fighting day in Bordeaux I’m a professor I was a teaching philosophy and I’m just going to say a little bit about my sponsors of today’s panel I’ll introduce our panelists and then just explain how today’s receipts so today’s panelists is sponsored by three groups here in western what is the public law legal philosophy research group at Western law which I please to pro direct with my colleague murder are truly the Center for transitional justice and post conflict resolution Joanna running and then there is either a group for organization Michael is very coy book instead is called transitional justice in the law I think the goal of this group is to organize panel discussions about current events and international law I think there’s going to be another panel or discussion yeah so we’re very happy to have three distinguished panelists here today to talk about the Syrian crisis stephanie VAR are right the grocery professor of history at King’s University College here at Western University the research interests are human rights advocacy and the immigrant experience in North America particular research boat focus on Asian immigration and a personal interest in post-second World War II refugee and immigrant history Stephanie also serves as the director of the collaborative graduate program in the migration migration next to stephanie is Lena Hernandez she is an HR communications manager in London cross-cultural learner-centered an organization that provides settlement services for refugees and newcomers from Canada Lena graduated from la semana University which I believe is in hotel with a bachelor’s degree in law and she was about the scholarship from the chemistry of international relations the science and she’s currently come from you know here at western wall and 5b to my immediate right is Michael link michael is an associate professor of law at Western where he teaches waiver law constitutional law he was a practicing lawyer to alma mater walk for a decade before he became an academic in his practice included immigration and refugee law he’s worked in the Middle East for the United Nations on refugee issues his published articles and co-edited about on international law Middle East and he’s business as it is Syria on free agents so those are our panelists so just bad so we’re going to add each speak professor link is going to go first and he addressed the origins in the meaning of the civil war in Syria how am I began what became so serious in the magnitude of the Syrian refugee crisis region lena will go next she will explain the legal framework convention the obligations and potential is particularly in Europe Canada and she’s also and finally professor Vanguard will address the issue of the Canadian government’s response to the Syrian refugees she’s been asked to provide some background respect Canada’s response to pre-crisis such as those so I’ll probably fairly strict with the panelist time simply because we want to leave enough time afterwards answer i’ll try and moderate the Q&A so you don’t have to address your questions to me but i’ll keep track of hands that are up there and i’ll call keep a list thank you very much for the introductions and really thank you very much for agreeing to two and thank you for the great return 0 for today’s issue I’m here Probie I’m here primarily to give you a background on the Syrian civil war and the how its created this huge crisis and so you stay here to provide a series of facts I’ve got 10 minutes to do it in so I’m going to be leaving out lots of things I’m pulling I’m able to get enough the high points to provide context for what Lena and Stephanie are going to be surviving

if Andrew mentioned I had visited Syria at three occasion in the 1990s while working and improvident at least and the first thing I want to be able provide you with is background the Syrian complex country so basically I’m restricted me able to provide you two things two remarkable features that I think are relevant for today’s discussion the first of all is that it’s a relatively heterogeneous society there are a number of different peoples went up living within US borders and this explains to 11 sense the long world of stability that was in Syria and the way in which communities live with each other in a very harmonious way but it also has its own explanations for line at all fell apart such a ferocious wedding eighty-five percent of Syria is remain of Syrian Arabs the bulk of those in terms of religious denomination would be Sunnis but they’re also our Alouettes and they can avoid tenders population they are branch of Shiite Islam through there has been a was until the start of the war very significant Christian population at about ten percent there are also drews populations primarily the south and occasions as well effectively besides the air population in Syria would be heard to live in the north east and along the border with Turkey I’m a group of nine and ten percent of population and smaller groups of Armenians and interprets as well Syria was run and lived and some experience as a largely secular society low was overwhelmingly Muslim there were many which neighborhoods human divers under through the beautiful city of Damascus or Aleppo to see that Christians in Syria attending much more open in their faith and their expression interfaith and the various different denominations they belong to the some other neighbouring countries and I think how much more close it would be for Christians and say it’s a turkey or or in Egypt there was some in her marriage so all in all it led to a relevant I said a very diverse culture but the second important feature of cereal is that it was dictatorship it was a military dictatorship in civilian clothes the gives new meaning to the idea of secular modern kings and I there was a rule of 30 years by a pleasant al-assad who died in two thousand and then you need a is succeeded by sun fire outside who’s been over the last 15 years both father and son come from the Alawite see ten percent of the community of Syria who live in and around the Mediterranean coast north of Lebanon they belong to the Syrian Baathist party the Baathists hood is a long-standing Syrian nationalist movement that was there Tiffany strong in Syria and Iraq also in Lebanon as well they had been rented property community they’re properly recruited into the military by the French during french mandate days and retain control of the military for the last one of 60 years as well descent was unwelcome to the Syria torture with widespread all youth England am I here are our and all his own experiences the Canadian computer engineer who had been ported to Syria to thumper arendt render the Syrian 2002 his experiences shared thousands of thousands of Syrians indeed you go on other line the web for one of the UN sites an asian sex there’s presently a very compelling exhibit torture in Syria in the lobby of the UN bill in New York the photographer working for the Syrian military who is required to go and take pictures every death caused you know the Syrian prisons and they was smuggled even on a number of unit of species itself salt as been able to skate from seriousness and the cinema is a very chilling reminder what many circles were opposed to a number of groups would prosper under the Assad regime including the Christian Christians in Syria felt quite protected by the by the Saudis long didn’t engage in politics the dominant some or the majority Sunni population but excluded from the quarters of course in any dictatorship there’s going to be a tough mania with respect to economic privileges being given by the by the ruling thing as well so the second thing I want to bring time to go very briefly is the origins of the others Syrian civil war we already know that the very beginnings of the Arab Spring Indonesia

