hello everyone welcome back to our tutorial series from one luck Studios today we are going to be moving on to part two of the realistic lighting shading and texturing workflows with in blender 3d in part one we created a physically-based rendering setup that allowed us to generate realistic results within blender 3d relatively quickly within about 30 minutes to an hour of using this workflow you should be able to render out or preview render a good looking test image that has realistic properties and basically just looks looks decent enough for you to move on to part two so today we’re going to be covering rendering settings and how to render within blender this is going to sort of be a look at how to best render still images animations we may cover some baking as well in this and then once we once we get through that we’ll look at how to output your files so what’s the best format and once we do that we will move on to compositing and how to make your images sort of pop that is that is the goal for today so with that in mind let’s drop into blender and get going so by now I hope you familiar familiarize yourself with our workflow set up as I went through in the first video we have about ten screens here listed in your window I’m sorry this is the layout to manager up here we have about ten screens that all serve different functions and in the first video we went through free space lighting materials and texturing we’re going to be skipping animation today and moving straight on to compositing the compositing workflow I’m going to be showing you is relevant to animation so if you do decide to take a still image and animate it then this workflow will apply as well so with that being said we already have our scene set up I’m going to go ahead and switch to that now so I hope you guys all remember Gorgon he’s back again we’ve already textured him and given him shading set up our image based lighting we’re basically good to go if I do a little preview render here as you can see i decided to default back to the original settings i had for this outer shell material so i will drop into the node editor and show you that i changed up the shading on the brain here and the underside the base of the Gorgon model and our image based lighting is still in the background providing us all our lights on our scene as you can see over here in the outliner window outliner window there are no lights the only lighting that the scene is getting is from the default lighting setup here that’s controlled by this world shader node that I covered last time so if we drop into our going to materials and i will set back up the preview render so you can see so all this world lighting is coming from this world shader over here a dovin to the node settings kind of talked about how you have two different environment textures how those textures basically give light to the scene how to control them with you the settings over here or in the node editor itself and then from there I went on to discuss how to create physically based shading for any model or basically yeah any model essentially so here we have a simple metallic material that has the color the rim color the IOR is left at default roughness and normal values all those values are being controlled by this texturing node over here if we dive into that we have our diffuse map which is controlling the color roughness map which is controlling the color input normal map controlling the normal input and the metallic map which is providing nothing at this point since this is Arya metallic material it doesn’t need the metallic map to perform any rendering calculations or shading calculations that’s just say so yeah our material is set up we’re good here on our brain material I have essentially updated the main file the startup file that I’ve provided for y’all on the

website you can go to one lux com1 lv.x e-comm / apply and when you go to that site you’ll get some info on how to apply to our studio join our studio and sort of the tools that we use and over here in the corner and on the side over here you have the blender startup file if you click that you’ll start the download for the blender startup file you open that file it gives you that same default setup that I have provide I am demonstrating here in our main or in our tutorial scene so the default lighting shader is in here if you go down to the materials panel you’ll see this same workflow this shading workflow set up so I have framed out the texturing nodes they’re just over here kind of floating you can move this frame and do as you wish with it I have replaced or renamed this metallic input it was calling some confusion yesterday because our sorry in the last video because if you plug in the metallic specular metallic or it was called metallic text your input into the specular node down here it doesn’t do anything for this metallic material because of that you would think okay let me plug this in and I’ll get specular reflection on my metallic shader well this it doesn’t work that way this metallic shader has no specular input while the dielectric material and the glass / reflection surfaces all have specular inputs metallic does not but the dielectric reflect refraction and reflection surfaces do I’ve also done you a favor and renamed this 21 l bx u surface just for branding purposes that sort of thing so down here I’ve also included some other cool setups these are the group nodes themselves that are inside of this surface node so I have isolated them over here so you can see them gave them some cool colors whatever and so you’ve got the metallic the dielectric and glass surface materials and over here you have the reflection nodes set up that has the custom Fornell node sitting inside courtesy of center cap pro the last video i included linctus tutorials i will also throw another one in here just for do service and then over here I’ve included some cool experimental sort of materials that could be useful for you this is a smoke material set up I haven’t really used it in a while but it basically allows you to control the let me expand it so you can see control the scale of the smoke so the contrast between the dark and light values of it the density of the smoke how thick it appears the scattering and absorption color of the fire and our sorry of the smoke and in here I have included a color ramp node that maps out fire for you so these are the typical colors you’ll find in fire it looks good it looks realistic and you can control the settings for your fire if you’re running a dynamic or a smoke simulation you can control all the settings for your smoke and fire materials here beyond that there is also the lv XE volumetric shader sitting right here you have to scatter colors you can mix between and beyond that there is an absorption and transparency color emission strength and scatter density I’m not really going to get into too much detail on how these work I got this from Jonathan lamp l this is basically how the shader is set up you are mixing between a mission and transparency up here you’re controlling the volume shading down here so if you were to use this node you would plug the volume shader here into the volume output of your material output node and you would plug the emission shader node into the top surface output so the emission will emit a color and basically tell the surface what color to be and the volume shader will color the inside of the material as if it was as if there were light rays going inside of it so it’s a really cool shading mode play around with it see what you see what kind of results you get if you can improve it any please post those improvements and let me know it’s like I said it’s a very experimental I haven’t really done much with it so anyway we are going to go ahead and move on to the rendering settings so I’m going to

