okay um for engineering social experimentation it’s one of the first of several key ideas in engineering ethics the next one so that we’ll be getting into our safety and risk it’s the following was a good example is um the start with is the Titanic brand-new fancy highest tech boat ever created leaves sails from England I forget what port and selling across it sideswipes and iceberg that rips the side of the boat boat filled water and boats it’s alright and this is fantastic scenes not actually 1522 people by over a thousand were saved though they don’t say things like that in the movie but so what happened when this boat started to sink you remember the movie the first manor that he ever went to the wireless world I think called near my boats to help out turns out those boats came and picked up people and save people okay now this is the high-tech boat and you know other boats won’t like this but it helps save a lot of people turns out after the time to accurately discover how useful Wireless could be on a boat via the spied an incident the maritime law has changed to make wireless required on boats now another thing it happened it was probably preps it just as important you remember the scenes the movie where people walk along the backs and look out in the ocean well turns out that you also would remember the big fights over boats like boats drop it over the side put people in them cetera well they didn’t have nearly enough lifeboats for all people the basic problem and the question is why didn’t a well turns out they’ve one of those beautiful scenes that you didn’t see you’re sitting drink your beverages and look out over the ocean there one of the lots of free space like that well that’s where the boats needs to be all right so they do the trade-off between having nice beauty spaces versus having boats and that’s what we came up with the heck don’t learn enough near huh folks all right laws changed in that respect too so why is this engineering use experimentation so you do this big engineering and then we find out so they’re using all the major software companies do that Microsoft has done it for years okay so this problem of software engineering is is really quite dumb and in terms of software fast piece of software engineering it’s it’s really quite difficult to do the test though it becomes very expensive to software testing so you guys how should I do okay especially if the software is quite sophisticated all right so um Microsoft Word they’re doing testing to some extent before they release it but they’re not going into the full-scale test with millions of people designers right because you’re

like you know it okay just oughta stop ssin people say is that I when you do software tests in a company historical information is used about how much tests to do and the problem is however is every piece of software is new therefore built exactly no ever republished to test it oh that’s really frustrating so because of that that nature of you you’re here to drive technology create new technology by creating new technology you get it a problem where you don’t know how to test to make sure it works especially technologies that can injure people such as anti-skid braking systems which are electronic for instance so our projects are often projects to involve technology development and humans and human safety and that’s where our concern will lie so the design process that you may have already learned about soon typically goes something like this where we have concepts you might have some design concept preliminary designs and tests you may do more detail designs and more tests that cost money you go into production you may do more tests and then you release it to the public the public gets the product and what do they do well they don’t think of it as doing a test but from your perspective they’re doing tests on your pride okay and there becomes a problem of how do you gather the results of their tests I mean you just gather Gross State let’s say your General Motors it goes out in somebody you just collect accident data or date on honey people die okay let’s hope not what we’re trying to collect more data than that so you can look at redesign say they were hot ah well they got themselves an about something they backed that foam this ignition switch things I hope you read about it the website it’s fascinating there’s a simple mechanical problem where if you put extra stuff on your keychain okay like it makes a little heavier it can switch the car off on the bride thank you people were killed they do my problem and should have fixed the problem of course that costs them a lot of money right this is when the decisions are made of limestone college redesign so do you do the you make out a problem which doesn’t look good company that we do a recall you know a million vehicles or something like that and then you have the cost of the fix hi so it can be very expensive but of course it’s best to come clean and on fix the problem as early as you can fix the problem so this process because of this this dash line where to public tested the product and while testing the product they can get the injured there’s this there’s this of unfortunate situation the engineers are often put in where it’s sort of a dangerous situation you you sort of scratch your head and say one should I release this product and you just may not be sure and that’s all there is to it okay but you’ve got to try to be as common as possible so you’re sure as possible so you don’t screw up and hurt people or kill people so there’s some similarities to standard experiment on I there’s differences in engineering projects they’re really always carried out in partial ignorance that isn’t referring to the engineer that’s referring onto what you know about your design you a resistor with a plus or minus 20% now you don’t know what the true resistance is right so you’re the same thing holds for materials whatever I’m so engineers the Prime Minister’s we’re asked to make things work without all the available scientific knowledge we often do things we put things together make contraptions the science isn’t sort of in settled there’s no class you can take we teach you more science about it’s just not no like for instance say there’s something