in Yemen and in pretty keen Egypt through the january/february of 2011 began to spread other countries as well including in Libya and smaller degree in Lebanon as well protests began in march two thousand in town Dara in southern Syria primarily it’s peaceful protests against the Assad appointed governor that particular protection southern Syria they were allergic peaceful demonstrations meant to bring now they thought with corrupt rule by him and also allegations of torture going on in the prisons in Garrett that was mad as protests are in very mint in Syria with a very heavy hand by the Syrian military on armed protesters were shot from again virtually every time they came out he protests increased to largely peaceful and still largely were being gunned down the message option being spread by the Assad regime without there was no room for people protest and there’s going to be no budding of any Arab Spring in Syria so what began as a relatively hopeful sign of protest with aspirations then turn very quickly than a couple of months to a armed struggle against the Assad regime arms first crossing into Syria in this south but other communities begin to upper I rise up against the Assad regime through to throw Syria primarily was Sunni opposition to through the Assad regime and the initial opposition groups dinner were made up primarily of law both of moderate and a fundamental fundamental Islamists then before very long you begin to get a lot of external hands in played in the in the pro and cons in Syria Saudi Arabia wait turkey cut out and then the United States and European to line up with the armed opposition against Assad Assad had received its primary art supplies from Russia and also received an immense amount of support from Arab become a support from Iraq as well and to a lesser degree from China and increased when he was is our main troops were getting both arms but also a lot of military training from fiscal of the Shiite party in Lebanon is all deteriorated into a very complex three-way Civil War by 2012 reuniting the Assad regime its farming primarily controlled the area internal Damascus and the Alawite stronghold along the Mediterranean Sea and threw sub parts in the south you had the Free Syrian Army which was made up at the original moderate Syrian opposition to him and then you had a third front merging which was the ISIS and the taiga that were in Syria alcohol is the eldest up front and it was three sided fund all against all you had each of them depend upon foreign funding foreign weapons and sometimes even foreign fighters coming to but coming to join them and the tragedy then since 2012 up until today is none of the three sides are weak enough blues nor are they strong enough to to malenga bleep all of a sudden has had a significant impact upon the above the Syrian people this has been an absolute disaster for them has now caused the single largest refugee crisis in the world today people semi there are 60 million refugees according to the UNHCR Nations Commission hi permission of refugees this is a higher number than the number of refugees at the peak World War two there has not been this many refugees in human memory Syrian populated the Syrian refugees come for over 4 million refugees of sterling and another 7 approaching 8 million refugees displaced internally within within Syria no take you through more of that in a few minutes the death hole and the foreign that nurse Bureau civil wars now at around two hundred thirty five thousand people estimated around 60 to 70 decided civilian the Assad regime in particular has used chemical weapons as use barrel bombs cluster bombs sieges against the against his opponents which includes general civil civilian population this is a civil war that’s being fought primarily in the towns and cities and an intensity five neighborhoods so when they’re attacked by one side against