switch back now to our main scene over here and we can start tackling that one of the most talked about or i should say one of the most difficult aspects of blender and cycles is how to get realistic looking images out of it the settings really aren’t all that intuitive you have your material settings and your shading and texturing workflows over here you have the image based lighting which creates a good effect but when you’re ready to actually go render it I mean you want it to come out crystal clear perfect with a low amount of noise and as fast you want to render it as fast as possible so at this point I’m going to start talking about how you can optimize your render settings to render out very quickly give you a low amount of noise and to look as real as possible first thing we’re going to talk about is over here in the material settings so if you are doing any sort of material in texture whatever you want to come down here into settings so this is the properties window over here on the left you can pop it open to give yourself a little bit more space you want to come down here to settings and you want to click multiple important sampling I want to say that it does something really cool it is basically written into the blender code to optimize the way that light interacts with the surface of an object and the volume of an object so basically it takes light input let’s save this light and put back here and it says okay this light is really only affecting this side of the material so we’re not going to worry about calculating the bounce rays that are bouncing from this side over to this side we’re just going to kind of leave those alone and it prime it prioritizes the lighting on this side for that specific area right there so you want to turn this on most of the time you want to have multiple important samplings on if you have a really really big object then as this little tool tip says right here use multiple important sampling for this material disabling may reduce overall noise for large objects that emit little light compared to other light sources so if you have a really really big object you may not want to use this but for the most part I typically have this on secondly you want to if you’re going to do any volume rendering so if you have your material set up and you’re using one of the volume shaders that I’ve provided so for smoke simulations for anything that gets plugged into this node here this note output you are going to want to click homogeneous for the most part ninety percent of the time if you’re doing smoke or anything like that you don’t need to use heterogeneous sampling which basically the render engine will calculate a specific voxel or point of smoke or whatever within your volume shader it’ll calculate a specific point and that it’ll step a little bit further inside of your mesh or inside of your volume shader and calculate another point or another pixel or voxel of light and it will continue stepping forward and forward and forward you can see those heterogeneous settings here in volume sampling so this controls the size how basically how far per sample that your that the rendering engine is going to calculate the next sample so every point 10 or point 10 steps in between samples it is going to calculate a new sample and this over here the Mac steps tells it how many steps to calculate total so if you want to avoid really long with render times you want to use a smaller step sizes and smaller max steps the problem with that though is that you start getting very unrealistic looking results really quickly and these settings are kind of finicky they don’t really have set values per se and they’re they’re just hard to approximate and get looking right so if my material doesn’t need to look if my volume material doesn’t need to look different all the way through or do anything crazy it just needs to be smokey looking volume shader or you know

emit some if I’m doing a glass material and I want it to have a tinted inside portion a tinted volume inside of it then I typically will just do homogenous because it renders a lot faster and doesn’t have to do all those extra step calculations and it takes the closest sample it can find and just applies that across all of the voxels within your volume so those are two quick optimizations to help you out from there let’s go over to the world panel so you’ll see the default lighting setup here a little preview of our lighting background and that sort of thing but you want to come down here to settings as well and you’ll want to check multiple important sampling if you’re using world lighting so as I said before it’s going to embrace achill II make this light over here more important for this side of the material than this side of material if anyone knows that what I’m saying is completely incorrect and I’m just messing this up badly please comment and feel free to correct me but that’s how I understand that it works so yeah beyond that this is the map resolution size so the larger your map resolution is the more memory your computer is going to or your graphics card or whatever is going to use to calculate the lighting so a larger size will give you less noise but it will take a little bit longer and will use up more memory so if you’re trying to conserve your memory you have a two gigabit graphics card or you don’t have a lot of memory to spare and your scene and you’re trying to get it to render fast you can turn this value down 1024 is a good place to start I haven’t set a default at 2048 because my personal graphics card settings allow me to use a map size that large and I never really have to worry about memory or speed so that gives me the best lighting possible for the best return in terms of memory and speed so I stick with that value and then for max bounces I stick with the maximum value 1024 if you are trying to approximate you know if you’re trying to render something faster turn that down to the half like 512 or 256 etc blender really likes power of two values so you whenever you’re doing anything with resolution bounces render tile sizing which we’ll get into later you wanna or even texturing use power of two it renders faster it