Ingrid Katz: Welcome back, everyone. It’s Tuesday, November 24. This is our only class this week. As you all know, it is the week of Thanksgiving. So we’re not going to be meeting on Thursday. And then of course. Next week is our final week of this class with you together and that is Ingrid Katz: Really kind of unbelievable to both Alan and myself that we’re already here. So these final presentations are Ingrid Katz: Obviously deeply meaningful for us, it’s, it’s been an incredible journey with you all, and today is I think going to be a fascinating discussion about urban design and cities in the wake of Ingrid Katz: Before we get an opportunity to introduce our wonderful speakers Ingrid Katz: I just wanted to recognize this week brings up a lot for a lot of people, some of you may be traveling. Some of you may be having Ingrid Katz: Loved ones come to visit and others may not be able to be connected with your loved ones during this time it’s a deeply challenging time because of this pandemic and we want to recognize that Ingrid Katz: And and understand that inherent in this moment also brings up all of these deep challenges that we’ve discussed throughout the course of Ingrid Katz: isolation and loneliness and we recognize for many of you, this is going to be a time that’s that’s particularly challenging. And so, you know, our hearts are with all of you Ingrid Katz: We also think this is, you know, a time to reflect on where we are Ingrid Katz: As, as individuals, but also in this group collective and today really reflects that larger ethos Ingrid Katz: Of how we live together and what our spaces out are like, both in the United States and also we’re going to have a global perspective. And I think that’s really critical Ingrid Katz: To this dialogue and to lead in from the class we had last week on the arts. There was a real recognition that we come together Ingrid Katz: As a community to come and visualize the arts, particularly in urban areas, whether it’s going to museums are going to live performances and of course living together in densely populated spaces has large impacts. So, for example, early on in the pandemic Ingrid Katz: New York City was the city that was hit the hardest obviously that has changed significantly. Now, during this time, but again conceptualizing how we live together Ingrid Katz: I know as a physician at the Brigham what we were seeing early on was the transmission within households Ingrid Katz: And particularly low income households where a lot of people Ingrid Katz: were living in tight spaces together, many of whom are frontline workers. And so there’s a lot of the complexities that we are looking forward to unpacking today Ingrid Katz: About how we live together how we coexist together and again what defines us and our humanity. So we’re really thrilled to have four phenomenal speakers today. Our first speaker Ingrid Katz: Is teaching at the same time. So she has generously taped her talk. So we’ll be hearing from her remotely, but will still introduce her and then we have three live speakers today. So I’m going to hand it over to Alan to introduce our wonderful speakers Allan M. Brandt: Thanks, Ingrid Allan M. Brandt: Ingrid. I have really been looking forward to today’s session. And I have to say, personally, as a historian of medicine Allan M. Brandt: The history of cities and the history of disease are fundamentally interconnected and the debates about cities going far back in time Allan M. Brandt: Often centered on the problem of cities and contagion cities and disease and how people could live together gather in dense situations Allan M. Brandt: And try to moderate the risks of disease and often death. And so it’s been quite striking. As a historian to see the re emergence of fundamental considerations about how we live in cities, the issues of inequality, the issues of Allan M. Brandt: Any qualities and health Allan M. Brandt: Racism Allan M. Brandt: The way cities are structured and of course their infrastructure which has been a crucial issue of being able to maintain and sustain cities Allan M. Brandt: In the 20th and now the 21st century. So it really brought together some exceptional guest faculty today Allan M. Brandt: Who have worked on cities and in the cities from a variety of disciplinary and interdisciplinary perspectives Allan M. Brandt: To think through with us, the impact and the meaning of covert 19 now as we try to address the pandemic

Allan M. Brandt: But especially as we look forward in terms of the future of urban life and the recovery of cities and how they will look and how we will want to develop city is in the future that address some of the fundamental Allan M. Brandt: Fault Lines in society that we’ve talked so much about in the course. So our first speaker is professor and foresight and as Ingrid mentioned Allan M. Brandt: She’ll be talking on a videotape because she is simultaneously teaching a course at the Graduate School of Design on coven and urban planning. Her work has focused on the relationship of public and private spaces of Allan M. Brandt: Health in cities and city design and she’s written a great deal about aging and clan communities, which is obviously also relevant to Allan M. Brandt: Issues in the pandemic. Our second speaker will be professor Edward Glazer, who is a member of our economics department and he has written about Allan M. Brandt: Micro economic theory, but also urban and public economies. He’s been especially interested in how cities function has sources of ideas transmission and culture and he’s an expert on the relationship of economics to urban Allan M. Brandt: urban experience urban design and thinking about the future of cities more broadly Allan M. Brandt: Our third speaker is a active architect and urban designer, as well as a faculty member at our Graduate School of Design Stephen grey and he has focused Allan M. Brandt: Significantly on problems of justice and social equality as they are framed in our built and our broader urban environments, how to address problems of Allan M. Brandt: Racism and social injustice through structures and specially housing and he is the founder of a of a firm that’s based in Boston called gray scale collaborative and it’s really great to have him here to finally our fourth speaker. It works at the World Bank, he’s a Allan M. Brandt: Doctoral graduate from the Harvard Graduate School of Design some a whopper and Dr. Bob has been working through the World Bank to Allan M. Brandt: reconsider how cities recover from disasters and how they can be strengthened in terms of their resilience and their inclusiveness and it’s really great to welcome him here today is most recent work at the World Bank has centered attention on recovery of cities from Allan M. Brandt: coven and how they can be structured in more effective ways to reduce risk and promote sustainability. So it’s a really fantastic group of speakers and we’ll start with Professor for sites on video. And then, then we’ll have our three speakers today Hello, I’m enforced side from the Graduate School of Design and I do research in the area of healthy places My role in this class session is to ask uncover 19 help focus attention on creating healthier cities and communities in a comprehensive sense combining environments and policies across sectors First, I’m going to look at some of the experimentation, which hasn’t has not happened in the pandemic. And second, I’m going to look at path forward Both parts really say the same thing that smaller changes and more likely and really comprehensive approach is really difficult to pull off So now, hopefully, you know, the main responses, the pandemic could do with practices like mass wearing or testing and tracing, but the environment has or could play a role There’s been a lot of experimentation like helping pedestrian social distance with pop up shared streets helping people find alternatives to transit through temporary bike networks Or new kinds of public participation to reduce the digital divide the small scale solutions come from a menu of things people will ready trying now bring brought to scale There’s a lot of this kind of experimentation and I think some of this will stick around more difficult is rethinking larger sectors, because he had things get more expensive