another and verily is including its attacks against the civilian populations who are caught up in between rows of extra time I’m not getting close to the end of good leader so I’ve been giving tonight I promise I’ll be all sides activity war crimes and crimes against humanity with respect to this I’m is surely a couple site this the refugee their family’s honor is a creation happening from kobani which is in North rate on the turn of the border with Turkey which was heavy shell this is this is a business a sense of some of the this is also a picture from combining taken by the of a center of good eye and apparently virtually taking see aerial pictures of this looks like it’s collapsed and groomed neighborhoods this is a map of Syrian see Damascus in the lower left-hand corner rad is indicating where government support very strong missile in and around the nest is in the villages and Thailand surrounding the masses primarily under government control over time to fighting against some of the moderate opposition in some of the suburbs of Damascus the south is contested control between the opposition and the Syrian Syrian army they see the red in the upper left-hand corner that is the 0 a stronghold in an irrelevant Iranian see just cut off the top them out the Kurds in the north of primary earn a self-sufficient that they keep all three groups out of a Chris Hanna and most PCD Isis would be in the west of syria primary coronal the water coming from Iraq and more moderate opposition is fighting north of the auto a stronghold in the in the northwest of the country this is a picture of the city of phones but this I she could be any one of the major cities this is a picture taken by satellite in August six months ago more again this is the central neighborhood that was haunted that a long history rebellion that’s the element renewal and against the Assad regime so this is still one of two years later you see the difference in the devastation bomb from the air by barrel bombs by record munitions against the center that money brewed using idea of the scale this is a mad with respect to the where the referees are this was done in March is the best recently i defined the members have always changed upward since then turkey is not estimate that I’ve actually ordered two million refugees Lebanon which is a country after all levels a country of four million people or a quarter its population right now our Syrian refugees and you add on top of that around fifteen percent of the population are Palestinian refugees like the Oracle 1948 in 1967 that country is coming close to forty to forty-five percent of it the people living there are refugees fighter and then there are large camps in Jordan rate loans south of the border and their smaller groups of refugees in Iraq and other countries it’s primarily the refugees who were in the camps in Turkey that have been started on migration heading to heading to York so the last thing everybody will say is the international community there in fleeting attempts at the O Matic solutions prepared since 2012 there are conferences in Geneva both 2012 and 2014 with the permit five members of the Security Council in 2012 collapse or whether or not the any UN response with allow my fellow scientists and power it collapse again in 2014 this type of over not a rat would be a part of the negotiations were trying to find a solution in Syria the attempts have by the UN Security hell’s myself to broker a deal I’ve met with a little bit of success in the sense it was efforts through the Security Council that was able to be able to get Assad regime your surrender most not all of its chemical weapons but there’s been a greater theater this is pretty council mostly pine needles coming from Russia and China with respect to trying to create the UN peacekeeping force and some kind of post-civil war resolution to all this I guess end of this if a I’d say despite the ferocity of the Civil War and the carnage today I think there’s a uptick a little bit of hope for 52 praying to end the civil war and stand there refugee crisis I say there are two reasons one is the American on for the refugee crisis itself the fact that is spilled into your spilled and

the world’s conscience I think it’s given a greater trying to find some diplomatic way of trying to end the war but the second reason why is because of the recent agreement with Iran over the nuclear weapons treaty that signing with the p5 plus one this brings a ran back into the diplomatic world and more important I think it brings a random has a great deal of sale or what will be having in Syria I don’t think you can find a lasting resolution in Syria without some of the regional players play a strong role turkey particular but mostly because it’s on the side of the side around so that is my happiness today I’m going to be talking about convention so it’s a it’s a little bit so basically through history states have been renting protection to people fleeing persecution for centuries however the mother in graffiti clear to you is a product of the second half of the 20th century mother-in-law has its origins in the aftermath of World War one when millions of people fled their homes in search of refuge and governments creative international agreement for my travel documents for them basically they are considered difference refugees of the 20th century the number of refugees increase dream and after one more second creating the need for clear international guidelines blocks and dimensions to protect the human rights of brevity the process started with the League of Nations in 81 and making 48 the universal declaration of human rights protected you right to speak and enjoy countries in jelena 1951 diplomatic conference in Geneva of the convention related to the status of refugees and which was later amended by 40 which basically remove any optical and transmutations it’s initially was created only for Europeans involving events occurring not before gathering personal 51 ok so the invention of the protocol have also helped inspire working with young instruments some example the 1969 Oh and a stylus system the convention is important because it was the first truly international agreement covering the most fundamental aspects of refugees life its basic human rights which should be at least equivalent to the freedoms injury by foreign nationals living legally in a given country and in many cases those of citizens of that state the convention defines what the term breaking means you don’t like the therapist rights obligations and it also spells on people or good for people who are not covered by women so what are the obligation of the receiving countries of big mansion national scope of refugee crisis and the need of international cooperation in caring among states the states parties share a common goal of providing protection to individuals 43 countries are unable or under the nineteen fifty one who mentioned is not to find how state part inspired to determine where the usability of cricket instead this time measurement on the side of receiving cinnamon fee status determinations are left to each part that state party to develop each government is its own hand side of laws based on the different sources such as national security concerns and also these experiences and forced migration

so everything is based on the responsibility to protect the International which international legal implications are not immediately clear the last two portions first for the first part is that states have responsibility protect their own observations from outside positives this is deeply embedded international law been applied for the apartment that of westheimer States known as me and they have a collective responsibility to assist those states in protecting their population and to act to protect these populations in situations where those states in to do so this is a portion of is the immigration of refugee protection regulations I lost to fifth with indy 500 gay in order to specify the commission also mentions such as the right not to be expelled except under certain conditions the right not be punished for the legal engine to the territorial state the right to work to housing to education Public relief and assistance freedom of religion access to the courts freedom of community in the territory and the right to be to the identity and travel documents also the refugees are required to respect the laws and regulations of the conventional solicitation of refugee as that person is oxide is or I’m really himself result of the protection of that country or Virginia for fear persecution there’s a balance to the mission first a path across an international border into a second country they are two and the persecution of employment it’s not everything Michael my my even with a and there’s some people that are not covering the convention of therapy geez so versus cooperating prices a worker I’m trying to get some money or a serious level I tu Familia not a soldier although former soldiers may qualify and this person skilled surgeon dr. country until they are able to across the board and I’d like to thank everyone for being here and for my participation in this panel it’s very nice as a Canadian historian to be able to comment not only on the past but also on current events