calculates faster blender and most 3d applications just have a much better time if you’re using power of two values so that’s 128 5 12 or 256 512 1024 2048 4096 8192 16 something something something it just keeps going going and going so do that we’re going to come back to the color management settings over here and mess with those when we start getting into compositing you also have this units function here which could be useful if you’re trying to get the scaling right on animal on a model scaling is also one of those things that can kill your realism if you have a really really big ocean and a really really really big ship inside of that ocean and they’re not scaled correctly then it’s just not going to look right so you want to make sure you’re scaling is all correct and you can control your scaling values here you’ve got the metric system which puts it in meters in centimeters and imperial which is feet and all that stuff but I really know why America still uses imperial just yeah whatever another aside of mine and continuing over here you have render passes in this panel and so will like I said we’ll talk about we’ll talk about this a little bit more once we get into compositing and with the camera icon here you get into the main render settings for your scene I’m going to go ahead and switch take the compositing window now and let me switch back to our tutorial scene so you can see what something going on because I really don’t need the node set up anymore or that that I don’t need that other set up this kind of optimize it for you if I was to render this like I will now this over here i have it set to image editor for the render output and so the render result is going to show up over here so it allows you to compare all your render settings and any compositing and stuff you may do with a viewer node the over in this section of your screen with your live preview if you’re doing both at the same time or if computer is powerful enough to do both at the same time so I’m going to cancel that because you know we’re not even there yet we’ll get there right now we’re going to mainly focus on this tab over here at the top you’ll see this render Street icon I was testing out there or this render Street panel I was testing the

render farm it’s expensive it is finicky it’s not a bad service it’s just lyin render is a lot better so i will be adding that back into the setup file so that anyone that decides to get a line around your account so they can use lion render for rendering out animations or accelerating they’re still image rendering times you can just put in your login information and all that and output directly to their their render farm they should have a plug-in i will have to check on that and make sure if they don’t I will include instructions for how to upload to line render so from there you have your normal render settings you can render out a still image whenever you press the f12 button and I’m going to turn on screencast keys because i forgot to do that again where are you little dumb keys that’s that’s the wrong thing okay bingo save those because I keep forgetting to turn them on and okay good now you can see what I’m doing I don’t know if you can see what I’m doing up here don’t know why it doesn’t let me do that up here whoever at that thing you’re awesome for putting it in but let me put it in up here too yeah that’s it’s still a great thing though so I you know if you’re watching a tutorial you see what keys i’m pressing at all so if you press f12 back to the tutorial now you press f12 it is going to render with this button and yeah it’s not giving me facebook notifications good lord it’s going to basically press this button for you so f12 is a shortcut to render so you have to navigate back to this panel every time you can also rent around animation or audio I haven’t done audio rendering I’m assuming that’s using the video sequence editor which looks like this it’s there thinking about taking it out of blender I never use it I use nukes to do and adobe premiere because I have an Adobe Creative Cloud subscription and it’s it’s one of those things that I think is holding back normal blender development and probably just needs to come out even though some people use it because it’s free I just I think it’s time to move on and let people you know figure out other solutions to the video sequencing problem and focus on cooler things like a UI update or whatever else beyond that you have where you can give the display for where you can render your image out to full screen image editor new window keep you eye so if you keep the UI it’ll just render the image and won’t do anything to your screen at all you will you won’t even know it’s rendering there’ll be a little status bar up here that’s about it so down here you can basically decide where how you want to render your file out i typically go one 1920 x 1080 and if I’m doing a small test render I will render at about fifty percent or if it’s really heavy scene even down to thirty percent twenty-five percent whatever for this I’m gonna leave it 100 because soon I’m going to render this image out so we can start compositing it for frame rate you typically want to be at twenty three point nine eight frames per second there’s a whole bunch of literature on that and a whole bunch of different opinions on what you should use if you’re in America use twenty three point nine eight because that is basically standard and if you’re working in another compositing application or video sequence application then 23.9 eight is going to give you better frame you won’t get double frames you won’t get a bunch of extra crap if you’re using that using 24 you’ll run into some of those issues 25 i believe is european settings and then 29.97 is the same thing to 30 frames per second as 20 3.98 is so if you’re rendering something out at 30 frames per second it’s usually going to be for like a video game that you’re trying to get at maximum resolution maximum render time but not have to worry about framerate issues or sorry quickest render time and not worry about framerate issues or you have 60 which is what most video games try to run in these days we’re not really going to touch this just leave it at that the rest of these are important this over here frame range this tells you how long if you’re doing animation to render frames for what to start that sort of thing so metadata if you want to stamp your images you can you can I don’t use it yeah whatever output is where your images will get output to when you render an image in blender it