For instance, making housing healthier could mean increasing affordable housing at a policy level something people have struggled to do across the world for decades In design terms even something simple like editing easier access to outdoors, things like private balconies or patios can be seen as a luxury and affordable and low cost housing in spite of how useful it would have been in a pandemic Well, workplaces are being rethought this raises issues of health and safety for those who can work at home equity issues for others, an overall require More ubiquitous digital access than many countries have so sectoral innovations could make a big difference in health and well being. But tech resources and the changes more later to urban planning and design, rather than something like logistics can be quite challenging But most difficult will be comprehensive approaches programs such as the who healthy cities program or age friendly communities have been around for a while now And they do lots of things right. They include healthy builds environments that protect from harmful exposures, they connect people to the resources they need to live a healthy life And they can provide supports for healthy behaviors like getting out into the outdoors. They include cross sector collaboration, bringing together government business and education and community sectors and they can address chronic diseases which are the big killers still as well as infectious ones They also have an equity focus, which is quite important. The tricky issue is that their results have often been underwhelming, in spite of some exemplars They seem to be too often fighting for money and attention Now I actually am not saying that we made programs called healthy cities, but something that uses health and well being, as a lens to shape the built an institutional environment could make a difference. I health oriented participatory metropolitan green kind of vision paps image here shows this tension a truly exemplary eco city development that yet struggles with affordability. So what about the future Well, I’m going to talk about four options for the path forward and they come from having looked at how difficult it is to make changes to create comprehensive healthy places First of all, is forgetting it actually could be the case that societies don’t learn very much people suffer through the pandemic are relieved about getting to the end and then go back to a variation of normal This often happens with recessions. There are a lot of other things happening in the world to capture attention And it could be that this case people see vaccines is given us a medical solution. And so sort of healthy cities approach is not so important Path to is pandemic preparedness classic public health many societies will do will learn how to do much better public health surveillance With better early warning and quicker responses. It won’t be unthinkable to shut down. Next time we’ll do the equivalent of mass wearing And while the next pandemic will not be the same. There are only so many potential types of pandemics and people can be ready This is the story of the places that had face saws and MERS Taiwan, South Korea, Hong Kong, and so on. They’ve done much better this time and more places will be like that. But this is more related to institutions and social practices, not so much places This may be fine. And the first slide or showed our Hong Kong and which has a sort of a dance active vibrant pipe built environment wear a mask wearing has really made a big difference part Path three I call a lifestyle shifts, although that’s not a great title. And what it does is it adds to path to preparedness some more institutional responses and modest environmental changes The world’s now experiment with some new ways of working innovations and public space flexibility and delivering education and alternative to travel Some of these are big deal like work from home and not traveling, though, in terms of health. It’s actually had to know quite what they’ll do and on average they may not make that much difference for things like chronic diseases Which are the big killers and the place where environments have the most defects, they will have health effects, but it may be occupational health and safety. Other areas like that So there might be big changes in the world. And even for cities and communities but not necessarily big changes for health or in particular for the connection between health and place

Pipe for is a healthy communities approach that lead it leads to a substantial reorientation of cities and communities to engage health costs a lot of domains, the classic healthy city, though in an environment where many people have really lived through a life changing experience People have had to pull together for a health goal collaborate across sectors cooperating society and this could continue Many people from across all domains have seen how chronic diseases exacerbate problems and how important environmental supports are like affordable housing accessible open space better transportation options for best food systems and so on There have been a lot of attempts at healthy cities and healthy versions of sustainable and resilience city since the 80s and maybe this is the time they’ll take off But of course it was hard to do healthy communities in the past because it requires collaboration across sectors, a commitment to using evidence, but also engaging the public addressing health equity, which is always a challenge because it includes issues of power and economics and a real reorientation to engage in long term health concerns not just a crisis response I honestly think parts one, two, and three, most likely, but the healthy communities approach path for may be possible in a few places, perhaps, it really is a new moment Allan M. Brandt: Well, I want to thank Professor for site raises her talk raises many issues for our Allan M. Brandt: Following three speakers and especially when, in some ways, we think about infrastructural changes in cities that have historically made them safer Allan M. Brandt: Like sewers and roads and many things that really were characterized by the late 19th, early 20th century and raises this question that perhaps we’re going to go through a new phase where we Allan M. Brandt: Really rethink infrastructure again. But on that note, let me introduce Professor Glazer, for his presentation Edward Glaeser: Thank you Edward Glaeser: Let me just bring this up great and slow show from I’m very happy to be here and happy to be Edward Glaeser: At in this class and happy to talk about cities. For those of you who want more of an economic approach to cities, I will be teaching the economics of cities at 1800 next semester and I’d love to see as many of you as possible. There Edward Glaeser: Is painting, which is the plague of ash Dawn by Nicola Pusan is often associated with the plague of Athens, which is our first well recorded Edward Glaeser: Urban plague two cities was there and he wrote about it and the plague of Athens, of course, highlights this sort of essentially join nature between mass contagion and urban life Edward Glaeser: The backstory, was that apparently is a strategy during the Peloponnesian War was to summon is Athenian compatriots within the walls of of Athens and trust to those walls to defeat the Spartan hotlines at the same time he sent forth the Athenian Navy to Edward Glaeser: To attack the shores of the Peloponnesian Peninsula Edward Glaeser: That strategy worked perfectly well militarily, but the walls could not protect against disease against the disease that came in through the porter Piraeus, and really laid waste to the city Edward Glaeser: This was a city, which in the decades before the Peloponnesian War had really shown all that cities can possibly do. And show them the ability of cities to create democracy to create culture to create history Edward Glaeser: To create a sort of a whole new world that has continued to shape us through collaborative chains of creativity Edward Glaeser: And yet, here was a city that was laid low through contagion, it really reminds us that there are many demons that come with density Edward Glaeser: Crime high counting cars traffic congestion, but the most terrible of these diseases is the fact of two people are close enough to give each other, an idea, face to face, they’re also posted enough to pass along a virus now Edward Glaeser: Over the last 2400 years since that moment. We’ve had many experiences with urban plagues Edward Glaeser: Perhaps the most terrible of those was the Plague of Justinian and 541 see when that Roman emperors hope of repurposing the Pax Romana on the Mediterranean world Edward Glaeser: Was really completely derailed by the first appearance of your senior pestis on on European shores and Constantinople and 541 Edward Glaeser: And at that moment, in some sense, the possibility of new order of an urban civilization being imposed on Europe really vanished, and we had, you know, perhaps because of the plague seven centuries of Edward Glaeser: Rural Poverty and political chaos. But since 1340 since the reappearance of the Black Death, we’ve proven to be more resilient and in some sense the urban reboot Edward Glaeser: After the Middle Ages, really, really was wondering which disease was constantly part of life. This shows the progression death rates in New York train the 19th century