so I love you surfing I suppose the role of some political scientist I’m happy to do that but we’re gonna get my talk as well I’d like to acknowledge something the history of the traditional territory in which western university operates I think it’s important to note that the I wanderin the neutral evils once settled this region alongside the Algonquin and the open so many peoples who use this land their traditional beaver hunting territories I think that’s important to note because it underlines the fact that ultimately we are all newcomers and immigrants to this society here in Canada the question today to ponder at least that I’ve been asked to ponder is having enough done enough for the Syrian refugee crisis so with a little history of little politics and hopefully some of your feedback I think will come to maybe a verdict at least in this temporarily oh I got some folks here and first to hear up both of the top are separated by year five years when I make those two statements by SC Blair and Stanley rules reveal much about the historic contradictions in Canadians approach to dealing with refugee crises in fact removed those dates 1938 in 1943 they can equally apply to statements being made today for the current Syrian refugee crisis in which they are more than as Michael noted 60 million refugees fleeing war persecution in danger a number is Michael already noted which surpasses that which we saw the end of the Second World War when for example this is a picture of my father the little child there and my grandparents when they fled hungary from Soviet persecution in late 1940s and early 1950s when they finally came to canada in 51 about before spending six years state lives in austria they were among the over 120,000 plus refugees from Europe that major raid kender between 1947 three contract labor schemes or government family or church sponsorships they don’t stay of course the selection criteria at this particular point in time in Canadian history was guided by a considerable amount of racial and political bias along with of course a heavy dose of economic self-interest which is always characterized our immigration policy committee history but it is to know that all the elements in Canadian immigration history it’s the refugee policy and the refugee history and the admission of refugees that seems to garner the most controversial and the most criticized aspects amongst both politicians and civil society at large but for much of Canadian history should be noted we haven’t even had official Canadian refugee policy from the first refugees that we took in I’d like to say that the African Americans who fled by the Underground Railroad can be certainly concerned considered it or at least certainly considered as some of our earliest refugees it wasn’t until the passage of the 1976 Immigration Act that refugees constituted an admissible class for resettlement in Canada up until that time special refugee admissions schemes were made possible only with the passage of orders and council which suspended normal immigration streams and regulations and permitted relaxed criteria for screening so refugee policy in particular is meri knew from Canadian historical standpoint fast forward to today and a United Nations report reveals that Canada is at the bottom of a top-15 listed industrialized receiving countries with 13,500 claims reported in 2014 in comparison sweet of a small Nordic country with 9.6 million people in a quarter of canada’s population admitted 75,000 100 refugees last year I just give you a sense here where we lack stood weight on the historic scale of refugee admission in Canada we weren’t always so unwelcoming but we weren’t exactly an open door since the end of World War two I’d argue that their reputation that we do have today as a world leader in protecting refugees his do more largely to people the Canadian people and this was something that the United Nations the UNHCR recognized when if awarded Canada the Canadian people the man sent medal in 1986 for refugee and immigration reception it was to the Canadian people that was the first time that that metal had been awarded to a route to a country of people rather than two individuals in 1958 it was the Canadian people acting in concert with he Tyrion and voluntary agencies the canadian red cross in particular who call on the Liberal government to take in Hungarians who were fleeing the violence Soviet repression in during the

Hungarian refugee revolution in nineteen fifty six to nineteen fifty-seven and it was in response to significant public pressure that the Canadian Embassy in Vienna loosened normal empty entry requirements concerning proper travel documentation medical exams and security clearances and enlisted commercial airplanes to transport refugees out of Austrian to Canada the Canadian government also increased its monetary aid to the Canadian Red Cross to assist with that particular refugee crisis in Hungary and in the surrounding countries at this particular time and the effort produced impressive results by the end of nineteen fifty-seven where the 37,000 Hungarians had been accepted into Canada and this was dis done despite a rising unemployment rate at the time and suspicion of Hungarians as being communists coming to Canada to infiltrate and thanks to that wells for the support my great aunt and uncle were able to come to canada in january nineteen fifty-seven following a harrowing current crossing over the before it was my second attempt his first ten met with failure when his friend who he was trying to attempt the first crossing with was killed by a Russian border guard man who was sent to a work camp in Russia for six months as his punishment so it’s the Hungarian crisis really tells us at least in that particular time of the limits of what individuals can do in this case Canadians were concerned but it’s also the limits of what individuals can do in an international system found on the prophecy of the nation-state but the response of Canadians was an important catalyst I think for mobilizing action around the whole issue of the refugee at the time but it had the unanticipated effect heightening the expectation that Canadians would have going forward about how their government should deal with refugees and how organizations that should be able to participate fully in the whole manner of refugee reception and perhaps even policy building so while I’m Gary refugees were fleeing communist state and welcomed as democratic refugees for the most part in 1957 Chilean refugees playing a fascist state reviewing with suspicion in 1973 when seven thousand and other left America refugees mitted to Canada after the violent coup de tat there when software inds a democratically elected socialist communist government was overthrown and then still with a new about military ruler by General Augusto Pinochet although Canada took refugees and at that time it did so exceedingly grudgingly and despite pressure from Amnesty International Church labor and Latin American groups the government was slow to react don’t wanting to antagonize Chile’s new administration which was supported by the United States and also many of the Pierre Trudeau moment at the time gave that you painted the Chilean refugees as subversive as possible leftist terrorists and we’re concerned about the kinds of people that Canada was admitting in 1973 this the government of the time was certainly out of step with what other nations were doing including Holland and Sweden who were treating the Chilean refugees outside of the normal flow of immigrants and only after considerable our eyes i’ve mentioned from civil society groups across canada did the situation change I know a newspaper article up there because again this refugee crisis was meant the considerable amount of zishan in january fourteenth 1974 this newspaper article from the Toronto Star carried a story of a small group of protesters parading in front of the Walker house hotel in Toronto where a number of Chilean refugees were being temporarily housed their placards that he can’t be from the back read a number of things such as a dip to the red pest no more Marxist FLQ was enough of a sense of Canadians conflating current issues domestic issues with international issues and keep Marxist gangsters out of Canada so the slower clock respond to this Chilean case led many to become increasingly suspicious of all of us commitments to refugees but that would not last long because in 1979 by mid nineteen seventy-nine nearly one and a half billion refugees fled their homes in Southeast Asia in June of 1979 the Canadian government announced its 60,000 indo-chinese refugees would be resettled in this country by the old in 1980 so that’s in a year and a half 60,000 people in a year and a half from Southeast Asia and this perception of Southeast Asia the indo-chinese gave