saves it locally meaning it really doesn’t save it it just buffers it on to your local relative blender file it’s just kind of floating here until you press the f3 button to save the image it is not saved so if you render something and you like it press f3 and save it somewhere all of your temporary frames from animation you’re all of your frame that you render out will typically go to this temp folder and you can set up a folder to render to here in file just go to render output and it should usually send files directly to that directly to that bin for you if not huh no no I’m going to come back and look at that side I wasn’t planning on talking about it so I forgot whatever not that important other than if you’re going to you if you’re going to do an animation set this file path here to tell your computer where to put the frames at important if you’re doing animation if not it’s just going to go to this temp folder wherever that is it’s in the c drive here in temp so stuff is there cool this controls what file output you’re going to render to if you’re rendering in it this is all for all of this in this output settings here is for animation none of it is really important for rendering a still image it’s all mainly for animation so if you’re going to if you’re doing a test render or anything just basic you’re not doing it for like a full production you’re not doing it for anything major you’re just kind of testing stuff out use PNG’s their light they compress well they’re lossless and you can get a floating depth of 16 bits so they can cash a a good decent chunk of data cache not cachet I just corrected myself it’s fine um there’s also two other settings you should use or look at using openexr and opening XR multi-layer so if you use openexr that is made by ILM those geniuses over there figure out a way to allow you to get 32 bits worth of information into a picture and say that information out to an image so it can be used in other applications like nuke or whatever you know sequencing application you’re using like what is it adobe premiere so openexr is are typically going to be the default thing that you want to render an animation out to go go to open exr you’re going to get the most data you’re going to have very heavy files you’re going to your images might be 50 to 600 megabits each but you’re going to get the best looking images with openexr it’s going to put it into a linear workspace and it’s it’s all good so use openexr if you can i would personally recommend using open exr multi-layer I have to check and make sure that nuke studio which is our main compositing application uses multi layer can can read multi-layer files I’m not sure if it can but multi-layer file is basically if you have different render layers so you have an alpha channel as e channel and you also decide to calculate an extra pass so you want to get the ambient occlusion you want to get the emission subsurface scattering glossy diffuse direct if you if you check all of these here they’re going to show up in your render layer a node over here in the compositing window all of these nodes here basically are your passes if you save your animation out to a openexr multi-layer it’s going to save all of these passes into the file as well so instead of rendering all these passes and then writing out each set of frames individually it just does it all for you so it’s really really useful if you are taking say a glossy pass and bringing up the glossy values and then compositing it back with your main image or you diffuse lighting or you want to take out all of the you want to take out all the ambient occlusion or use the ambient occlusion to mask something off it just makes it it’s awesome so use that if you can I would recommend using that so that basically covers your animation output settings get familiar with those if you’re doing animation and now we’re going to move on to sampling sampling this is free-style up here I’ll just mention this real quick this is for like tune rendering it gives you a line on the outside of your render I never use it I don’t do non-physically based

rendering in PR so I just leave that alone I never touch it down here is sampling so sampling is where most of the confusion and most of the issues when it comes to rendering are going to come from all the other settings we’ve talked about or just basic things that you can take care of and are going to change from seeing the scene but you know are very intuitive like it just makes sense when it comes to sampling light paths and you know all the other settings that are within this render panel it starts to get a little confusing so we’re going to break this down and make it really simple for you first off you have to integration options you have the path tracing renderer or you have branch path tracing so path tracing is just going to calculate a light path so this is my camera view right here and light shoots out from the camera to the object blender if you’re using path tracing is going to calculate one path here and where that path terminates outside of the outside of the camera view so it’s going to bounce here and then go out this way and it may not bounce back and so it’ll terminate the light path it just cook it just calculates one path one single ray at a time if you use branch path tracing basically what that means is it’s going to fire all different types of rays from the camera at the same time so it’s going to fire anti-aliased ray samples it’s going to fire diffuse raise it’s going to fire glossy raise transmission raise a 0 res mesh light sub surface and volume raise it’s going to calculate all these different types of lighting and shading data in your scene for you now typically you don’t want to use this because it will slow you down and is slightly buggy I don’t know if they fixed all the bugs with it yet but it is really good for allowing you to D kind of debug your scene and figure out what may be giving your image noise or making it look all grainy so for best results I recommend turning the render settings up to about six so that means if you have square sampling on which i’d recommend between six and eight you usually don’t need to go above there it’s going to render 64 total samples just for the anti alias sampling just for the diffuse glossy transmission all of these things okay so it’s going to calculate light it’s basically going to calculate the sampling for all of these things sixty-four times so if you’re not using branch path tracing you’ll see that it is I do if I have this set to six here it’s just going to calculate I started an animation for some reason sorry it is just going to calculate six total raised or a 6 squared R a so 36 anti-alias raised and it’s going to include the diffuse raised the glossy raised and all the other raised necessary into that one pass so it averages it all out for you and makes it all look nice and it is just usually a better way to do it blender cycles is pretty smart about the way it does its path tracing its pretty fast it’s pretty accurate and gives you good results out of the box so you don’t really need to do much debugging here but if you do decide to try to figure out where your noise is coming from you can individually tweak each one of these sampling settings here so you can calculate one extra de few sample so it’s going to take your eight samples square it and then multiply it I’m sorry it’s going to multiply it by the squared value here so got