you I’m pleased you could join a psychology department as we celebrate one of our research specialties the psychology the psychological science of inequity and inequality before introducing this evenings lecture let me take a few comments about how this series came about this annual lecture series is a result of the generosity of Professor Alan l edwards who made a substantial gift to establish an endowment that ensures that the series can take place free of charge to everyone in perpetuity professor Edwards was affiliated with our department for half a century from his arrival in 1944 until his death in 1994 he was an outstanding teacher researcher and writer he is credited with changing the way modern psychological research is carried out by introducing modern statistical techniques to his field his statistics books were long-standing gold standards for all of psychological research the Edwards film a contribution to the Department of Psychology is an excellent example of what can be accomplished when we have the support of members of the community such as each of you in this room especially in these tough economic times your support is critical and appreciated I thank it applied many of you in the audience who have already made such contributions without further delay I would now like to introduce our first speaker our next speaker is dr Mickey ray hebel who is a professor of psychology and management at Rice University she received her undergraduate degree from Smith College in Massachusetts her master’s for Texas am in her PhD in psychology psychology from Dartmouth the Hebrew lab at Rice focuses on issues related to identifying understanding and remediating discrimination they blend a social into personal perspective with an organizational one the research is based on the less award over forms of discrimination that are more prevalent today and their innovative applied research looks at the organizational level to make change such as the adoption of friendly climates the provision of behavioral scripts the enhancement of diversity figures within an organizational setting the framing of diversity goals and mentor programs dr. cable has edited to books and written over 80 research articles notably she’s been the recipient of no less than 18 teaching awards but no pressure tonight Mickey don’t worry for her research she has received support from the National Institutes of Health the National Science Foundation and several private agencies join me then and welcome this evening dr. McKee reg evil Thank You gene I am so happy to be here university of washington community and i also want to thank a couple of people I want to thank alan edwards and his family so lucky to be a faculty member who retires with enough money to make an endowment I hope that’s true of many of us but I am very serious that takes a big person to give and allow a community to come together for free to hear scholars the next person i want to thank is kristina olsen what a wonderful host she has been I feel so excited to come and talk to you about my research together we do research that is has been the focus of a lot of attention lately and it’s a very under-researched program of study and I think you’ll feel that when you leave today because we are two of the people who are doing actual empirical research and there’s not a ton out there so I thank Christina and I also think the psychology department here at University of Washington for the people who have made my day just a fabulous one i also want to just let you all know if you don’t know more about the psychology department learn about it because it is a first-class group of individuals and i was sitting there last night at a table with four of your female scholars and i thought wow we have come a long way there are four of us here and we are talking about research ideas I think that some of them have kids I don’t know because we never talked about kids we didn’t talk about baking we didn’t talk we talked about research ideas and it was so fabulous so girl power okay now i think i have a talk to

give so here we go the title of my talk is stand up and be counted a call to LGBT individuals and allies and by LGBT i mean lesbian gay bisexual and transgender this is as i said a very hot topic even if you’ve been following the news in the last two days I think yesterday or the day before Nebraska has now folded and their same-sex marriages allowed so another state making a very very dramatic change we also if you looked at the news today see something by ben Carson who says being gay is a choice okay so here we have something again that’s substantial in the news and I think we’re gonna the time is ripe for the sorts of research that we’re doing we also know as Christina may alert you to there’s the celebrity out there his name is Bruce Jenner and he’s going through a change okay so all of this is alerting us to these topics so I hope that you learn about these two under-researched groups of individuals and we’re taking an empirical approach so today tonight what I’m going to talk about is first of all the incidents how many people are we talking about when we talk about GLBT and then I’m going to talk about discrimination and I’m going to talk both about formal discrimination and interpersonal discrimination and then I will talk about how we can stand up and be counted as individuals who are LGBT who are allies and then some bigger entities some entities that include organizations and some the law okay so in terms of incidents over the last 25 years we’ve seen some sweeping estimates you see people say oh nobody’s gay okay very few people are really gay too there’s twenty five percent of people who are gay and I think when we look at who is LGBT we see that the estimates are reliably in the last decade about two to ten percent and this is a really hard thing to estimate because we have shifting definitions of what it means to be trans of what it means to be bisexual and of what it means to be gay or lesbian we can make this assessment and people have done this mostly by looking at gay or lesbian households and what they do is they count from the census the same-sex households they look at the