Edward Glaeser: When you know play after plague brought on seafaring ships these, you know, things would come from across the oceans yellow fever probably originated in Africa carried through the Caribbean made its way to the seaports of the eastern seaboard and the 1790s Edward Glaeser: Then of course, cholera, which probably mutated honor about 1817 and the Ganges Delta and then made its way through Edward Glaeser: Different trade routes. Eventually, making it to New York in 1832 now these urban plagues didn’t disappear on their own, they required a combination of massive investments in infrastructure and incentives. Okay. And the infrastructure that’s most important here with with sores and Edward Glaeser: Clean water Edward Glaeser: And America cities and towns were spending as much unclean water and sewage at the start of the 20th century, as the federal government was spending on everything except for the post office and the army. We spent an extraordinary amount on this infrastructure Edward Glaeser: And we may well want to be spending an extraordinary amount to make sure that this current pandemic never happens again Edward Glaeser: The second thing that I want to highlight, though, is that I was raised on a tale of engineering triumphalism that New York had been filthy and then the good engineers built the Croton aqueduct Edward Glaeser: And then the clean waters came in and New York was healthy but this picture, you know, puts the line to that story Edward Glaeser: As you can tell, the roadmap to open in 1842 in New York City is still having color epidemics 24 years after this one fact my great great great grandfather died in 1849 cholera epidemic in New York, seven years after Croton Edward Glaeser: Reason was of course the last mile problem, which is a problem that those of us who work in water. In Sub Saharan Africa still face today Edward Glaeser: You built the aqueduct you built sewer lines and poor people weren’t willing to pay for the connection, understandably, they were poor, as they still are today Edward Glaeser: But consequently they continue to use their pit latrine they continue to use the shallow wells and they continue to get cholera and to die. It wasn’t until you had the remarkable Dr. Stephen Smith, who Edward Glaeser: Led the port of health and its opening and start imposing fines on tenement owners who didn’t connect to the water system Edward Glaeser: That you started to solve this problem and it reminds you that you need both incentives, you need rules as well as just providing infrastructure Edward Glaeser: Now we have lived a blessing centuries since the influenza epidemic in which very few urban plagues, with the, with the possible exception of AIDS Edward Glaeser: Have have struck at our cities and, consequently, we have, in some sense, gotten used to the idea that we can live close to one another Edward Glaeser: Without putting ourselves at risk. We have forgotten the fact that in even in 1900 a boy born in New York City could expect to live. Six years less than a boy born in rural America Edward Glaeser: But now we are once again facing an urban play a couple of points that I want to make about the health date on this and this comes from work that I’ve done with Stephen Edward Glaeser: Stephen reading and Caitlin gore back on New York City during the month of April and Edward Glaeser: March on this shows cases per capita and changes and trips. The first thing to notice is that the cases were actually lowest in the parts of New York that are actually densest Edward Glaeser: So it’s not as if high rise housing dwellings are necessarily a recipe for death Edward Glaeser: What is a recipe for death is is human connection in an unprotected way during the time of pandemic. And what you can see is that the places that had the fewest cases were also the places that reduce their trips Edward Glaeser: This was itself a reflection of privilege. This was a fat, fat cells. The fact that the fact that these places were richer. They had more educated inhabitants and found it easier to switch Edward Glaeser: To remote work. And in fact, our estimates which use as a sort of statistical tool. The pre existing industrial mix Edward Glaeser: And you can see here the relationship between the change and trips and coven cases across New York City zip codes, we found that about a 10% reduction in trips during those two months of March and April was associated with a 20% reduction Edward Glaeser: In Kovac cases. And again, when we look at data in India and Brazil. It’s not about population density. It’s about the share of people living in slums, it’s about to share people living in for balance. And just last week Edward Glaeser: The FTC in India. The work of Milan, he and his co authors has shown us that the theological data in Karnataka slums Edward Glaeser: Suggest 50% rates have already happened. We’re already closing in on perhaps herd immunity in these very high density highly crowded areas of Edward Glaeser: urban India. Now this of course is not just a health disaster is also an economic disaster. And in some sense, the economic evolution of our world has made us maximally vulnerable to this kind of face to face pandemic Edward Glaeser: When we worked on farmers, when we were subsistence farmers in the Middle Ages, a massive plague, like the Black Death actually left the remnants richer in some sense wealthy wealth is about Edward Glaeser: Land per capita and with a smaller number of number of people that means you’re richer that the Edward Glaeser: urban industrial world of the late 19th, early 20th century was one in which the products could still be sold. If there was indeed still a threat of disease Edward Glaeser: The switch from wall to cut and actually made it easier to ship goods without fear of infection because you’d heat the cotton products afterwards. And of course, Edward Glaeser: Cars are not likely to be a source of contagion if they’re shipped over space so that these short sharp or session that we saw from the influenza pandemic was very real

Edward Glaeser: But it was over very quickly. By contrast, over the past 50 years is automation as outsourcing has limited at these these factory jobs Edward Glaeser: Work as a found a safe harbor in urban service jobs in the ability to serve a latte with a smile, and yet those jobs can vanish in a heartbeat Edward Glaeser: When that smile becomes a source of peril, rather than a source of pleasure and that is indeed exactly what we’ve seen is are particularly these jobs, which provided less Edward Glaeser: Educated Americans with some form of opportunity had been the most vulnerable either to Edward Glaeser: To losing their jobs or to economic disaster. This came from some work I did with a series of CO authors on measuring small business closures Edward Glaeser: This was around April we continue to do it for months afterwards we were amazed by the level of carnage in our small business ecosystem Edward Glaeser: 45% of the small businesses in our sample were closed and of course it was a huge range only 19% banking and finance up to 70% and arts and entertainment Edward Glaeser: On amazingly huge numbers still expected to be closed. As of December. And I guess that’s just around the corner. So we’ll see what that they end up being right 37% excited to still be closed in December. And out of those there was, you know, let’s say 42% in arts and entertainment Edward Glaeser: One more point I want to want to talk about one of the things that city space going forward is the question of whether or not this switch to remote work will remain permanent Edward Glaeser: This comes from the change that we’ve seen in in mobility going to workplaces using cell phone data Edward Glaeser: This shows five different countries and, indeed, a substantial decline in the number of people going to work Edward Glaeser: In May 2020 about 50 million Americans had switched to teleworking it switched remote work and about 50 million Americans have lost their job due to coven Edward Glaeser: Um, but importantly those populations are very different Edward Glaeser: On the share that have lost their jobs was somewhat equally distributed across the education distribution, except for the fact that educated people were somewhat more secure Edward Glaeser: So only 14% of people that advanced degrees lost the job because of coven as opposed to 20% of people with less