eight samples squared and that’s 64 and then here it’s going to take the same number so eight and it’s going to square it because you have square sampling on and then it is going to square this diffuse value so it’s going to take two times two so that’s four and then multiply 4 by 64 so you end up with 256 samples if I turn this off square sampling off you’ll see I’m getting eight regular anti-alias samplings and to diffuse sampling so for every one sample that I am calculating here a normal camera sample I am also calculating one extra so to diffuse samples but typical use square sampling on it just makes life easier for artists control and you don’t have to worry about specific values and that sort of thing and it’s is actually how most other rendering engines do it I know Arnold render uses squared sampling values as well so it’s good just good practice anyway so you can use these settings to basically debug your scene and calculate extra samples for a different path so if you notice that your mesh or the ground of your scene is really noisy but you

know the specular highlights aren’t you can turn up the diffuse samples and turn down the glossy samples because you don’t need as many samples to get a clear result for your glossy image if your or your glossy shading if your diffuse lighting is what’s causing most of the noise in the image so this allows for quick debugging and that sort of thing just a good good workflow for you I already covered volume sampling a little bit if you turn on homogeneous sampling in the material or worldpanel the world panel is forward specifically just for the world shader not for every object in the world and the material homogeneous setting is just for that material so if you’re using a volumetric world set up then you want to click it for the world for sure and I need to turn off these notifications it’s getting so annoying huh yes it is my website Brandon you’re not annoying I’m just recording a video but it’s fine so yeah as I was saying this controls the volume sampling for year what do you call it your material so if you want to change volume sampling I would recommend doing it homogeneously not heterogeneous lee and now we are down to light paths and what this does so i’m going to keep the light paths open and the sampling thing open so I can kind of talk about both at the same time already covered most of the sampling problems you may run into and gave you some tips on how to debug your scene and calculate where your noise is coming from now I’m going to talk about light paths so light paths basically takes this sampling these sampling settings and applies it to your scene so you’re rendering you’re calculating a certain amount of samples you’re sampling your scene for you know if you’re doing Brandt’s pasteurizing or sampling your scene for diffuse glossy transmission AO all of those lights path tracing regular path tracing is doing it automatically for you you’re calculating those samples and this is saying how many total bounces you want the renderer to think about how many total bounces do you want to be included in these samples so the more bounces you have in your settings here the more bounces that your rendering engine is going to calculate in each sample what that means in layman’s terms is that your renders are going to take a lot longer the higher these values are especially the higher these values are these values over here is going to scale your it scales the time of rendering something pretty evenly so it’s very predictable and it’s not necessarily intuitive but it’s the sampling changing the sampling amount gives you predictable results changing the light pass without knowing what you’re doing will mess everything up so we’re going to go through this and I’ll show you what to do here for transparency I typically leave these at eight and just don’t touch them because you are usually not doing anything transfer your not using transparency and most of your renders anyway and beyond that eight is typically a good value for transparency it’s a total number of bounces that your render is going to calculate for transparent shading so just leave that it’s not really something we’re going to cover all that much shadows you typically want checked and then here you get into caustics and caustics is a cool interesting light effect that happens when you have a reflective or a refractive material light bounces off of it and spills onto the ground around it or on the on the object itself and what results are brighter images or what result is a is a brighter image I’ll pull up the caustic effect so you get a good idea of what I’m talking about it’s it’s this these super bright white shadowing effects here are caustics and it happens when you have a curved refracted or reflected service us so typically if you’re not worried about render times if saving render time isn’t a big deal to you and you have some refraction going on you have some refraction going on you’re a scene and you want it to look real real leave reflective and refractive caustics on it’s it’s fine it’s not a big deal it’s going to it’s going to take your renter times down a little bit but if it’s not the main effect you’re trying to focus on you’re probably not going to even notice it that much nor is it going to really affect your rendering times by a considerable amount it’s it’s just

inconsequential basically if you do have a lot of refraction and reflection going on though it may be in your best interest to turn these valid these things off cycles suck set caustics it just isn’t very good the way the integrator works the integration algorithm that’s what this path tracing is these are both algorithm algorithms for sampling images the those integrator settings aren’t very good for calculating Cal caustics it sucks gives you granny results in it yeah yeah they they need to add in what’s called metropolis light transport I believe it’s MLT or even photon scattering or like a radiance caching or something those are other rendering algorithms get that will give you better global illumination and better caustic effects for rendering scenes with lots of reflections and reflect and refractions in them keep saying reflections ah if you can’t tell English is its in its my native language but it’s so hard especially when you’ve worked nine hours a day and you know you’ve been staring at a computer all day and at home making a video oh well I’m gonna take a quick drink here oh my god blueberry lemonade is so refreshing you have never had it it’s simply blueberry lemonade try it it’s good moving on the filter glossy setting right here basically filters be or blurs the glossy were flat glossy refractions and reflections that you have going on in your seam I have it set to zero right now but if I go over here and I turn up your reflection strength a little bit so you can see how this is reflecting you may not really be able to tell what’s going on here but I would turn off reflected refractive and reflective caustics nothing