rise to a new refugee scream program called the private sponsorship of refugees programs something that we still have a foldover of today popular pressure in this case again force the government adjust upwards its commitment to taking in refugees at that time and as a result from the years nineteen seventy eight to nineteen eighty-one refugees made up twenty-five percent on all immigrants to Canada a pretty remarkable number up in the summer of nineteen ninety nine fast-forwarding a little bit more several hundred unwanted boogy boogy desirous Chinese from the Fujian province arrived on Canada’s west coast giving rise to what many news media’s reported as a refugee crisis people there was considerable can bringing a man teeth gnashing about the possible security moral political and well-being of the nation that was in 1999 the alarms of reaction of the Canadian government in August of 2010 and Canadians themselves to the arrival of the MV sunseed carrying tamil refugees planets to the west coast in October of that year is consistent again with our mixed history of refugee reception public safety minister at the time dictates warned that this was a test phone with hundreds of thousands possibly more boatloads of channels coming to overwhelm Canadian refugee system in reality there were four hundred ninety two claimants on the vessel which represented about 1.5 percent of the year thirty-four thousand refugee claimants that Canada received in that year they response to the crisis there were calls to canada should get tough with refugee claimants to incarcerate all passengers and possibly create new laws to fend off this latest threat to panda it responds there was the passage of bill c-30 one known as the protecting Canada’s immigration system act to say that this piece of legislation has been soundly criticized by variety of civil society groups would be an understatement so where are we in terms of our members here some members again in 1956 well here we are 45 to Tucson 40,000 Ukrainians of us the 120,000 refugees from Europe 37,000 Hungarian refugees 10,000 check refugees in the aftermath the Prague Spring in 1968 in 1972 an interesting group came to Canada ate nearly 8,000 Uganda Nations the majority of who were Muslims I have a PhD student she’s on the committee he’s working on that particular of minor refugee reception first Eve doctoral thesis again the trans fleeing the info Chinese boat people more recently eleven thousand refugees from the bringer of the former nations and over the course of two thousand six to fifteen Kevin’s tegan and 14,000 Colombians as what all competed refugees a prayer of refugees from burma 2009 to 2050 and from to 2009 to 2050 almost 23,000 iraqis what’s the right number it’s really hard to know there’s no right answer but still I’d like to suggest that our record is mixed even as most Canadians seem to favor asylum provisions no one should forget that in nineteen thirties Canada not was too many for the Jewish refugees seeking fleeing Nazi Germany and I have this picture here of the komagata maru in which 374 seat passengers who came from india in may of nineteen fourteen were turned back and were ultimately received a deadly encounter with police and troops near kolkata on their return to India so more recently we’ve also seen cups to refugee health care ministry detention for a regular rivals including children and you ever made in Hungary to stem the tide of Rome asylum seekers to Canada so our risk with our our risk here is that we risk again becoming rather contemptible perhaps with our remedied reception and not in our history of turning our history perhaps a little bit backwards in time to that three 1940s period someone we’ve done today today we’re going to citizenship and immigration canada we’ve taken in our Canada Stephen about 2,400 Syrian refugees between january 2014 and August 3 2015 I don’t were told up nearly about 23,000 refugees in 2014 altogether Oh on September 19th of this year in response