in that chemical process control called an isolation clock problem it’s been used for many many decades and nobody knows how it actually really works but it works very well hi so we also don’t know about safety facts we learn safety facts from our products because we go test them on a million people or more then we learn how safe a product is but then of course you’re being asked to create a new technology beautiful house think that one will be okay we don’t know how things have affect the environment there’s been a growing emphasis on the environment 10 20 years the last 10 years in engineering on the reality is is we might have tested things with respect to safety like for injuries accidents deaths but we often have not tested our products and how they adversely affect the environment there’s much more work that needs to be done that in fact in health sometimes the environment sometimes you have social influences I’m good design the lives of information gathered before and after a product we use backward so you’re it’s nice if your organization is put together so that there was the manufacturing manufacturing sends the product out the door is nice if you have engineers also muttering what happens after it goes out the door rather than just being put on the next product and that can be quite a problem okay um this is especially the case when products are trusted in the to true environments not the fake ones are used in the real environment well I once worked for our engineering company were and they were what they call the shaker well basically it was at the steel platform and a big like oven where we heat it up pull it down and shake it change the amenity change the temperature in the chamber through all the stuff to it to see if they could break it to simulate what we like out running around outside woods away all right that of course is not a real environment I mean the real environment we pick a million radio – given a million people they go out triumph that you find out what the real environment was like okay um so we use public to perform tests and it sits well in my lifetime it’s become more and more it was this side of this notion of the software of hey that we use now from Microsoft and cetera that’s relatively mid that’s only about 10 years old used to be that was sort of it’s always unacceptable to do to you’d essentially use the public the users of the software to help test your product and update your bike you know there’s a lot of I don’t know how on some of the software programs do it but some of them I when there’s air let’s say something crashes or whatever it comes up and says can we send information in to XYZ company blah blah yes or not so that’s because that sort of things become much more acceptable it’s done quite a bit more often all right so we obviously need a special care to avoid loss of customers what that means is is you want a reliable piece of the for instance because customers perceptions of a company change based on the software I think these big company just throw their hands too much money on testing we’re just gonna police say and then only a you know a certain number let’s say five hundred thousand users music they find all those problems that they put software update out of the most people don’t experience the problem I think that’s the way they sort of trade this off ok so your diligence as an engineer certainly matters but you have to learn from past this is difficult when you’re a young engineer you join a company and no you want to know what the see history is of similar products the sort of generation one two you’re trying to generate on generation three you you want to know about those things well no problem is is can you

always know it and the answer is no you know to be as confident as possible learn as much as you can about the product outside of the box about what kind of safety things can become a problem you have to be open to learning you’ll have to want to learn I need not afraid to ask and sometimes what this means is yes you got to go talk to the old engineer because another problem is is that you like to know the competitors safety statistics um you do know that for instance there’s a lot of reverse normal practice for instance in the automotive industry so one time here’s what I would Delta like tossing Division of General Motors to visit walk in the first thing I think I’m going to see breaks you know from General Motors that’s uh I walked in the first thing I see is put on a brace on the stand being tested Oh Mike nice what’s going on I may explain the whole system how whenever the first person or entity to by General Motors car one comes off is for Toyota and then likewise and they go in it ripping the pieces and try to figure out what they’re doing then they so they’re reverse engineering they’re looking at this and saying oh we can do this too I’m a terrifying detail so accident statistics they don’t get full accident statistics was a private company but they can’t get something about their designs okay and they can look at what Consumer Reports or other reports on safety I’m making bigger certain things out but there’s not a full information sharing at least in this country um the law says we can have proprietary information about such things other problems are good communication channels even within your own company between different departments our cross generations of Engineers often there is a dangerous generation gap between young and old engineers old engineers I have met some really really you’d like to have young technologists but trying to work across these sorts of boundaries because they can sometimes really help quite a bit so some contrasts with standard experiments do we have control experiments the answer is no we can’t control what humans make do with the product on what applications will it be used or will they subject it to unforeseen stresses and then the cornerstone of how this is supposed to work with engineering is a product this is the keep it so this is the so called informed consent such as in medical trials this is the keystone of the engineer public interaction so the question is is when you put out is it okay to put out some technology and inform some people that’s like an experiment then write one my experiment but the question is is what is acceptable because there’s many types customers so for instance do you have to assume that your customer can read and knowing about how to release your technology or comes to safety basically it’s wise to try to seek the unexpected on design for that so being a responsible experimentalist on we try to be conscientious and productive for tech safety knowledge and respect right the consent the public I don’t have secret pieces of your technology that may be dangerous okay comprehensive perspective on being aware of experimental nature products so you know the forecast in the future and monitor what’s happened um moral autonomy means use you’re gonna try to stand by your product and make sure it’s working properly um and you have a wife to do that as an engineer it’s just a product that safety implications this is not easy for engineers to do engineer is often you know create some product that has safety