really happens and you know it just took that let’s see here took that 2.2 seconds to render without them on if I turn it back on it still took two point two seconds to render so the caustic effect really isn’t there’s not much of that going on in the scene so I don’t really need to do anything with these but the thoughts are glossy setting will filter your glossy shading for you and you know you’ll it will look a little bit blurrier on the surface of anything that’s glossy it’s it’s it’s hard to see because the it’s not really that much of an effect here but if you have a lot of refractions going on you have multiple objects that have reflections on them and they’re all reflecting off of each other there’s image based lighting going on there’s a ground plane you just have a bunch of a bunch of extra junk in your scene typically you want to turn this value to 1 that is the standard filtering value and it’ll give you basically the best the best filtering the best blurring of your reflections and refractions for the best return on render time so best look our most realism for return on render time at setting one or just leave it off if you feel like it from there we’re going to look at bounces so bounces basically says how many total bout this max and min value say how many total balances do you want camera to calculate so at minimum you want to have this set to zero so if there are no bounces to be calculated if the light just fires off into the edge of the scene over here and is not bouncing off anything the rendering engine is not going to try to return that to the camera or calculate it so that’s great you want to keep this at zero max says okay you have a light ray that bounces into this crevice here and then it bounces around in the crevice a little bit and then it bounces out of the crevice and balances to another crevice or something that is what max bounces will account for so the maximum amount of bounces basically says how many times this light ray that pops in here bounces around and interacts with other things in your in your scene so if I always turn this down to one I don’t have any lights going on so I’m not really getting any you know direct I’m not getting any direct lighting I’m using all image based lighting but you can see here in the shadow region here if I was to turn it off all of the light that’s bouncing on to my object all this reflected light is no longer being calculated so these are the this is showing up black here so a light lighting rays are hitting this piece right here that’s shadowed and it’s bouncing back up until this face of the

of the Gorgons mesh and because I’m not calculating any bounces it’s not returning any value so this is showing up black I’ll turn this up to one well this shadow is this color so the light that’s hitting it is bouncing off onto this reflective portion and it’s giving me the same values and colors that are seen here so the more bounces you have the more accurate this sort of effect is going to be the best value to leave it at is typically 774 27 is where I go if it’s a really really really big scene taking it down will help a lot but i typically go to 74 max realism and the number seven is cool so after that we have our per pass bouncing so if we turn down our diffuse bouncing we will no longer get any diffuse bounce lighting if we turn down our glossy bound sliding it kind of had this had the same effect as turning down the maximum value here you’re no longer going to get any glossy bounces so none of this is bouncing on to the edge of this material anymore so sometimes I may be useful I typically leave both of those settings at around four if it’s taking a really really long time to render and isn’t coming out so great I may turn it down to three and just clean up the image in the compositing window but for the most part 4 is a good default value for both of those the most important settings are transmission and not transmission I’m sorry I typically leave transmission at 12 I forget exactly what it does off the top my head I think yeah it’s not doing anything here I can’t can’t remember I never I never use it I’ve been using blender for seven years and like I’ve never touched this setting and I really don’t know what it does and it blenders like that it just has all these buttons that do things and whatever so the most important one to after you know tone these down and get them right if you have any reflect refract admit irials I should say so if I was to turn our volume on and if I was to give this shell material here or this shell model if I was to give it a glass shader I’ll load in our custom glass shaders you can see this if I was give this glass shader turn down the specularity you’ll see that right now you can see straight through it into the back of this object and it’s a little grainy because glass takes a little while to calculate but the effect is really really cool glasses one of those materials that I freaking love to use in blender I wish it calculated a bit faster but you know you sacrifice speed in calculation for awesome awesome images so I’m inside the glass material right here and light as you can see light is entering from the outside and bouncing around in here and the higher I turn up these values then we’re realistic the lighting is going to get inside of this also be longer it’s going to take to calculate the lighting that is bouncing inside of this you got all these light rays coming in bouncing off this bouncing to hear bouncing back and reflecting off of this bouncing back in here all this crap so turning these values up is great for you know getting it to look realistic but at some point you’re going to be sacrificing render time if you were to turn this all the way down to zero that means that light is now entering into your object and it’s not bouncing around anymore so it’s just going it’s just passing straight through you’re still getting some of this refraction you’re getting a little bit of refraction here but the effect is much lessened because you’re no longer bouncing the lighting the inside of your refracted materials are is going to look very dark so if you have a glass material set up you have the color up to white or about as wide as it can go as I talked about last time typically leave this value like a point 998 997 or whatever for best results if you have that on and your material looks dark inside it’s because your volume sampling isn’t high enough or you don’t have any lights that are bouncing light into your object so if you don’t have any lights excuse me if you don’t yet if you don’t have any lights you’re really not going to get much of a glossy effect if you do have lights but it’s black in a refraction effect I’m sorry if you do have lights but it’s very very dark inside of your mesh that is that refractive material then your volume sampling is too low and you need to turn it up so we’re going to turn that back up to four to get the most accurate