than a high school diploma, but the inequality among teleworking is even more extreme sorry the there. We have only Edward Glaeser: 5.2% of high school dropouts were teleworking during the pandemic and 70% 68.9% of people with advanced degrees were telecommuting due to due to go but Edward Glaeser: Right enormous divide, which has been true for most of our technological innovations over the past 50 years Edward Glaeser: Is that is played to the the advantages of the skilled, not to the less skilled and indeed a future in which teleworking remains a permanent part of our life is likely be one that is even more inequitable in the last few decades Edward Glaeser: We asked small business owners, we asked business economist members of name what they expected going forward Edward Glaeser: About 40% of business owners projected that 40% or more of their workers who switched would stay switched. Okay, so that’s something like a population switching but 10 million workers Edward Glaeser: Likely to be a fairly big hit for urban commercial real estate markets, but there is at least some of a bright light in the sense that Edward Glaeser: People don’t seem to be hiring people for multiple jobs and I know that that’s a bright light Edward Glaeser: But there is at least a hypothesis that those of us who are working remotely are sort of coasting on fumes. We’re coasting on relationships that we built during a face to face stage Edward Glaeser: And consequently, people aren’t hiring new workers to come in, just to be remote Edward Glaeser: That’s what we see from this. So the red line show that change and employment for not mobile jobs, big dropping employment, but then it came back and you see hirings and blue also coming back Edward Glaeser: In terms of employment, the employment for multiple jobs, much more stable, but the new hirings have dropped and have stayed dropped right Edward Glaeser: And in some sense, you know that the remote jobs feel like they’re both harder to bring into a new corporate culture to a new business culture Edward Glaeser: Harder to train and harder to actually build a non transactional emotional relationship with Edward Glaeser: And, you know, for 40 years I have a pint that cyber seers and the techno prophets who predicted that Edward Glaeser: It would kill off cities in the face to face contact that cities enable were wrong. I still think that they’re largely wrong that face to face contact is special, a special to teach in the same class is special to be in the same room and it’s much more fun Edward Glaeser: I will just end, you know, I think there are two paths forward if this pandemic continues for years. If the vaccines don’t don’t pan out Edward Glaeser: If we get a second pandemic within the next five to 10 years the shock to our urban world will be quite traumatic. It will also be absolutely catastrophic for the entire urban service economy Edward Glaeser: That’s 32 million American workers who work and leisure hospitality and retail trade jobs that will be clobbered by any persistent pandemic risk, but if it ends quickly right we will still see major shocks so Edward Glaeser: Just to run through what what you should expect prices will drop more than vacancies will rise. Okay Edward Glaeser: You know the price mechanism can move more quickly owners of commercial real estate will drop their prices which will induce more people to come back into the space Edward Glaeser: commercial space will likely be more vulnerable than residential Edward Glaeser: One thing we’ve seen clear is that even if people can work remotely. It is so much less fun and as soon as you allow particularly younger people to get back together to connect with each other to community urban space they run to and I believe that ultimate demand for

Edward Glaeser: Face to face connection in CS will make sure that our urban spaces remain resilient cities will reallocate from the old one more fearful to the young who are who are more hungry for social connection some significant will work Edward Glaeser: Work will move to homes or to lower density what we what I call consumer cities places that are pleasant to live in the veils the boulders places that are able to offer something that is a higher quality of life and enable you to, let’s say, zoom in Edward Glaeser: To your Silicon Valley Edward Glaeser: Location finally of course international travel travel and tourism, which have been a mainstay verb economies for decades will surely be depressed for quite some time Edward Glaeser: And public transportation is very, very vulnerable. So even in the good case scenario, it is going to be a bumpy ride for the next five years for cities Edward Glaeser: But for the past 2500 years since Socrates and Plato or bickering on an Athenian street corner sees have been doing miraculous things and the age of urban miracles is not done. Let me stop there Allan M. Brandt: Thanks so much. I’m we’re always pleased in this course. When somebody has a potentially optimistic view of the future because we’ve all been living through such hard time your talk, Professor glacier resonates with many things we’ve heard in the course Allan M. Brandt: About two weeks ago, we had a session on Tele health and it was very interesting because Tele health has actually worked out Allan M. Brandt: Fairly well for people who already had established relationships with their caregiver, but it has been much more highly problematic to introduce and your notion that Allan M. Brandt: Companies, you know that transformed to remote people who are already working there, but it’s been harder to introduce people into industries Allan M. Brandt: And there were many other aspects that I think tie in with this whole whole notion of what the world will look like in the future. I’ve observed in this course that Allan M. Brandt: All of us regret being fully remote, but the legacy is of this remote phase and hybrid aspects seemed to me to be Allan M. Brandt: Characteristic of where we might go in a lot of different educational settings. The irony of this course Allan M. Brandt: Was that Ingrid, and I were able to bring so many, you know, exceptional people to the course and to sort of leverage this moment Allan M. Brandt: Calf sessions like this. So it makes me think that you’re right. The last thing I’ll say just very quickly is Allan M. Brandt: We know when the pandemic began roughly last December and January, certainly in the United States by February in an intensive way Allan M. Brandt: But how the pandemic, we know will end seems to be one of the really complicated story is that we are talking about now, because things will return at Allan M. Brandt: very erratic and different paces, and how we think about those returns and and recovery will happen in many different industries activities engagements at very Allan M. Brandt: At a very different pace in different ways. So people often ask historians well when did this epidemic and and the answer is usually that. Well, it didn’t exactly and and it persists in some ways, and it changes the way we think and work and live. So on that note, let me introduce Allan M. Brandt: Stephen grey to talk about some of the things he’s been thinking about, because both your presentation and professor for sites raise this issue well Allan M. Brandt: Will we just find ways of pasting things back together again or can the pandemic be used in some transfer transformational way about how we think about cities and buildings and built environment. So Professor great Stephen Gray: Well, thank you for having me. Um, Stephen Gray: Can you see my slides. Yes Alright Stephen Gray: So my talk is called designing for shared power advancing racial equity and post covert America Stephen Gray: We are currently experiencing to colliding public health emergencies Stephen Gray: And systemic racism, both have public health, public policy and urban design implications and both are overwhelmingly harming are killing people of color Stephen Gray: But this was not unavoidable while it’s true that the coronavirus does not discriminate by race where it is lacking and racial bias. The United States has made up for with a resilient and highly adaptive white supremacist capitalist ratio ideology Stephen Gray: This is justified spatial economic exclusion through segregation and redlining racial terrorism through Jim Crow laws and community massacres