Gallup polls which are conducted in every state and they look at facebook profiles to see what gender are people interested in so again this is how we get these estimates and here is some of the percentages if you just look across from the different studies that have been conducted the Williams Institute which is the I would say the top resource is an organization out of UCLA that conducts research on LGBT issues estimates that 3.8 identify as LGBT okay this seems like a decidedly small number relative to these larger numbers but this is still a very substantial portion of our population now I will also say it’s substantial because we go back to these measurement is issues what does it mean to count these individuals what does it mean to count the households surely these are not people aren’t putting on Facebook their profiles of stigmatized interests okay so when we study LGBT first of all we often just lop off the B and the T we don’t know what to do with B we don’t know what to do with T it seems like there’s very few T people and in fact that’s what Christina is going to be talking about today so it’s very hard to do this even if we look at just L&G which is often just referred to as gay and that’s how I’m going to refer to it tonight we still have a what does it mean to be gay is it the household partnership is it your identity is it the behavior that you engage in is it your attraction to other people even if you haven’t behaved is it the relationships you currently have or had once in college 20 years ago and what do we even do with this by if you had this one relationship but you’re not anymore what do we do with you so if there’s a problem with who gets counted in this research and I will tell you the way that researchers usually deal with this is to let individual self-identify okay to let individuals self-identify but even then it’s problematic because whose self identifying and there’s implications of coming out and we know that there are these implications and so

people stay closeted and today what I want to talk to you about is the importance of these individuals coming out and what I want to say right off the bat is there are going to be cases where coming out has negative implications for individuals okay and yet I am still going to suggest that in coming out we can as a whole move further ahead as a society okay so why come out why stand up and be counted if we might potentially face discrimination and ironically one of the reasons I suggest that people should come out and should stay end up and be counted is to reduce discrimination and I think this is one of my favorite television characters Anderson Cooper and in july two thousand twelve he wrote this it’s become clear and this was after people guessed is he isn’t he a lot of women had a lot of a heterosexual women had crushes on him and said no no no and a lot of men had crushes on him and said yes yes yes okay and so this was debated and here’s what Anderson Cooper finally telling us all on 2000 July of 2012 said it’s become clear to me that by remaining silent on certain aspects of my personal life for so long I’ve given some the mist make an impression that I’m trying to hide something something that makes me uncomfortable ashamed or even afraid and this is discussed distressing because it’s simply not true i’ve also been reminded recently that while as a society we’re moving toward greater inclusion and equality for all people the tide of history only advances when people make themselves fully visible okay so let’s talk about discrimination so what does discrimination against gay individuals and I’m going to again be very aware that I’m cutting off B and T for now I will pick them up later a little bit but it’s hard as a researcher to include all these groups and I think you’ll get it when I do when I show you this so let’s look at this group and say all right what’s the discrimination like that they are experiencing is it very overt is it legal to put up signs like this help wanted no gays need apply and the answer is it depends so right now there is legislation that is proposed and has been proposed for 20 years it’s called Enda the Employment non-discrimination Act and this has been proposed in Congress for 20 years and before those 20 years there was a similar similar legislation that’s been proposed since nineteen seventy-four and this would if passed prohibit hiring an employment discrimination on sexual orientation and gender identity by employers where there are 15 or more employees in 2013 finally this passed the Senate 64 to 32 so this was bipartisan and now it’s awaiting a vote in the house okay in July 2014 Obama passed an executive order that protects LGBT in hiring for federal contracts so we see that there is progress being made now while there’s not national legislation and we’re hopeful that this does get past soon what we do look at is the state levels and we see there is a ban against discrimination in DC and puerto rico and in 22 states and this is hard to keep up with because it’s changing it is changing we are an exciting tide there are 10 additional states that have an executive order that protect individuals in the public sector on the basis of sexual orientation and even for states that don’t have state legislation there are city ordinances and organizational policies so a lot of times our organizations and I’m an organizational researcher our organizations are leading the way okay there are small laboratories for what may happen in our larger communities and in our state and in our nation here is kind of a dis if you’re if you don’t like to look at the sort of display of names of lists here’s kind of a visual where you see the most tolerant Rhode Island the state level of acceptance and again this is from surveys it was printed in The New York Times and we see the least tolerant is Mississippi we see that the southern southern states are trailing in terms of acceptability so we can ask is discrimination a thing of the past if we see a lot of this is actually pretty lightly colored and we see these state laws and we see end up getting farther than it’s ever gotten before we can say is there still discrimination and with the recent successes it’s not clear so we see these passes of state