results not much is changing here let me check something yeah not much is changing here because I’m using image based lighting I don’t have any ground planes on and you know most of us like really isn’t terminating on anything hard it’s kind of bouncing out of the frame so it’s there’s there’s not much to worry about here and turning up the value isn’t really going to affect anything I just for is a basically a good place to leave it if you’re if you want to render say a excuse me if you want if you want to render a volume material outside of glass and you want to render like a volume absorption or scattering node this setting is going to be your best friend because it will drastically drastically reduce the amount of time it takes for it to render so I’ve got this class notes set up here if i plug in a volume absorption node into the volume panel and turn the color to say red it’s going to absorb red now if i turn the density up it’s going to get darker and absorb red coloring this is how i did this image here took you back to home that’s how i did this image with some volume trickery and a glass material looks really cool whatever but that’s how I got that effect with volume absorption and volume scattering so if I was turn this down though look at how black and dark it looks inside that’s because only one that’s because one ray is going in and is terminating inside of it if I turn this back up you’re getting more realistic bouncing inside of here it takes a little bit longer to render but you’re getting more realistic bouncing best practice in my opinion leave this at zero if you’re using volume absorption of volume scattering nodes and until you start to notice the effect messing with your scene don’t turn it up because you don’t really need it it’s it’s just going to increase render times beyond what they need to be at so if you’re not noticing much of a change here between your bounce settings and your volume shading just just leave it at zero because you don’t you obviously don’t need the extra bounces so I’m going to leave it at four just for default settings so don’t have to think about it later all that good stuff anyway let’s connect this bad boy back up that is basically light path and sampling settings within the rendering engine I know this has probably been slightly boring so far I’ve tried to liven it up with some extra commentary but it I mean rendering settings are one of those things that you just kind of want to learn once you want to learn the best practices for them one time and once you do you just never have to really think about it again it just becomes becomes intuitive and a part of you you can go here and click transparent and that will remove the background which is great for adding in really cool stuff afterwards our image actually looks a lot better without the background on adding in all that extra light so we may comp that out in the compositor using this transparent setting we shall see and then down here you have your performance settings so if you have this add-on installed called auto tile size it will automatically calculate the correct size of the tiles that the render engine uses to you sample so you have these buckets that ran in your scene they are these right here and it calculates light it basically calculates everything within those buckets at one time the size of those buckets it will affect your scene or will affect your render times so for a GPU rendering 256 is the basically the standard value you you just simply want to leave it there if you have auto tile size just put it on your using cpu it really just depends on your cpu AMD cards that use different values then I saw our AMD CPUs use different values than your Intel CPUs are going to use so auto tile size of the great add-on to handle that it should be included in trunk and will be included with this file i believe so you don’t necessarily just go to the blender website you should be able to find it but yeah you if you’re using cpu stick to around 32 or maximum of 60 4 by 64 bucket sizes you want to use power of two values auto tile does this weirdly I don’t really like it the way it does that it just throws me so I’m going to set it to 256 x 256 but auto tile size doesn’t use power of two values and it offsets x and y and I think it does that

to better calculate it based on the aspect ratio and the dimensions of your image but for me I’m just going to leave it a 256 256 progressive refine basically allows your rendering engine to calculate the whole image at once so here if calculating each bucket one at a time it’s doing all the sampling for each bucket and then moving on to the next bucket by turn up aggressive refine its going to progressively rifat I didn’t turn it on if I turn on progressive refine now it’s going to progressively refine my image all at once which is great for pre be rendering but it’s super slow it is so so slow if you’re using the internal preview rent if you’re using the preview render within the viewport there’s honestly no reason to mess with this progressive refine setting just forget about it the only reason to put that on is if you are if you want to make sure your image just renders correctly the whole thing all shows up if you want to if you if you’re trying to do that then progressive refined as your friend other than that it is a lot slower it blender it is not somewhat slower it is three to four times slower so yeah wrong try again beyond that you want to have compositing and sequencer settings checked this will send anything you render here and output it will give it a render layer node up here so this is the image i just started rendering here and you can see it’s going right up there if I also turn it off click render and stop the render there it is not going to send it to the compositor so you want to have that checked and for that there is baking this video is getting kind of long so I don’t want to get into baking right now we will get into best practices of baking in a future release I plan on covering most of the important blender internal functions that are necessary for realistic realistic rendering baking is one of them but it is not for today’s not for today’s topic text your Atlas is also one of those settings related to baking and we are going to leave that alone so with that being said we are now going to move on to the fun part of the tutorial compositing and I say fun part but compositing is one of those things that is sometimes not fun compositing a blender you use the same node based workflow that you do for shading and texturing however the nodes are kind of confusing they all do very different different things and it’s it’s sometimes it’s frustrating if you don’t know what you’re doing so the aim of this part of the tutorial is to give you a basic breakdown on how to take in a rendered image so we’ve we’ve previewed our image here in the viewport we’ve got those correct settings over here in our render panel we’ve set up our materials and textures and we’ve rendered an image that rendered image comes into our node editor up