implications it gets released the public and guess what happens they get reassigned another job other products so they’re more safe and then there’s the issue of accountability um you know what do you like it or not the lawyers can come after you if you screw up this time stop okay so you do have responsibilities sometimes that responsibility is fragmented in organization across the group for instance or more than one groups oryx said that it’s diffused across the whole organization one of the big issues what are we talking about this more later is the issue of time pressures you want to make sure the products as safe as possible is tested enough but you have not because of time pressures trying to get to market fastest to make more money to beat the competitor market so that you gain better market share things like that so one of the other problems here is is that engineers aren’t to solve ones of charge of this managers market the problem from your perspective is ability to make sure that there is it is a safe product okay so we’re in a unique position as engineers to monitor product projects identified risk and develop facts for informed consent so a good engineering professional will certainly take on those responsibilities now I’m a man should I have two slides here at law and engineering these are sometimes called the rules of responsible experimentation so wasps can produce many benefits on they could produce minimal standards of professional conduct for instance with respect to sexual harassment or something like that they can provide a motive to comply with standards oh I don’t want to break the law so I’m not gonna do that all right provide support and defense for people who wish to act ethically so we’re gonna cover an engineering law here but you don’t love you that will learn some of this little job quite a few of you the number of you will take on jobs have to do with the manufacturing organization organization and we’ll learn things like OSHA law by and so forth of these industrial standards the problem is these laws extremely developed you want to be careful with that because they can take a long time to learn there is a notion of middle compliance with the law there’s minimal compliance we’re gonna have case studies on this a little later where if you just do this you may not you won’t break the law but it’s not enough behave alright so it’d be morally unacceptable and then one of the problems with the law is it’s always out of date with respect to our area of engineering why pushing the technology forward forward forward they don’t make that laws for every new piece of technology that comes up and therefore the laws continually trying to catch up okay and a lot of there’s a sort of balance between how much law you have which is and in the government’s influence on that and setting rules and the moral autonomy engineers on you sir you don’t want to hurt the advancement of good technology that can help people reduce toil provide more safety protect the environment etc there’s sort of has to be a balance between all of these things so I’m gonna do a number of case studies all of these are from students from this class okay so these are students that have seen engineering as experimentation in action all right so first student I was involved in designing and testing network communication software some tests were still being run and clients requested the software we were unable to finish the tests and gave the product for the customer knowing the system cause lock ups and loss of data we then use a feedback of these clients to debug