laws we see increases in workforce diversity we see reductions of EEOC claims the most egregious types we see decreases shown on surveys at least an attitudinal message and measures so when people ask how do you feel about these groups people say very positively very positively and we see this proliferation of additional policy so organizations will pass policies for same-sex benefits for very inclusive policies and have zero tolerance against discrimination well we wanted to examine this behavior further by going out into the field and studying discrimination against gay individuals and I’m going to tell you about a study that was done awhile ago this is 2002 but it is a study that I’ve repeated and I’ve used the methodology over and over again as recently as this year so I’m going to tell you in detail about this because it will set the stage for what we found and show you the types of methodology that I use I refer to this as the gay and proud study and what we wanted to do is we wanted to examine if and how discrimination is manifested for gay and lesbian job applicants okay and we conceptualize discrimination in two different ways formal discrimination which is the discrimination that you think about that the laws protect this overt discrimination access to hiring resources things that are illegal versus this interpersonal discrimination this idea of subtle discrimination some people call it in civilities some people call it micro transgressions I’m not trying to corner the market with this name it’s just what our lab called it but I see those things is the same sorts of things it’s not always illegal its interpersonal in nature what I tell people is think about somebody you don’t like okay you got that person got some extras okay and now that person comes toward you they’re walking directly toward you and what happens to your face and what happens to your body okay and that’s what I’m talking about when I talk about interpersonal discrimination so it’s expressions of reduced helping behavior reduce friendliness increased hostility rudeness interactions are shorter you try to get by them okay and other nonverbal behaviors so in this study what we did is we sent eight meal and eight female job applicants who were manipulated to be obviously gay or assumed heterosexual and they entered eighty four places of employment seeking jobs they wore jeans a jacket with pockets and a hat and this is what the Hat said now I want you to keep in mind that this was done in Texas so this is not the stigmatized condition okay this is actually like neutral okay to somewhat positive so this was what they wore in one condition and the other condition they were had that said gay and proud okay just a little bit more about the measures what they did is they always got a new hat after they entered the store they came back and got a new hat they did not know what their hat said so they are blind to the condition that they’re in they also had tape recorders and they put these tape recorders in their pocket and once they entered the store they turned on the tape recorder you just scared me you flash that one minute sign and I thought holy moly okay they went into the store and they asked can I speak to somebody who has hiring capacity I should also tell you we called ahead and all of these stores had jobs we only entered stores where they were hiring so then they asked can I speak to somebody who has who’s a manager who has hiring of capabilities and they asked for standardized questions do you have any job openings can I fill out an application anyway if I were to get a job here what would I do and can I use your bathroom the applicants then completed applications in 2002 they still did the paper applications they put me down as a reference okay and they were told in these retail stores there’s a lot of mirrors around don’t look at the mirrors if you happen to see what hat you have on let us know we will discard that condition we really want people to be blind we want to know what the treatment is like so after each store they come out and they fill out a survey that has seven items how friendly how hostile how rude how long was the interaction what was the eye contact how much smiling in a seventh I can’t remember and they guess what hat they have on then we also take those audio tapes and we ask people who have no idea there’s a gay and proud or a text and proud and we just say code these audio tapes and tell us also how

much positivity on these interpersonal measures there are okay I should also say they also coated the applicant to make sure that the applicant didn’t say okay I’m coming in I’m talking to you I perceive that this is not going well I must have the gay and proud hat on I am therefore going to cut off interactions with you so we wanted to again make sure that this was not being driven by the applicants themselves so we looked at formal discrimination this was whether or not they were told the job was available their permission to complete an application the job callbacks which we looked at over a three-month period of time who was actually given a job in how many and then their permission to use a bathroom which was in a place where it’s a public facility so by law they have to allow people to use it there were no significant results on the formal measures there are no significant differences on interpersonal discrimination this is the length of interactions we saw incredible differences okay the interaction was much longer with the texan and proud shorter with the gay and proud fewer words spoken with the gay and proud more perceived negativity from the applicants and more coded negativity that was not coming from the applicants themselves so we see this very strong interpersonal discrimination this mirrors attitudinal research on a lot of groups so people say oh yeah you know what I’m really favorable toward blacks and then there’s some negativity okay we found it in two other lgb populate into other samples doing the exact same thing I’m going to tell you about a third of Fort what will be a fourth one and I will tell you we found it with other