here and we are now ready to apply cool effects like glare color correction and all of all of that goodness that makes your image really really pop I want to make a quick correction / addendum to some of the information I previously presented you guys with so before I was adjusting this volume lightpath node to try and reduce the amount of sample the amount of noise and the amount of light bounces that are going to occur basically inside of a glass material well glass material is unless you have something plugged into I mean any material really unless you have something plugged into this volume shading output node here this volume setting is not going to do anything so as you can see I turn it up I turn it down it’s doing nothing however excuse me if I adjust the transmission setting here transmission is the amount of light that is transmitted basically you’ve got a light that Beck goes through an object so volume calculates voxel data so it basically it generates a point cloud inside of an object and shades millions of little points inside of said object with whatever shading with parameters you’ve set up and your volume material and it calculates a light bounces within

that was in that node or within that material itself that shader transmission does the same sort of thing but it does it for glass materials and basically says how far the light will bounce how many times the light will bounce around inside of the glass material and how deep it will go inside the glass material so if I was to turn this down to zero you’ll see it’s working correctly now and is honestly giving me a very is giving me a physically-based result at the center of my object I’m getting no reflections and at the side I’m getting those furnell based physically-based reflections so that’s working correctly but what’s happening is none of the light is being transmitted through the object zero bounces are being calculated as are being transmitted through I’ve set this to zero so if the camera my camera here shoots array into this Gordon shell it just bounces off because I’ve told it not to calculate any transmission bounce light bounce lighting as I crank this back up as you’ll see you start getting the transmitted light inside of the object again so that is how that works to get a real close oh nice close view here turn this down to zero no lights going in turn it up to one lights going inside as I keep bumping this value up it’s going to keep calculating bounces inside of this material for me so the higher the bounces are the more realistic the lighting is and the less noise you’re going to get so you see how noisy this is down here if I bump this up to say 10 the noise starts to clear up some more it’s really not a huge difference but yeah it helps so if using a glass material best practice is to start this at one and then bump it up until the effect is where you want it at if you’re not using glass materials keep it at zero you don’t you won’t need it typically I usually I had it set at 12 or sorry yeah 12 just because my computer can handle it and it doesn’t really kill my render times that much but if your computer is a little bit lower power and you’re worried about that then just drop it down to like four or if you’re not using it at all take it down to zero on top of that I also forgot to mention these other settings up here in sampling so the seed value here will give your integrator a different noise pattern so it just changed it up the way this noise is displayed if you’re compositing in different images that you’ve rendered and you want to average out the noise do like a mat a noise Matt a garbage matte basically then this seed value will help you can render out another pass of that same image with a different set of noise samples and composited in on top of your main pass as a mat a like a blurring garbage match sort of thing and it will approximate all these extra black pixels and white pixels between each other to give you a less noisy image so that’s useful if your image is super noisy or you just want to do some general cleanup at the end of your compositing and material and no work in that sort of thing lastly there is the clamp direct and indirect lights so if you have a direct light lighting that is just directly hitting a surface you can clamp it and by clicking this up a little bit it will clamp down the amount of light that is being that is in your scene you typically don’t want to mess with the direct clamping setting there’s just it it’ll mess start messing with the amount of light in your scene and like it just it messes things up so I normally leave that at zero because there’s no point in touching it really clamp indirect however is really good for clamping these all the stuff all the bounce lighting so all these bounces here because the render has to recalculate a sample each time you bounce a light or bounce array it sometimes will produce fireflies which are very very bright pixels pixels where the you know the value the the light value is over a 1.0 rating which is your 1 point 0 value which is technically completely white light within blender or any linear workflow so if you’re getting really really bright pixels in different places trying to see if I can find one you’re probably seeing one like right here there’s not really too much in this image but best practice if you’re getting those bright fireflies kit clamp

indirect and put it on to one and you will see most that bright those bright fireflies disappear so right here where I was getting some of those fireflies they are now gone it turns back to zero you will start to see them a little bit right in here you see I’ve cost turning off caustics fixes it it does not so my these fireflies in here are not being caused from or not being generated from the caustic effect it’s just simply this bounce lighting that’s causing it and clamping the indirect bounce lighting will help bring that down so like I said best practice set this to one and you typically will not need to adjust it from there so so far this video has covered most of the rendering settings and some of the pitfalls you may run into when trying to get your renders to come out looking good and that sort of thing so now that we’ve covered that we are going to move on to compositing but I’m going to cover that in part three this video’s over like an hour long now and I blabbed on enough about render settings and how to make stuff look good that sort of thing and you know if this will kind of service like a render setting encyclopedia for you know quick reference and that sort of thing so I will just leave it as is and in part three we will dive directly into the compositor and start making our image you know really really shine and from there we’ll be able to take it to a different application if we’re say animating or we can throw a still image into Photoshop and do final corrections to you know make that perfect picture that you can post online and share with all your friends so I will see you all in part 3