the software repeated the process standard okay so this thing that you see with Apple and with Microsoft is happening at all levels okay it’s just that they may not have all update right I mean if they have to come back and this these people would have to redesign their communication software to try to fix things you have to as an engineer realize type you can you may be you may get pretty good grades back is you start creating such systems and technologies your nut doesn’t always get it right I mean that’s just the five and so even your whole team may not always get it right even you’re testing on what you’ve done may not always get it right so you have to continually monitor and and and toss and then when it goes out you big task to and you have to try to monitor what they’re doing and respond to these customers let me ask you a question in this case for the student should you tell the client that you’re releasing this software when you’re less than confident and it’s gonna work yeah but he did bring up John medical things so yeah you can be assured then no one will either read their license agreement no I mean these kind of situations you’re gonna find a lot of engineering works on the back of relationships relationships you have with your clients so you know you want to look these people in the eye shake their hands and say this is this is our best effort do you want to do that in this situation or do you want to say what we’re not real certain to complete that’s all right can you watch out for problem we’ll fix it as soon as we can I mean I’d be really careful to be honest with the claim because you know it’s gonna this is point down you know hurt the reputation of your organization here hurt your health record reputation so I didn’t just come clean same with it maybe what you need is this auto software update possibility and maybe you ought to start working because because it does help in a lot of ways I mean you can do that snap he’s not just bad buddy here too sometimes you go to the next pride all right so you release the product it goes out you start working on the next version gen generates for and you realize you made a mistake in generation 3 right then you click on that software update boom you know no embarrassment so next case a similar student case in software engineering have encountered problems in that the time required for testing the product in the deadlines for testing may conflict and some parts of the testing may have to be compromised to meet those deadlines very similar situation I just a big warning you know you don’t have to be a software engineer of systems not just pure software systems but systems for instance like electromechanical systems like the anti-skid braking system all parts got software algorithm running there to design how to modulate the brakes so this sort of thing comes up all the time computer testing on a recent co-op job my company had just shipped the latest and greatest computer product after a few months of the field it was found to vastly lack the processor power it needed to do what it claimed to do a fixed Apollo had to be the shortest turnaround time I’d ever seen fixed was top quality but the damage had been done full-scale tests or even simulation when a prediction is problem for shipping what this is really about as being responsible within the organization to do these sorts of things simulation or some type of a test what what does this person mean by the damage had been done well you know you can really hurt your reputation your company

every time so you’re concerned with the reputation of your company so they can make good money hi of course you’re concerned with your own reputation why you’re raised to depend on these kinds of things meeting specifications at Michael opposition I was placed in a design team to create an audio system the project was a classic example a marketing wanting the product so bad timelines who regarded higher than the quality of the product the audio systems first prototypes ride with many problems some of which cannot be resolved glad the product was released it basically came down to the decision letting consumers find out problems and then hoping that the management would provide the team with more time and funding to fix the problems to try to keep the customers happy well I I can tell you that your whatever company you work for there’s a certain orientation of the company with respect to whether a certain business oriented marketing-oriented whether it’s engineering oriented there are a lot of Engineers they’re employed by companies that are not engineering oriented and then there’s a sense that the engineers don’t have you forward in the company they’re just like it’s the little worker bees that don’t pray for technology in the marketing business water pipes in faucet around push them around I’ve seen this I mean push you around and the engineer essentially has no voice it’s funny you’re to try to do a good job whoa you’ve got to have the freedom to try to do that it’s very important environment a turbidity meter was used to monitor contaminants were getting into the water that goes into the river think local River because it was it was the Olentangy when those meters failed to alarm us and a white pigment went into the river my project that focus designing a monitoring station was given support interesting right so I put out this thing it the technology the meters failed by and then they fix the problem in the meantime what happens you screw up just a little bit of the environment okay but at least they fix things okay and it didn’t ignore what was happening nice in wastewater treatment plants control systems are tested in the field control systems are designed according to specifications and is AI Tripoli rules but the testing of how the systems will operate under real-life situations it’s done after installing new questions arise may first time the plant design withstand additional rain population increases weather problems etc and second Kevin control systematically analyze these new factors and operate the plant successfully if anything fails the great danger is release of raw sewage sludge and bacteria on the land and the water supply this is it this is a very frustrating sort of technology it’s a very nice description it turns out that these systems can’t be tested before the release it’s a very odd situation with technology most technologies can be you know tested to some extent the problem is is the simulation technology has not advanced enough to simulate a whole grid of water and sanitation for our city like flawless it’s going to be accurate in therefore what they do what they do the best job they can then release the technology and let it run and then they say you’re cool hit that stop or it’s doing great but the key is these engineers to do this are watching each other off the desert public so that you will be watching California you can be watching the by that you can be watching Massachusetts and these systems tend to work pretty well because of that in spite of not being able to do tasks before actual implementation next my problem came with the company involved the design and manufacturing of PC power supplies some manufacturing organizations have focused on 100% minimum compliance and have substituted parts to achieve their cost objectives this result is unsafe final consumer products an industry push for CSA and ul certification of power