groups so we found it the same lack of formal discrimination but presence of interpersonal discrimination with people I’m so sorry this should say obesity prosthetic although people might think pregnancy but that’s very different so this should say obesity okay so we again see this interpersonal discrimination this is Whitney with an obesity prosthetic and without it and we see it with people wearing a hijab and we also see it with people wearing pregnancy prosthetics so again this real if we’re just looking at these formal measures there’s no difference but if we look at interpersonal and dig a little deeper what we see is that there’s interpersonal discrimination now you might say well this is a good thing look how far we’ve come there’s no formal discrimination people can get the job and what our research has shown is actually our research and research that’s been done by other folks and meta-analyses is that actually it’s more problematic it is more problematic to get interpersonal discrimination when i say more problematic it’s been related to more negative health outcomes it’s been shown to decrease job performance more in workplaces and on the meta-analysis there’s both physical psychological and other outcomes that our workplace related to that they show differences in let me explain to you just for a second why this is might be the case because you might say well why how can that be the case it can be the case because if I am gay and I know that you have formally discriminated against me I say what can I do I mean this is about you okay so this is about your discriminatory behavior it’s outside of me however if it’s personal and you look at me the wrong way and you’re mean to me the wrong way what I do is I have to question that I have to engage in thought in cognitive work I have to say is that person mean is that person does that person not like me is it because I’m gay is this like a reaction to my sexual orientation and so it’s more befuddling people and we’ve shown evidence that it is it increases the cognitive effort that you’re going to okay and it increases it when people don’t have this interpersonal discrimination there’s no sort of thought suppression there’s no sort of need for people to say okay you know what’s going on how do I attribute this information so that seems to be really problematic in people’s behaviors all right so now that we’ve discovered there’s this interpersonal discrimination what can we do and we’re going to get to the part about standing up and being counted so let me tell you what we first looked at is we went back to the gay and proud study and we said okay so now that these individuals are experiencing this interpersonal discrimination what can we have them do as strategy so we sent them back in for more jobs and they were wearing their hats and they didn’t know what hat they had on again we have a Texas hat and a

again proud hat and they do one of three things they either acknowledge which is openly addressing their their hat so they say this is a really important part of who I am now again they don’t know what had they have on okay they’re positive so they increase their positivity they say you know I’m really excited it’s a really nice day out and I’m just very happy about this job ok so again showing just this increase of sociability and the third is individuation and it’s providing information that reduces the use of stereotypes so in that condition they say you know I’d love to work I just keep the only thing I can’t do is I can’t work on a part of Wednesday’s because I take my mother my grandmother to dialysis ok so again making us think that wow this person is something other than just textin and proud or gay and proud they have a grandmother who needs dialysis ok so what we thought first of all if your research or you get really excited when you find a replication we found a replication as I tell people I do research where good results are bad and bad results are good okay so we found again that those who are were wearing the gay and proud hats received more interpersonal discrimination but more importantly do any of the strategies reduce interpersonal discrimination and what we found was acknowledgement seemed to be the most beneficial and positivity was also successful we see some evidence for individuation but not as consistent so we have this acknowledgement we have people saying this is a really important part of who i am now we’ve done a series of other studies looking at acknowledgement looking at people who come out in the workplace who sees supportive organizational policies and feel like they’re more likely to come out who talked about it and you might think why should people come out if they face this discrimination and we argue it benefits a lot of people so we think it benefits the self especially if this is central to you so there are some people who say you know I don’t feel like I need to come out it that’s something I don’t want to do so it to the extent that it’s central it’s even more important we think it gives people relief there’s research that shows that when people keep secrets it’s really difficult to manage information there’s identity disconnects if you come out to some people and you don’t come out to others it’s something you have to say okay well now I’m in a conversation with a and B do they does a no and B doesn’t and it’s very there’s a lot of cognitive energy that goes into it so we say there’s let there’s no depletion and what we also find with acknowledgments is they help what Davis in 1959 acknowledged was breaking through interactions so if I tell you right up front if you’re a perceiver and you perceive that I’m gay and you’re thinking I know that person’s gay or is that person gear that person might be gay if I bring it up what we know is there’s more attention focused on it immediately but it actually fizzles okay that’s great we’ve actually done an eye tracker study where we look at the attention people place on a stigmatized feature on the face and what happens when we acknowledge and I think it’s the same sort of thing that happens with LGBT folks which is if you don’t acknowledge people are looking at that stigma that