to public pressure the federal government issued a bit more of a large statement on their pledge tiny house Syrian refugees the initial pledge in fall 2013 was to accept 1,300 refugees by the end of 2014 the 10,000 pledge was done in January this year to accept thousand Syrian refugees over the next three years the reality of course has been a little less less than that more recently added on September 19th of his previous month but I call the 10,000 pledge part 2 in which can I promise to accept up to 10,000 Syrian refugees in 15 months it’s important to note that that’s still the initial commitment that was given in January however is sped up by 15 or so months all right it’s still an important step forward certainly as groups of Canadians will now be able to submit settlement applications for individual refugees since also the September 19th announcement then to that Syrian and Iraqi refugees who are outside their country will now automatically be considered refugees so that’s a helpful step forward but there is no commitment from the government is how long these applications will now take to be processed you do go that wait times in Amman torquay currently stand at about 19 months and 45 months in Ankara Turkey over years unfortunately the government’s made no commitment to increasing the number of Syrian refugees when they come to Canada only those that will get its committed to and get here sooner all right which is again a good announcement but is it enough I think it’s I think it’s deeply disappointed considering our history what we do know about what we’ve been able to do in the past and certainly there have been individuals such as general Burke Hilliard romeo Dallaire who had called for much more no commitment was unfortunately made also on September 19th regarding expediting visas for Syrians with family ties at kanda a measure that would significantly help at a number of people as well including the family of the curry family that the child who we all know is found on that each prompted of my special prize there’s no commitment to that these 10,000 refugees will also not displays campus commitment to resettlement from other refugee producing solutions such as i portray the democratic republic of congo somalia for example i was also troubling in that pledge as well to hear references in the announcement from the minister complaining refugees and terrorists no one has suggested in journal and large portion that syrian refugees should be exempted from syrian screening in fact it but the virtuous I think suggestion that there’s a significant likelihood of jihadi terrorist hiding he’s coming to canada calls to mind when i remember reading about Hungarians being conflated with communists with chilean sea complaining with communists and that kind of discourse that was so common at this time of we were waging a sort of a war against communist again under some more aspects hear about the September 19th announcements Canada’s response largely hasn’t I think met the standard of what its previous responses has been historically to refugees for example back in 1999 Canada responding rapidly to the call from help from ethnic Albanian refugees in Kosovo during the war the Balkan countries moving in 250 people a day between a fourth and 23rd in nineteen some other announcements as you can see here we all know in Ontario has pledged pelvis well there’s emergency relief fund more broadly lifelines serio plans for a thousand Syrian refugees to Toronto and of course from everyday examples of Canadian generosity include the juices to public school in Toronto students pledge on their own primary school to sponsor a refugee family other responses are also well known some of you may have taken part in a number of refugee walks and talks perhaps demonstrations a number of universities have issue challenges including our own University Western Western social science early sponsorship Clark so these are some things that want to do a picture sort of in the middle here of the family with Reverend Michael char is at my university at King’s University College

since january to august of this year our community has raised over 55 thousand dollars six refugees including this family both of whom are from one of them is from Syria the other one is from Turkey our Suri from Iraq so there are some practical ways that what can they can do to you know address perhaps this situation where Canadians can do in terms of policy or international affairs or relationship options there are a couple of ideas here that called from some folks that I’ve spoken to read but more importantly I think what I would encourage you to do as an individual donator time or money if you like but I think the more important thing that we can do is as you’re doing today is to be engaged read about it talk about it ask questions and and hold to account I think those who can who are currently making policy and those who will be possibly making policy in perhaps under two weeks time be part of an informant engaged citizenry because you’re so incredibly fortunate to live to be living in Canada and rejected it is a discourse that takes away I think from finding solutions I’d like to close with the statements or horrible paraphrase but 2,000 years ago the great rabbi was through rhetorical questions if I’m not for myself who is for me but if I am only for myself what am I and if not now when paraphrasing that question if we are only for ourselves that what are we these are questions that I hope promise to think more now on the Syria issue perhaps dominant / 19 and hopefully in the days ahead of all the days of our lives thank you so we have requested yes thank you very much this is over gripping but I just want to go right through the game huh professor Michael I really appreciated your overview of the Syrian situation but history continues and Russia has been involved as the web as of the last three days does that change your positive view with mentioning Iran and the nuclear realities that have happened some weeks ago it’s emotionally I mean the Russian support for Cheryl size is not diminished Assad will continue to remain in power as long and get no fun when I just got down as long as the Russians keep on giving in financial aid and and funding to be able to continue with the war Russia i think is primarily as a as a military for the death my friend to one support Montero so until less until the Russians signs of games in an impact of diplomats that’s probably a negative with respect to where what how soon we’re going to get a final resolution to the Syrian civil war and as you know the allegations are is that is bombing in lesser not been against Isis again against the the successor to the Free Syrian Army which is annoyed the United States so if that means that there’s a greater distance between us and the United States and Russia or China final solution I suspect it’s not at all I still maintain that there’s more offensive today than there was maybe four or five months ago but rushing time a virgin activities in Haiti thank you yeah i think my fishy is going to put the panelists term of course did we mention that the response of Syrian government de is purposeless love family the cause of the current Civil War some terrific is crisis so what is there are spoons of rich countries like because I’ve never have even one single refugee from Syria Saudi Arabia or even do arguments which are this many countries as well so and also cause a the calculus comes to the refugee crisis in the memories of course it is in line with the west and policies of how they accommodate up to eat so what do you say about the countries themselves those who are they going to hear silky they are not a little bit single course what do

