? Humans don’t change this fast Our decisions aren’t that elastic And so this is a thinking problem But here’s what I want to do This is about to feel to you like you’ve denied me something, you’ve taken something from me And I mean nothing of the sort We’re a democracy We’re a capitalist democracy

If you want to drive, you have the freedom to drive I think we should price things accordingly, and people would make different decisions But what I want you to do here is set all that aside, and do the thinking challenge, which is to say, how could life be better with this scenario? If I drove half, what would be different? What trade-offs what I have and what would be the upside of all that? And so I want you think about all that I will also say that in 1970– first of all, this is the car I wanted our family to have in 1970, which is the Plymouth Barracuda It came out in ’65 and ’66 So I’m not anti-car I actually like cars, and I think they’ve given us a great freedom So this is not anti-car This is not anti-choice This is about envision the benefits that come from driving less So I submit to you that in 1970, nobody was sitting around and going, you know what? Boy, life would be so much better if we only drive twice the miles we do now I’m really suffering in my life until I can double my VMT Now that didn’t happen People had a lot of fun in cars People were conceived in cars I mean, cars were fun, right? So I want to put cars from a dependent position– people in this audience, I know, many of you need your car or your life would cease to be viable, economically or otherwise So I’m saying, move it back to where it was originally as a point of recreation Remember growing up, and your parents would say, come on, kids, we’re getting in the car– and you can finish the sentence– we’re going for a ride, right? No one’s said that since the year 2000, anybody We don’t go for recreational rides anymore It’s all because we are dependent on the car Wrong relationship So driving, I would submit to you, is the new smoking So remember the moment when smoking went from probably bad for you to discouraged to pariah to illegal? Happened in about eight years’ time Our thinking about it changed And so this is meant to spur some rethinking about it And this is the way I think that maybe it will happen most quickly, is through changes in culture So the idea that somehow if you drive too much, you’re just not hot I don’t want to date you I’m not sleeping with you You drive too much That is culture change So that’s what we want more of And if you buy a book tonight– special deal, you’ll see this– if you buy a box of books, I’ll give you anything But if you buy a single book, you get this button And I don’t have them with me, but I will just say, if you want one I can arrange to mail some of these This bumper sticker And so this is– as you can see, we had the downer slides in the front and the happy sides at the end But I do think that revisualizing what we want and realigning our values goes a long way And my ideal is that Toledo would have many streets and many centers and downtowns that look like this Thank you [APPLAUSE] William McLaughlin I’ve worked for the city of Cleveland for 34 years putting orange barrels on streets, basically the street reconstruction repair And us engineers and you architects aren’t very political Sure, you could design a very sustainable Platinum lifestyle in Cleveland But you also have to look at the biggest downfalls, the quality of the school systems and other services Unless you get into that, you can do everything you want perfect But no one will buy into it due to forces beyond our control Very good Thank you I asked him to pose this question because he posed it in the lobby And schools is a huge deal It’s a general type of question You didn’t– Yeah Plant it Well, let me just say this sort of at the highest level In this country, those of you who know this, we are expecting another 100 million Americans by the year 2045 That’s sort of done deal, right? It’s just a question of where they go And that’s one Number two is, we know another thing demographically, and that there’s a lot of empty nesters, people who don’t have kids at home anymore whose houses are ill-suited to their lifestyle Many of them live in the suburbs They had big lawns for the kids, and now they don’t care to mow They don’t do eaves, they don’t do plowing, they don’t do painting They want the lower maintenance lifestyle So the empty nesters want to live in cities So do the 20 somethings You graduate from college, the last place you want to live, if you’re single, is on a cul de sac Why? You can’t breed with anybody There’s nobody there You can’t meet them, right? You go to a city, you put on black, and you go to bars,

you get inebriated, lower your defenses, and you breed, right? And that doesn’t happen on cul de sacs So the good news for Cleveland is, it’s got good, urban bones, and the demographic bubble is coming your way And the gentleman– your first name again? William– made the crucial point, which– and mind you, the two groups I just mentioned don’t have children, and they don’t go to school Or they don’t need public schools yet But it is an enduring issue And there are two tracks on this, the school choice voucher thing that was championed by John Norquist when he was mayor of Milwaukee, which says, if I pay city taxes, don’t make me go to the neighborhood school if it’s a bad school Give me a voucher that’ll ask me to shop so that my kid can go to school that’s best for them That’s one model The other one is to do charters Anyway, so there’s innovative models I own a 9-year-old house a mile and a half from here And what do you think of the idea that the most sustainable house is one that’s already built? And in a neighborhood of 90, 100-year-old houses, if neighbors were to get together and want to become more sustainable, what would the first three things you’d tell them to do be? Well, let’s see The first one would be all the sage advice about weatherization, windows, and so on Older houses use the most energy through infiltration So make them tighter-sealed, better windows, and so on So that’s about the house itself The second thing, the most environmental thing you could do, is have more people live in the same house, the same square footage Now we’re in an interesting moment in time where we haven’t figured out even to ask the right questions So the LEED green building systems, and other green building systems, measure building performance per square foot What does this mean? It means Bill Gates’ new house, which is now 10 years old, 37,000 square feet, is considered more energy efficient than my 1940 square-foot foursquare Why? Because it’s measured per square foot We have three people in 1900 square feet He has four in 37,000 But his is considered more efficient So if you could take in a boarder– and there are architectural issues and context issues that I’m not glossing over But the example of Rochester, New York comes to mind I don’t know if you know that story, but when Kodak and Xerox and all of the industries that really propelled their economy happened, they housed that population in the same building stock So it’s what happens in a lot of places The big mansion gets divided into apartments, and suddenly it’s not a one-family, it’s a three-family or something And now, as the population has left Rochester, they’re deconverting things And so the ability to absorb more people and not build any buildings is the best thing So sometimes ordinances get in the way of this You can’t rent, you can’t have a second entrance, your zoning doesn’t allow it Things like that And that, to me, is environmental The third thing I would say is, get a share car You know what a share car is? There’s a couple companies now Flex Car And to put it on your block And the ideal in sustainable urbanism is one share car per block Now what is a share car? A share car is a car that you can reserve either on the internet or with a phone call And you can reserve it by the hour, and you pay by the hour and by the mile And so the average cost of keeping a car on a road is $8,000 a year for the purchase of it, the upkeep, insurance, gas, and so on And if the reason your family has its third car or its second car is that on Tuesday nights, your family needs two cars, and that’s the only reason you have that second car, you are burning through a lot of money, because if you had a reliable share car that you could reserve every Tuesday night and pay $18 every Tuesday night for $1,300 in the year, you could take the place of $8,000 of car So it’s a wealth creation tool And so guess what you need to support a share car within walking distance? Density You need enough density So if you live on one-acre lots or two-acre lots or five-acre lots, a share car won’t work There aren’t enough people that can walk to where that car is parked And if you need to drive to the share car, you don’t need the share car because you just drove there, right? So anyway, the layering of density on urbanism, and then the integration of high-performance buildings and infrastructure It’s what Europe does It’s what I hope we do more of And I think it’s really good There’s profit-making potential here And I will say that if you interview the people that live and the BedZeds and the Dockside Greens, they are delighted to be part of something bigger than themselves For some people, they get it through reading books, or religion, or church or temple Other people, music And these people, some of them– not that this has to become your hobby or you have to be passionate about it or you

don’t belong there But for a lot of people, it adds value, and it gives them sort of a meaning I’m not just living a life I’m living a life with other people who are on the same experimental ship I’m on a little bit So that’s value added too [APPLAUSE]