scar and they’re looking at it and we’ve tracked their eyes and then they look away and then they look then they look away and I think what they’re thinking is I really want to look at that how did that get there oh I can’t be looking at that they’re looking at me oh and I think that’s what’s happening in our brains to is we’re thinking is that person a boy or a girl or what you know and we’re so confused that sometimes the acknowledgement just disavows it’s the disavowal of deviance bring it up we’re going to focus on it this is a new stimuli and then we’re going to decrease and get back to normal business we also know that it benefits others so the social support that it gives is incredible okay it builds communities it builds bridges to know that you’re not alone to show that you’re a role model that you are somebody who has achieved and to mobilize forces and allow for the mobilization of forces we also know that acknowledgments are more likely when there is this benefit this beneficial relationship that other people are showing you so I did a study both on 114 transgender employees in the workplace and 220 gay men and 159 lesbians in the workplace and what these research what the findings showed was that people were willing to acknowledge and when they ignore all they were willing to acknowledge if organizational they were more likely to acknowledge if organizational policies were in place and when they acknowledged that led to co-worker support and it was the

co-worker support that initial co-worker support that led to more acknowledgments increased job satisfaction organizational increased organizational commitment and decreased job anxiety we also know that acknowledgments benefit the organization’s so it prevents organizations from saying we don’t need policies because we don’t have any of them those those those people don’t exist okay and what it does is it builds stronger communities and reduces the turnover in organizations it also increases the extent to which policies are passed organizational policies that protect and promote and finally I argue that it reduces universally it reduces stigma and I’ll show you some data on that too we think it changes social norms by regarding individuals favorably showing self-respect and changes in the culture and let me just show you again july two thousand twelve seemed to be a good time for quotes okay so here’s Entertainment Weekly and we say bye we see them right by daring anyone to overreact the newest generation of gay public figures is making a clear statement that there’s a new normal and it consists of being plain spoken clear and truthful about who you are and they’re referring to these celebrities who just out and say it’s a different world than it was for Ellen DeGeneres they say this is who I am this is who I am appreciate it get beyond it okay so again if you are LGBT I wholeheartedly believe you should stand up and be counted now what about allies allies can stand up and be counted too and we’ve done a couple of studies I’m mostly talking today about my own research but there’s a ton of research that Leslie ash Bernardo does and some other research that’s out there that talks about just how important allies can be when it comes to LGBT rights what we know from this research is that allies can express dissatisfaction with prejudice behavior directly toward the perpetrator so they can say they can question things and say what did you say again what did you mean by that I disagree with that okay we know from research that it’s more effective when it comes from a non-target so they’re seen as not stake in the matter and when it’s not direct so I don’t like it that you said that okay and it’s not aggressive so or like well I feel very differently about that so put it on yourself I feel differently I actually don’t agree with that I have a very different experience I know you may feel that way but I don’t okay and what we see is when we engage in this sort of confrontation the perpetrators perceive it is less of an overreaction when it’s less direct they feel less guilty and they’re more likely to change their immediate behavior we also did a study where we went out into the field and we modeled positive or negative attitudes toward gays and what we did here is it’s kind of a complicated design so essentially i am an experimenter i say to a person walking by I’d like you to take part in a survey would you like to take part in the survey yes of course you would so you’re in my survey and I say you know what oh here comes another person let’s get them to take part in the survey to would you like to take part in the survey and this second person coming is a Confederate that’s not a person from Texas that’s a fake person in my study okay so I say oh look at you two you’re here and I’m doing a study on attitudes and what I’d like to know is your attitudes about various groups and one of the groups is gays and lesbians and so I say you know what why don’t you my Confederate answer first and I say how do you feel about gays and lesbians do you feel like they’re trying to get too many rights do you feel like they’re being too vocal and in some cases they’re very neutral in other cases they condemn gays and lesbians in another time in other cases they support and then we ask our subject or naive subject okay now how do you feel and what we see is that their opinion mimics the opinion over here okay so we see that they are influencing these allies are influencing these naive subjects now we want to know well is that just because they’re feeling social pressure so we say two weeks later guess what we did we lost your data but we have your email so could we ask you again and we ask it in the same