you say about that you only start on that have a prism raised by it’s pretty by a kind of broth that our executive director in a comment after me he had several weeks ago and I think he started off by Twitter which is how many how many refugees of Syria sir I have Syrian refugees now Saudi Arabia cut out kuwait and the other Gulf Emirates you see exactly zero it’s hard to tell me is that there are approximately 500,000 servers that are in Saudi Arabia today I don’t consider it as any form of refugee determination system way in which we know here in Canada or in the West so it’s hard to tell how many of those Syrians are those who have been escaping war as opposed to those maybe have been economic migrants to go to Saudi Arabian in the years before the war began so I caution when when people raise that issue that I don’t think but I don’t want for a second the selling of your office for Saudi Arabia or any of the other Gulf countries they’ve been particularly destructive in terms of their heavy financing for continue the war through some of their money some other arms are you finding their way to whom Isis end to the elusive front which which is not helpful they against a military solution to the to the Syrian crisis and that means the removal level to share our son I tell until they they change their mind I think there may be a negotiate diplomatic solution they’re not playing a fool and I think too let’s not forget that this is a international humanitarian crisis and so I also a little cautious about focusing on the Gulf states and their culpability or lab or in action on this issue if I don’t I worry about it taking away from what other nations historically participated in international humanitarian crises what they’re not doing so let’s not point in some nations enjoy well there there’s some people who are these worse than us and doing less than us so I also caution about focusing on that it certainly is a obviously something that is a concern but as a Canadian I want my government to do something I’m concerned about what’s going on with the Gulf states as a Canadian I want my government to be held to a greater up with responsibility because I collected them difficult but basically after graduating caps they have the first intake and right now it’s a reality the crisis to Europe start a better life it’s going to be it’s going to be a big process processing the host countries to determine that we are going to be successful and just basically taking advantage of the process and some others are probably going to be not successful but it’s the reality is happening it’s also another part of that people that are getting to Europe right now you are we put a lot of dirt resources and actually going to Europe so it’s going to be very difficult to separate which is and which one are actually clean because of refuge going to be years and people I have a few questions actually that’s okay first it appears to me and maybe I’m wrong characterizing this but the

refugee crisis post-world war two seemed a lot more urgent perhaps maybe because of the nature of the global conflict but do you think this characterization that I just need is true and could it be if that is true is it a lot of preparation that people have made that’s preventing them or is excuse or how do you feel about that as far as how they compare far as preparation to accept refugees is that the main issue so okay so I see there are certain two parts to your question here whether the situation is similar in terms of preparation and then also of what that means today right so in nineteen in the late 1940s following the second quarter certainly the world community and those who were on the side of the winning of winners and those who delivers losers in that conflict cooperated to the extent that they did india in the fame of the united nations to work out how refugees would be distributed across the across europe and then into north america so in terms of preparation where you have international bodies like the UN the red cross i would say that there was preparation following the Second World War that don’t think can be compared to what’s going on today by and large I think because the two conflicts are almost completely disassembled so in the sense I guess I’m staying in the historical past we have sort of been organized but we really only have been organized in response to large refugee crises back in that nineteen late 1940s period up until that time we’ve really taken a very ad hoc approach towards refugee crises to be quite honest with and I don’t think that it’s an excuse to say that I think it’s an excuse to say that perhaps you weren’t prepared at this time because the Syrian crisis the Syrian civil war has been going on for such a long time I’m precipitated by the spring Michael mention i think it does us a disservice as Canadians to say that we weren’t prepared and also the international community I think it allows them to get off drop it lightly in something that people who are acknowledging has been an issue for at least now for years so whether or not it’s a willful ignorance of what or a lot of preparedness site and eat more on the side of right yeah that’s that’s what I kind of thought because it’s going on since lose 2012 as you’ve said so to say we are prepared is kind of and to say that we have written policies in advance really disingenuous to crisis that’s not really a crisis but it’s becoming almost tragic listen I’m sure just okay so just at the very back oh right um my question along around the US response to the crisis and also possibility of using another doctor another parameter to consider because so far it’s always been commentary but I feel like there might be a reason to bring in another Crowder which is vested interest security is complic interest because as you know America I know I feel first American me in a statement a trot war and that might have been more terrorists or conflict more backlash against the West then then otherwise and work hard if the Iraqi war had happened and there was one time of a result into a lot of fun and negative perceptions in the East against the west and even now all this kind of purpose and that is to come to all that America was behind in some ways complicit in forming Isis so all these refugees would you say are 60 million the number they feel that America’s somehow directly or indirectly involved in in the mess that was created their homeland and all the stripes and colors that they’re going to so do you feel that in America they understand the Graduate situation where what will unfold if they didn’t take a war scale effort to really help these refugees