Stephen Gray: Community theft through blockbusting and predatory lending targeted community removal through urban renewal and federal highway programs, the criminalization of blackness and loss of voting rights and citizenship through mass incarceration and deportation, or simply blanket ethnic exclusion Stephen Gray: And as a result, urban resources have concentrated in some places in cities and marginalized communities and others Stephen Gray: But many planners designers and policymakers still operate with an economic impact imperative ignoring the very real social implications, good, bad or otherwise that our decisions and designs will have for society Stephen Gray: So what we need to do to address social inequities in cities today is to acknowledge the intersection ality of race, class, the production of space and health Stephen Gray: interrogate our contribution to and complicity with structural infrastructural racism and develop methodologies and interventions to address issues of racial injustice Stephen Gray: So how did American cities get so divided during post World War Two era to migratory movement patterns collided Stephen Gray: First white flight saw white Americans moving to the suburbs motivated by the promise of a better life and fueled by federally insured mortgage lending Stephen Gray: That chiefly benefited white veterans and steer them away from red lines inner city neighborhoods, which were predominantly black Stephen Gray: And second, was a mid 20th century peak and the Great Migration of black Americans moving north and west to escape racist Jim Crow laws of the Deep South, and pursue economic opportunity Stephen Gray: And while the dominant narrative was and still is in many ways that everyone was leaving cities for the suburbs, which is why we needed to build highways and why we needed urban renewal programs Stephen Gray: If you actually look more closely at the changes in the black population in city centres, it was growing exponentially during those periods Stephen Gray: But as white population left and with them the local tax base national programs that promise to connect and rebuild crumbling urban cores instead systematically dismantled them Stephen Gray: In the process, disproportionately harming immigrants and people of color and between 1950 and 1980 predominantly federally funded highway in urban renewal projects swept through US cities Stephen Gray: In addition, redlining maps push communities of color into smaller and smaller areas. These programs designed primarily to respond to urban and collect instead Stephen Gray: Concentrated those who settled in segregated any inner city neighborhoods primarily immigrants and people of color in wedge shaped areas where many black Americans and immigrants live today Stephen Gray: And you can see in Boston, where the concentration of our majority minority city population. The majority of those minorities live within that wedge shaped area Stephen Gray: Experiencing dramatic disparities and wealth educational attainment and life expectancy, as well as below average access to jobs open space and public transportation and one example of Stephen Gray: A health outcome is that life expectancy in the neighborhood of Back Bay is 92 compared to Roxbury where it is 58 Stephen Gray: The coven 19 pandemic has had the most devastating impacts on communities of color, as illustrated by this map showing the areas of Boston with the highest coven infection rates, which also exactly traces that wedge shaped area of Boston, where most of the people of color are concentrated Stephen Gray: The pandemic has heightened our societal need for and use of high quality parks and outdoor spaces and while elected officials love to say things like every resident lives within a 10 MINUTE WALK OF A park as it’s commonly said in Boston Stephen Gray: We intuitively know that not all parks are created equally in size quality or programmatic offerings for instance parks in Roxbury Dorchester and Matta pan are significantly less in number and smaller, and scale Stephen Gray: And so the communities that need public spaces, the most during this pandemic, or the least well served. And so you can see the green or the parks Stephen Gray: The salmon color is the five minute walk and then the light yellow is the 10 minute walk. And you can see those neighborhoods again within that wedge, which have been systematically overlooked Stephen Gray: So the focus of my research and practices on specializing and rectifying social and ultimately health inequities through processes of Stephen Gray: Radical inclusion and design intermediation. This means redistributing resources into under resourced communities redistributing opportunities for those under resourced communities in the highly resource parts of cities and redistributing power Stephen Gray: So here are two examples of what shared power and shared space can look like for cities Stephen Gray: In American city strongly delineated color lines still separate white residents from residence of color and 10 years ago Boston seaport looked like this. And it was hailed as the last major opportunity to build a neighborhood that reflects Boston’s rich cultural diversity

Stephen Gray: Instead, we built the most economically and racially exclusive neighborhood in the city. And while Boston officially became a majority minority city in 2010 our newest downtown neighborhood is 89% white Stephen Gray: Led by private real estate developers it caters disproportionately to white residents and visitors Stephen Gray: So how do we design for racial and cultural inclusion in elite spaces that are driven by capital Stephen Gray: On the left hand side are real headlines about the seaport and on the right are kind of the headlines. We want to see. And this was a quick mock up we did Stephen Gray: For the Massachusetts Port Authority working with them to rethink their public ground to be more inclusive and racially diverse Stephen Gray: And so as you can see, economic development, which the seaport has seen a lot of doesn’t automatically lead to equitable spaces. In fact, it tends to result in the opposite Stephen Gray: But if approach with a racial equity agenda, we could actually capture some of the value. We’ve created for those who stand the most to gain or otherwise, the most to lose Stephen Gray: I began work with the Massachusetts port authority. A couple of years ago to develop an inclusive public realm strategy mass port has always played an important role in welcoming diverse communities into Boston as the port of entry Stephen Gray: For this melting pot country and melting pot city as they control the airport and the seaport Stephen Gray: So this public realm initiative is really about inviting that diversity back into an otherwise homogenous downtown district celebrating difference and building more inclusive futures together Stephen Gray: Through a combination of short term tactical programs and longer term strategic design and policy interventions Stephen Gray: Pre development activation has the potential to blur the boundaries between private development and public spaces Stephen Gray: Transforming soon to be sites into platforms for economic and cross cultural exchange and the four principles here are diverse cultural representation Stephen Gray: Inclusive business development because ownership is key for inclusion authentic public realm activation and a commitment to experimentation and testing Stephen Gray: The idea is to anchor young creatives from underrepresented neighborhoods with an emphasis on immigrants and communities of color to the artist designer small businesses Stephen Gray: Builders and activate as of the public ground. And so the first step is piloting by introducing temporary and experimental programs on sites prior to their development that will appeal to a wide variety of users Stephen Gray: And then the second step is institutionalizing that that approach through the existing land is position process of developer RFP requiring developers to allocate a small percentage of their public ground budgetary allocations to inclusive pre development activation Stephen Gray: This does two things. It ensures that the public Rome agenda is completely paid for by developers Stephen Gray: But more so it provides opportunities for programmatic experimentation during schematic and design, development stages of projects and forming more inclusive outcomes and the ground floors of the more permanent formats Stephen Gray: And here you can see what that pop up looks like this was actually done in the domino sugar factory site in Brooklyn, New York, the artist, Jr. You can see a large mural Stephen Gray: Of his on this. This was in collaboration with low tech who are container architects, but they’re moving into installation are now Stephen Gray: And here really success is going to come from a fully collaborative cross sectoral approach Stephen Gray: To activating the public realm and establishing a strong foundation for social and economic inclusion. Here