questions and we use different questions and what we find again is that condone versus condemned discrimination has an influence two weeks later so modeling modeling acceptance really increases other people’s attitudes okay so allies you have a role finally I want to talk about the role of organizations and laws my colleague my colleagues Eden King and Jose Cortina wrote a wonderful piece about this about why organizations should care about LGBT issues why they should pass policies why this should be something of importance and it really has to do with corporate social responsibility so their quote is organizations have social and economic interest in building policies that support LGBT workers because organizations share responsibility for the social good of the communities in which they operate so the first thing we wanted to do was look at an organizational so let me also say there this is where my research in the last probably five years has focused what can organizations do what are the policies they can do and I’m just going to tell you a very brief study that we did because I want to move on to laws too but let me say that organizations can do a lot and I mentioned this before but they are laboratories for how things can work out and for LGBT many organizations have been ahead of times ahead of the times ahead of the laws and there are some organizations that are very behind the laws I but what we wanted to do was we wanted to look at how organizations could impact individuals with diversity training and many of you may say diversity training oh that’s a good thing and many of you may say diversity training that is something that is like kumbaya feel good and a lot of that is because it’s not based on a lot of diversity training is not based on empirical research so we wanted to do something that was like a diversity training segments that was focused on LGBT folks again I’ll just say it was just focused on gays and what we wanted to do was see if it mattered in an organization so we got access to all the incoming freshmen at Rice University and we got their attitudes and their pre-existing behaviors toward and we looked in this study at both gay and lesbians as well as black individuals and what we asked them is you know how often do you interact with gays and lesbians what are your attitudes and we have these pre-existing beliefs and then what we did is we had them come 20 week orientation week and in this session what we did is we did a two by two we said okay first of all we want you to do some goal setting we want you to set goals and tell us about things that you think you could engage in over your time at Rice that you think would be beneficial to gays and lesbians or blacks now the other thing that happened is they have what are called o-week advisors so these are people who advise them in their little groups of five to seven people and we also put them through the same thing we said okay now we want you to think about how you could pass this on to those that you advise what we wanted to mimic is in diversity training a lot of times people go to that one hour of diversity training and then they go back to their organization and there’s no managerial support the managers don’t even know what was going on in the diversity training so here we have managers that are and are not being trained with those individuals who are and are not being told to set goals essentially what we found is we did a four month follow-up in an eight month follow-up and what we found we and by follow-up I mean we looked at the attitudes and behaviors and we found that the behaviors increased at time 1 and the attitudes increased at time 2 so they were actually doing the goals that they had set and doing those goals had actually led to attitude change it’s I was one of the most impressive studies I’ve done it didn’t make it in a good journal that made it in a bee journal but I was so amazed okay so here comes our last one and that’s do laws reduce

discrimination and this was a field study I had a graduate student who said I really like those hats let’s put them back on and let’s go up to the Dallas area this is a study that was conducted in a metropolitan area in which cities have laws while neighboring cities just a few miles away do not so this is pretty interesting if the dot if you’re in the Dallas area there’s mesquite in Arlington and Fort Worth and some of these same metropolitan areas have protective laws banning discrimination on the basis of sexual orientation and others do not and we wanted to see do those laws make a difference if we go back and we look at interpersonal discrimination are those laws showing decreases in interpersonal discrimination so can the laws create another point at which people can stand up and be counted this is a to openly gay versus are texting and proud within the city law vs no law with an applicant design we go back into 240 retail stores we repeat the same methodology and what we find is interpersonal discrimination against applicants but only when there are no laws okay and here again is our manipulation here again are the it is okay so we can see that we’re controlling for things now you might ask well that’s correlational as a lot of people would maybe it has to do with the people who moved there we controlled for a lot of different variables I could tell you some of the things they’re kind of funny we controlled for the number of people who voted for Mike Huckabee in one of the elections we controlled for other if Eric factors but we still needed this laboratory follow-up for proof so we brought them we brought participants into the laboratory just to show the experimental aspect of this and what we told individuals is you’re going to be trained and you’re going to be trained on interviewing and you’re going to interview this candidate and here’s the laws that happen in that govern this city of Houston and we either told them that the laws protected people on the basis of sexual orientation or they did not protect individuals and then they have a candidate who comes in in on their backpack they have a pin that says gay and proud and they have a resume and the resume says leader of the LGBT community or they have none of those okay so in this case our Confederate is the job applicant and our participant that we’re interested in is the interviewer and what we find again is when they are given the the instructions that say there is no discrimination on the basis of sexual orientation they do not show the interpersonal discrimination it’s much more reduced so in conclusion I hope that you’ve digested this and if you haven’t here’s your opportunity to wake up and