refugees out as fast as possible as fit as possible as I don’t know as nicely as possible and if they don’t what do you think can become to make them aware it’s possibly like being more terrorist I’m not sure if I can answer the question so I’m looking that’s why we gave you I’m not sure I can really speak for and any kind of Americans situation of us for a wife I’m not sure I what they slipped it to answer that question at all but I think we’re kind of dealing with sort of similar questions in Canada when we hear that rhetoric about security versus humanitarian and I you know I think there’s always that balancing act that needs to go on I don’t know what to say that would regard to encouraging an arrogance to become more aware of the impact of their policies internationally I think that’s a long history like this creation and as I hope they might repair this coming in refugee by me if you don’t respond it would create more tears that would create one they were inside more people towards violence because they’re just unhappy with the situation well I do know that the American government has recently announced that there on order of and someone can correct me if I’m wrong but I think I’ve read about 100,000 refugees from Syria which is not an incident so maybe in that gesture there is some recognition that perhaps a more amiable reception policy with regard to the Syrian refugee crisis may in fact be an appropriate response to address the concerns in detention I wish was at large I think she the American David 93 I’d even met 1330 so far so it’s a minute sir siren just ask one quick question do you talk about that unit of analysis and Michael you to a global crisis and I’m just wondering maybe the answer is eritrea has a new crisis I look for generalization so maybe maybe there’s something to be said there’s something going on in all these countries but I just carry a little bit more what is the what we also believe this will turn to it helps it all in terms of refugee producing countries right now the largest is out gas but serious close behind and they both are a range of four and five million refugees of side of their borders costly internal conflict somalia is the third largest democratic public soon ah so you’re looking at sphere impressive refugees going from africa over to Central Asia and in terms of internal displaced persons your largest is Syria with almost eight million now Colombia is a second the Republic of Congo Sudan Somalia and on the other largest fruits and countries I mean they all have their own individual country context of wine the war there is a ferocious and wonder so many people were displaced either within borders you know a lot of messages with some some combinations of the poverty access to two weapons internal repression black and Democratic voice and some way and also some form of a environmental degradation spelling competition for scarce resources all of those are various aspects which are dirty to this and I think use all that criteria configure some variation is educational sessions just link is the panel could offer their thoughts on that there’s it seems like there might be some connection between the anti-muslim sentiment that has taken all both south of the border here anti-arab set time we’ve seen reducing pieces and the tides studies showing that people of the curve that at least in the United States and this in the sample Buick Muslims as less

than human and perhaps the reticence to respond to this crisis if there’s some connection I don’t the education he made abroad I certainly part of the Senate with respect to their aim for the changes made more security around bill c-51 I think it’s a good argument part is fueled by animals obscenity incited recently that hate crimes as reported by police canada virtually gone down over the last two years but they’ve actually spiked with respect to mantain muslim episodes in canada so we’re seeing a rise if you like him and it’s not a phobia see that obviously in the United States developers but proper for a leading a contender for the Republican nomination the same Muslim should never be considered to be qualified to serve as president of the United States so that’s and it’d be hard to separate I think living from I you know the kind of opposition we see from the federal government today allowing more refugees coming from Syria in makanda with overall sentiment that they’re not going to use wedge issue during her campaign and I would also add that the effects of timmerman 19th announces that i mentioned really made only make generalizations about whether or not the syrian refugees coming to canada would be Muslims or would continue to be those from what the government continues to turn religious and ethnic minorities which are large so I think there is a very clear link between some of the kindest on the the current popular sentiment that’s being whipped up by this time and policy practices that are currently in place or at least don’t appear to be a budget so we have time for so joanna wants to follow up and then the follow-up is so you had a great slide yeah and I was thinking about the possible causes for example and do you know what the Muslim Christian ratio was and was anti-muslim sentiment bigger or as being then now does that seem to be a useful comparison that’s a great question on I do know that there I don’t know the specific percentages of Muscle versus non Muslim but I do know that there was I think what I heard dress as a respectable number of Muslim migrants or Muslim refugees end up together a refugee section seven pass I would say the number is respectable I can’t give you the exact number it’s not like I don’t have to in front of me it was one of those things I went to Google my buddy asked but it’s a respectable number in comparison to what we see now and to what we saw was a perception of the examinations in 1972 oh my question kind of girl what we’re doing enough is it sufficient to address who refugee crisis so 8 the world kind of husbands where it looks Syrian civil war underpinnings as a private and then the ensuing red resulting refugee crisis is it sufficient for us to just think in terms of refugees without thinking of what’s causing refugees just to think of it symptomatically or do you think that us historically or whatever how we look at I think that history the I believe and it’s been debated test the convention to finally say change so I think that will be answered crisis

and the result right now we’re seeing an immediate action of these moving people to and then three years we will geology after 54 years they might go back because they were unable to reset the property so we will see that in the year so professor clean engine I would start first by saying thank you i have a long list of thank yous and but thank you first and i hope you’ll join me to share this kind of hell because it takes time of day to think about it so on its own