you can see Stephen Gray: An idea of activating under activated sidewalks and the edges along surface parking providing much needed outdoor space for safe social mixing, but also presenting opportunities to rethink the public ground in new and creative ways and inclusive ways, particularly Stephen Gray: So the cover 19 pandemic has heightened our need for him, use of public parks and outdoor spaces. But as I mentioned earlier, not all parks and public spaces are created equally, and size quality or programmatic offerings Stephen Gray: So who do our public places serve. And who are we, designing for. And really, who gets to decide the answers to those questions Stephen Gray: The emerald necklace Conservancy is developing an equity agenda for their national Olmsted Bicentennial celebration in 2022 Stephen Gray: And in Boston. I’m working with them on their aim to translate Frederick Law Olmsted’s 19th century vision of public open space as urban ecology, the connection of Stephen Gray: Ecology and human activity public health in escape from the city for both physical and mental health reasons and democratic exchange into 21st century interpretations of environmental justice health equity and racial justice Stephen Gray: The first step was asking how how well by POC black indigenous people of color are being served in and around the emerald necklace

Stephen Gray: Are their targeted strategies projects and programs for them, how successful have those been, what are the metrics for success. This map shows the bypass elderly and youth that live within a 10 minute walk of the emerald necklace system Stephen Gray: The next step was reviewing existing governance structures asking, Who has control who’s making decisions, and do they reflect the lived experiences of those with in Stephen Gray: That area with the most to gain or lose. And here you can see there’s a general mismatch between the leadership and those who they are serving in the surrounding communities Stephen Gray: So we looked at that that information in another way. And we plotted on this graph. And what you can see are the list of all of the different overseers of the emerald necklace Conservancy, the area of interest Stephen Gray: That they take on based upon their mission or vision statements and sort of how those interests chart along the path. You can see the neighborhood names in grey Stephen Gray: You can see the size of the park system as it goes along and encourages increases towards Franklin Park Stephen Gray: And then you can see in the dark dashed line. The underrepresented population black indigenous people of color and then the light line children and elderly and as you can see there’s a major delta in representation invoice where both you have the largest Park Stephen Gray: Offering but also the largest communities of color elderly and children. And so how do we begin to fill this delta in representation so that people actually have the ability to determine their own futures and improve the public spaces which we now rely upon so greatly during coven Stephen Gray: So this is a diagram Stephen Gray: That shows Stephen Gray: The organizational structure of the emerald necklace Conservancy. So you can see the public sector, the city. The Federal the state Stephen Gray: Their board and executive committee. The overseers and then this is a series of task forces that were assembled for this Olmsted Bicentennial to sort of think about how they would run that project Stephen Gray: And so one question was how these two two governing structures come together. But the other was, why is there no yellow Stephen Gray: Why is there no neighborhood representation or voice in almost any of the existing structure or the ad hoc structure which they’re creating for the homestead Bicentennial Stephen Gray: And so right now we’re really thinking about this idea of creating a committee of neighborhoods Stephen Gray: A committee that is made up of represent representation from each of the different neighborhoods along the necklace prioritizing those in neighborhoods Stephen Gray: That have large concentrations of people of color children and elderly and having that that committee really be the committee Stephen Gray: That makes not only decisions about what happens. But what gets funded Stephen Gray: A lot. There’s a lot of talk about more inclusive processes, but I think once we get to the project being determined and we’re talking about how to be more inclusive, it’s already too late. We really need people on the inside, determining how that money is being spent in the first place Stephen Gray: And so here you can see these three diagrams. You know, it’s really about moving beyond the traditional boundaries of Park space and really understanding the broader implications of open space for communities of color and so Stephen Gray: While the the conservancy and my client are really focused on what’s going on inside the space I’m helping them understand the impacts of what happens Stephen Gray: On the outside, in terms of economic opportunity and employment affordable housing mobility and neighborhood connectivity health and well being cultural preservation and diverse demographics Stephen Gray: So for communities of color, a cure for the harm caused by coven Stephen Gray: Needs to go far beyond developing a vaccine Stephen Gray: Reflecting on this country’s long history of intentionally racist planning and city building designers planners and policymakers have an ethical obligation to realign our priorities and adopt intentionally anti racist agendas Stephen Gray: That address the legacy pockets of any any quality in black and brown communities. We need social and economic policies that take on the underlying long standing and persistent problems of structural racism Stephen Gray: We need to be redistributing resources redistributing opportunities and redistributing power. Thank you Allan M. Brandt: So much Allan M. Brandt: I found your talk has I found Professor closers to have a notion of a future that is actually better post coated rather than the one that Professor foresight mentioned in her talk of just forgetting Allan M. Brandt: The other thing about your talk is represents something that’s been characteristic in the course is the Allan M. Brandt: Range of related fields that need to be brought together to accomplish change. And I’ve so often thought that the way we structured the university. We have to School of Design and Allan M. Brandt: You know, we have experts in government and finance, but your talk really drove home this notion that without considering all these things together. The real chances for making change seem much more difficult. And that’s actually true

Allan M. Brandt: As well, that if we just only address the biomedical problem and we see the vaccine is the solution, then we will have missed you know how complicated and difficult. It really is to address a pandemic so greatly appreciative Allan M. Brandt: Now our last speaker will be Dr. Baba, and it’s really great to have you here. So thank you very much Sameh Wahba: Thank you very much, Professor brand and circuits for having me Sameh Wahba: I wanted to share with the student little bit the story from the developing world and in a sense of be tightened through Sameh Wahba: Common threads that will touch upon some of the points that Professor Glaser and Professor gray have mentioned. So let me tell you first Sameh Wahba: A little bit about the covert story and then the urbanization story and then tie the two together, especially with the view of the city of tomorrow. So a little bit on the Corbett story as far as people are concerned. So according to the World Bank Sameh Wahba: There is an estimated 71 to 100 million people will fall back into extreme poverty. Now our mission as an institution is to reduce or Sameh Wahba: Eliminate extreme poverty Sameh Wahba: Between measured by, you know, getting it to less than 3% by 2030 but I mean covered 19 has provided, you know, if you will, a major than in this regard Sameh Wahba: Now, the new poor are likely to be more urban. I mean, this is an urban crisis but strangely enough, I mean, Sameh Wahba: I mean, poverty has traditionally in extreme poverty has traditionally been more concentrated in rural areas and there is the story about cities, being an escalator out of poverty Sameh Wahba: However, right now, you know, obviously cities are getting hit the there is an increased level of impoverishment in urban areas Sameh Wahba: But also traveling back to rural areas, you will have seen, especially in a country like India, a large return of workers who are unemployed in cities back to the villages of origin Sameh Wahba: And again, you know, the