supply sub-modules enhance the middle level achieved for standard sub assemblies since the FCC and FTC act as police organizations it’s not usually known there’s a problem and so much mayhem occurs when other companies began selling smoking pcs the industry began to push to use only modules which would mean ul and CSA standards the middle of middle US were forced to up the ante or lose control business this describes very nicely the process right so the process is you you hit the law you the PC literally starts on fire I don’t it’s not pleasant but these things start breaking down then these government organizations step in and say they have to be better then that changes the law and then the problems fixed you see the brakes fixed unfortunately meeting specifications the heated hoses we manufactured we’re using a 100 ohm Platinum RTD substitute the hose resellers for rating the range of heat as higher than the RTD could actually model literally we had years of no problems until one customer started running a protocol at the top the temperature rating we immediately stopped production found another RTD that would be suitable all stock was pulled and rebuilt fixed took almost a year interesting so what happens is is you’re creating a product you’ve got customers they go back and do a redesign there’s not a lot of detail here I wonder if they contact that customer control will not use their own profits wait wait year for the problem I’m not sure what the this student did successful use of customers and testing welders a built for an alpha Bronco production were set to a select group of customers to be tested in the field the customers did have informed consent that these machines were in the early stages of testing many changes were made based on their feet interesting so in this situation you got us a well there’s an electrical device right so electrical engineers are designing this thing tall exactly what your concerns might be bring them into you part of the team honest with them why not could be a good idea next is occurring so engineer a is employed by a software company as involved in design a specialized software in connection with the operation of facilities affecting the public health and safety south of my year third time to talk about this case nuclear nuclear era quality control water quality control as part of the design of particular software system engineer conducts extensive testing and a lot of the tests demonstrate that software is safe to use under existing standards as you near a is aware of a new draft standards that are about to be released by a standard setting organization these are standards which on the newly designed software may not meet on testing is extremely costing costly excuse me I’m the company’s clients are eager to begin to move forward the software company is eager to satisfy its clients protect the software companies finance and finances and perfect existing jobs but at the same time the management the software company wants to be sure that the software is safe to use a series of tasks proposed by an engineer a will likely result in a decision whether to move forward with the use of software tester costly I will delay the use of the software by at least six months which will put the company out of competitive disadvantage and cost the company a significant amount of money also delaying the

implementation will mean the state Public Service Commission utility rates will rise significantly during this time the company requests engineers A’s recommendation concerning the need for additional software testing you remember this is a difficult case because of all of the trade offs now question where is social experimentation in the study you want to be able to recognize when it exists so in the case study it was via the social experiments that they came up with new standards the old standards that were in place okay there show that there’s not enough testing to catch a problem with the software in the new standards they were invented to capture the problem you knew touch dead it’s that step it’s the implementation of the software under the first conditions up here okay when it doesn’t work and now we find that it doesn’t work and therefore we update the standards that’s the step for social experimentation hi question you might ask is where will that trend lead us over the years a problem is leads us to more detailed laws guidelines hopefully it leads us to a more and more safe system and but does it ever end so you don’t know that the process here would ever end okay we’re finishing um well earlier today five minutes okay so attendance question is name as many technologies or systems that ec E’s are involved in designing maintaining or improving and that involved important safety consideration you’ve seen in the engineering workplace safe safety concerns for the next lecture but do not mention company names if you’re if you’re not comfortable your name associated with it just write your name on one sheet of paper write your spot all right but please don’t prep convention company names I don’t want to save company names significantly adversely impacted

all right how are you doing did I see this thus it was said that he knows it’s like I can show you you know