new poor the new extreme poor are Sameh Wahba: On the whole, a bit better educated, then if you will be that existing extreme for but at the same time we also know that within the spectrum of educational backgrounds within Sameh Wahba: A city. It is those with lesser education, we’re more likely to lose the jobs and those living in the form itself. Now, let me turn to the story of places. Now, not all places were hit in the same way. This slide over here is the city of soul, and if we can go to the next slide Sameh Wahba: And this is the story of a typical informal settlement in many places around the world. Now, not all cities would hit in the same way by Sameh Wahba: We have traditionally been Sameh Wahba: quick to say that density is a culprit Sameh Wahba: And while obviously order to equal the more people you put in a given place or let’s equal they’ll be more likely to win for wireless transmission. But the reality, it’s not really about density. It’s more about Sameh Wahba: How density is managed and that echoes very much the studies that Professor Glazer has mentioned in New York City, that the bottles with the highest density or those with the best with the least Sameh Wahba: Number of cases. So what we know, for instance, is that are two places. For instance, Manhattan and Mumbai and they have more or less similar population density is 25,000 persons per square kilometres Sameh Wahba: But all it’s equal in Manhattan. That is four times the floor space that exists in Mumbai, which means again all it’s equal that the person from Mumbai has one fourth of the built environment Sameh Wahba: In which they’re supposed to socially distance that the person in Manhattan does. And of course we’re not even talking about the differences in housing and in public space. Next slide please Sameh Wahba: But now in terms of the impact on the whole city’s paste, you know, very severe impact of covert 19 and its aftermath, especially policies of lockdown Sameh Wahba: Now, the way we can measure this. I mean, is the study of nightlights. I mean, this is the city of Warren Sameh Wahba: Two images of that night lights and you can tell, reduce the intensity on the right hand side and then 15 days apart that tells you an example of when lockdowns are imposed the impact on economic activities. Next slide please

Sameh Wahba: Now within the developing world slums and enforcement settlements were some of the hardest hits places. So at the World Bank, what we’ve done is we’ve done some predictive work Sameh Wahba: Using artificial intelligence to try to identify the places that are worse state and do that quickly so that we can tell mayor’s where they may want to consider Sameh Wahba: Resources. So this is the case of Mumbai. You see beta that combines a population density. The built up environment. We can create three dimensional imaging of the city. We also have high Sameh Wahba: Level resolution imagery. And then, next slide please. And then we collect information about the infrastructure, including Sameh Wahba: Public Toilets and public water taps, which are places that are naturally hotspots for transmission of the disease. So with that information combined Sameh Wahba: We can do quick artificial intelligence predictive analytics that identify the hotspots in the city, which are both places where the built environment does not support social distancing Sameh Wahba: That means that you know the amount of floor space available relative to the existing Sameh Wahba: Population would not allow you to have, you know, the 3.424 square meters per person to socially distance and then web the infrastructure creates additional hotspots Sameh Wahba: So this is an example of the analysis of the hotspots in Mumbai, we produce those maps in two to three weeks Sameh Wahba: And the point as to the fact that there’s over 5 million people who are living in slums and informal settlements in Sameh Wahba: Mumbai that are at risk of increased viral transmission and as Professor Blizzard has mentioned there is a strong overlap between the geography of informal settlements and the geography of risk within the developing countries. So what Sameh Wahba: has revealed it has revealed the inequalities and it has laid back those inequalities that exists within cities Sameh Wahba: And the reality is slums and informal settlements are a manifestation of the dysfunctions in the functioning of band and housing markets because Sameh Wahba: What poor people end up doing as they migrate to the city they fight and especially when the housing and land market do not function properly Sameh Wahba: They find themselves with a trade off between going to live close to a jobs are close to the city centers, but in those places that aren’t much available Sameh Wahba: For the land affordable housing and the only places that they can live in our the unbelievable zones where their lives might be at risk of a landslide over flooding, like the slopes on the hills in the favelas in Brazil Sameh Wahba: Like on environmentally contaminated grounds need landfills on top of landfills and in flood prone areas. And this is when poor people a cup Sameh Wahba: Of tea at the expense of livability of course there are alternative is to go and live where they can find affordable land and housing. These will be at the periphery of cities which in cities like Johannesburg Sameh Wahba: Rio and many others would entail commutes have about two to three hours per day, which means quality equal four to six Sameh Wahba: Hours of lost productivity. Next slide please Sameh Wahba: We know one more fact about the differential commuting patterns between the rich and the poor and this equals very much again a point that Professor laser made about commuting patterns within Sameh Wahba: American cities. This is a study of Jakarta and we’ve looked at the mobility of various income groups and what we’ve noticed is that the mobility of the richest Sameh Wahba: Income decide the top 10% of the income distribution drop significantly more than the mobility of the bottom 10% of the income distribution Sameh Wahba: Basically, you know, in simple terms, the poor cannot afford to stay at home. I mean, they live from hand to mouth. They work in the informal sector for the large part Sameh Wahba: They cannot afford to stay at home and socially distance and especially in the absence of social safety nets. Next slide please Sameh Wahba: So this is what we’ve learned from Kobe you know about the inequalities that exists in cities Sameh Wahba: And as Professor laser has explained the story of urbanization is one where you’re looking at the benefits Sameh Wahba: Of agglomeration, you know, whether it’s increased productivity. It’s the knowledge spillovers, the exchange of ideas. It’s the social interaction between people Sameh Wahba: All the benefits that arise from living in the city access to jobs increased productivity Sameh Wahba: Versus the costs of urbanization, which is when housing, a land markets do not work well when urbanization has not been planned for properly, you end up with, if you will, the negative externalities and there you know in the form of congestion, pollution

Sameh Wahba: You know, crime and violence and of course as covered 19 has revealed epidemics. So when you take that trade off a new start projecting forward into that city of tomorrow. A few things will start appearing next likely Sameh Wahba: The first thing is, there will be an important emphasis on revisiting landmines Planning and Zoning regulations so Sameh Wahba: You know, obviously slums and informal settlements, the places that were left behind are going to start, you know, getting much more attention Sameh Wahba: Because they have proven to be hotspot of epidemics Sameh Wahba: Particular facilities such as abattoirs what markets, etc. Where do you side such facilities. What operational safety guidelines are going to operate in order to ensure that you know zoonotic diseases do not Sameh Wahba: Lead is going to occupy much more space within planning within cities public space design parameters, you know, thinking about sidewalks open spaces etc occupancy crowding thresholds and of course planning the PERI urban and rural, urban linkages and. Next slide please Sameh Wahba: There’ll be much more investment that will go into slum upgrading into ensuring that places that look like this get improvements Sameh Wahba: In the built environment and these improvements will start with improving tenure security because what we know is when people Sameh Wahba: Do not have secure land tenure, then people would not be willing to invest a penny in improving their housing conditions if they are at risk of eviction and dispossession so starting by securing land tenure is a way forward to improving slums and informal settlements. Next slide please Sameh Wahba: But if we’re constantly trying to fix an existing problem, you know, after the problem is created without trying to proactively Sameh Wahba: You know shift away from that problem, then we won’t get very far. And that’s the story of slums, you know, when we don’t invest into Sameh Wahba: You know, providing access to affordable housing into creating better living opportunities, then the only option available for the poor is to move into slums sure they’re increasing their density. And then it’s much more costly to fix the challenge afterwards. Next slide please Sameh Wahba: Are you thinking mobility is becoming very important many cities have already started increasing, you know, sidewalks. It is like Auckland and other cities have been putting bicycle lanes burger chain, I Sameh Wahba: You know, other cities have been rethinking also and boosting Sameh Wahba: Their public transport systems to make them safer. So rethinking mobility in the context of epidemics is becoming a very important thing. And then these ideas are going forward Sameh Wahba: In certain cities such as Paris and others that are starting to talk about the 15 minutes it now. The 15 minutes. It is nothing new. It’s the concept Sameh Wahba: The old planning concept of a neighborhood and in the neighborhood, you have all your daily needs mostly met there, whether it’s the schooling for the children. It’s, you know, buying groceries. It’s the parks, it’s, I don’t know, in certain places the houses of worship, etc. These Sameh Wahba: Availability and the thinking of these within smaller neighborhood units reduces community needs throughout the city. And again, the way land use planning is starting to take on these ideas is one of the ways forward and next likely Sameh Wahba: Thinking also about city prepared as I mean cities were caught flat footed in this crisis, you know, in terms of, you know, how do you create emergency operation centers Sameh Wahba: How to cities build their own capacity to deal with emergency preparedness and response. I mean, we’ve had that challenge. A FEW YEARS BACK WITH CITIES not being prepared to dealing with Sameh Wahba: Disasters whether its natural hazards or geo hazards like earthquakes, floods, etc Sameh Wahba: major advances have happened in there but preparation for dealing with pandemics is something that the majority of the cities around the world were flat footed with Sameh Wahba: Probably, with the exception of a few cities in East Asia that have learned from the previous source epidemics and. Next slide please Sameh Wahba: Are you thinking supply chains is also becoming an important preoccupation. I mean especially you know cities that were reliant on Sameh Wahba: global supply chains. And so those disruption. So thinking about, especially in terms of food systems thinking about proximity, whether it’s urban agriculture or Peri urban strange and relying on procurement in their Sameh Wahba: Next slide please Sameh Wahba: The. This one is obviously about the critical need to improve digital infrastructure so that goes without saying. Next slide please. And then we get really to the two unknowns

Sameh Wahba: And they echo what Professor Glaser spoke of the two tracks Sameh Wahba: Corresponding to two different timeframes of dealing with this particular disease. One is, you know, how will people react to density, obviously, the longer the pandemic, the less forgetting is going to happen. So Sameh Wahba: And in this case, and obviously the less functional land and housing markets and the more costs of urban density is going to Sameh Wahba: Be impacting you know certainly exits from the city. I personally am of the optimists that are leaning more towards Sameh Wahba: You know the story of that the benefits of urban density from agglomeration from increased productivity from increased social interactions knowledge Sameh Wahba: spillovers, etc. Definitely do outweigh the costs of urban density. Next slide please. And that’s Sameh Wahba: My last slide. Before I get into my crystal ball is the impact on real estate markets and office space and just yesterday I received results of a survey that the Urban Land Institute and Ernst and Young did Sameh Wahba: With 555 respondents working in real estate markets between the real estate investors developers specialized firms, etc. And, on the whole, there is a realization that, yes, I mean telework Sameh Wahba: The future of work is shifting towards much more remote work the general impression is, again, this is nothing new. This is a trend that’s accelerating. We were more or less at 20% of workers Sameh Wahba: telecommuting maybe 20% of the time we might be shifting ahead to maybe 50 60% of workers telecommuting maybe 40% of the time. So there will be an increase in telecommuting Sameh Wahba: And as a result of that, there will be adjustments into office basically be lesser use and demand on office space in the short term, but over the medium and long term there will be an evolution or unexpected evolution in Sameh Wahba: office space and the demand for commercial real estate whether there be much more emphasis on urban regeneration on demand Sameh Wahba: For office space and down pounds and places where jobs are that include mixed uses include more livability and as Professor later also mentioned that be an adjustment and prices that we also recalibrate the demand so Sameh Wahba: Again, I don’t expect cities to wither away, but more to adapt and to be able to create the conditions on going forward. And this will be my last message to Sameh Wahba: The city as it once stood was very much a labor market that I think that notion will need to evolve the city of tomorrow will be much more Sameh Wahba: A city that be attracting its population on the basis of other considerations I think livability would be a major factor in growing people to live and stay and be entertained in cities Sameh Wahba: And be about the quality of education be about the quality of parks public spaces Sameh Wahba: Cultural amenities museums, you know, opera houses and what have you all those amenities that will draw people to stay in cities, especially if they have the ability to Sameh Wahba: Be able to work in more in remote conditions and associated with it. It will be the dimension of Sameh Wahba: The inclusive city because not all jobs will be able to be done remotely, they’ll be essential workers that are needed. It’s, you know, garbage. We need to be collected, you know, you have nurses in hospitals, you need to have Sameh Wahba: baristas in cafes, you need to have, you know, Sameh Wahba: All the logistics and food sales industry and supply chains, you know, to provide food into supermarkets etc that need to be, you know, police men and women in the streets, etc Sameh Wahba: Essential jobs and the extent to which they’re capable of finding affordable housing within a city will also entail the ability of the city to continue Sameh Wahba: Delivering on essential services and having a Sameh Wahba: That function of dimension. So the city of tomorrow is going to be a livable an inclusive city and in this way, it will be addressing Sameh Wahba: Some of those challenges that go with 19 late better in terms of the inequality within cities. So an optimistic view and landed back to professor, Professor carrots. Thank Ingrid Katz: Thank you so much, Dr. Baba and thank thank you all to our tremendous speakers today. I think there were so many Ingrid Katz: Critical points that you all raised, particularly when we think about our current landscape Ingrid Katz: Both I think the the theme that you brought up the idea that it isn’t necessarily solely density Ingrid Katz: That’s driving contagion, but how density is managed as you just said, Dr. Robin. I think that echoes many of the themes that came up today, particularly around equity and justice

Ingrid Katz: The need for Community Engagement in urban planning and the fact that, as we’ve said throughout this course coven has laid bare the fundamental inequalities that already existed. They aren’t new Ingrid Katz: They are just being laid bare, but it also provides us all of you discussed opportunities to really innovate in this space together. If we can seize this moment. And so I think there’s Ingrid Katz: hope for the future and our collective resilience Ingrid Katz: I’m aware that we’re right up against the time, but we do have a few student questions. I wonder if we have the ability to stay a few extra minutes to bring in one or two students. Is that ok with our speakers. Okay. Why don’t we try to shoot for maybe up to two students if possible