get the holes if the whole gist of my talk in one slide and that is that the incidence of LGBT is is considerable there are some laws but they’re not Universal and we hope that Enda gets past you can all support Enda discrimination still exists it’s particularly interpersonal and enter personal we see again and again is more negative it’s not something to be dismissed and I will again say to you okay so let’s say you make it into the interview and somebody is acting negatively toward you they’re acting like that way that that person that you don’t like is acting that doesn’t make you particularly want the job now you have an unfriendly climate so again interpersonal discrimination matters it reduces job performance we have evidence of that in the lab individuals need to stand up yes there will be some individuals who experience discrimination but for the good of the community I really advocate that everybody do what Anderson Cooper did what everybody did what what the people in Hollywood are doing which is be proud of it don’t allow people to knock you down for it allies need to stand up we need to not laugh at the jokes we need to say we don’t agree simple as that organizations can stand up they can stand up by protecting their individuals by having zero tolerance policies by having other protective policies in place by making safe spaces by having affinity groups and we also know that laws make a difference they make a difference in reducing discrimination so

I hope this talk has inspired you to stand up and be counted and I also want to give thanks to these are my collaborators and also there are when you do the kind of research I’m doing and you go out into the field there are literally pages and pages of undergraduate researchers that I would have to thank so I just thank those rice university superstars as a whole and I will leave you with another quote gay people are born and belonged to every society in the world they are all ages all races all faiths they are doctors and teachers and farmers and bankers and soldiers and athletes and whether we know it or whether we acknowledge it they are family or friends and our neighbors being gay is not a Western invention it’s a human this is the place where formal discrimination is still allowed these are some of the states these are the states we should be targeting and I want to end with stand up and be counted thank you that was 12 wonderful we have time for about five minutes of questions again if you have questions you need to move to the middle where the two microphones are standing right there I am just curious what you would find if you studied the attitude of law enforcement towards gay and lesbian homeless youth and if your results would show the same thing and how that would play out in terms of the implications of laws because they’re still seem to be a lot of problems okay so I just want to make before you leave I just want to make sure that I get what you’re thinking which is are you thinking you would still see formal discrimination right yeah so thank you it’s a very good question i think there are pockets of society and there are also states and there are places where i would feel very uncomfortable doing this research and sending my rice students who are the Confederates there are places where there are still formal discrimination and interpersonal discrimination and it makes me nervous every time they go out because I am always afraid that there’s going to be that one incident that is the formal incident that’s a big one I think when you’re talking about youth when you’re talking about police maybe that’s a con I don’t have that data so i don’t know i don’t know that population as well but what I can say is with my own data clearly there are areas where you would still see formal and you would see interpersonal hi I’m wondering if there are other effective practices in diversity and an tobias training that you could share with us sure would you like to hear about them at the individual at the ally level at the organizational level you can organize a shoe okay sure so at the organizational level of one of the things that we keep seeing his goal setting is hugely important just the simple it’s one of the simple organizational principles goal setting if you don’t know what it is it’s you set goals but let me tell you what you have to do you have to set self-chosen specifiable achievable goals they can’t be I want to lose weight okay you have to say how much you want to lose how you’re going to do it can you really do it and you have to make those and if you make those public they’re more likely to happen so we’ve done not only this study but we’ve done another study looking at goal setting again trying to reduce discrimination against various groups there were four in the other study that we did four different groups and we see again that people setting goals about their behaviors are very effective this is a very very cheap type of manipulation that people who do diversity training could do in about five to ten minutes and it’s empirically shown to having him there’s also the diversity the goal-setting literature is huge it’s very effective so that’s one I point to then there’s things that I mentioned at the end of my talk that can be done just passing organizational policies letting people know there are safe spaces letting people know there are others ok here are here’s what we support telling people here’s here’s our affinity group here’s the person you can contact making if you’re an organization makes them be the contact person get to know somebody who is very out and

standing out and being proud and would be willing to be designated as the contact person and make sure that person is visible or the meetings are visible and they’re held in conjunction having the managerial the upper level management be present not just talk the talk but actually walk the walk and be present at some of the meetings and you know call attention call attention to it so it’s not about being color blind to LGBT issues it’s about saying hey we have this we celebrate this yep I know you said that there hasn’t been much research with commonly erased sexualities like bisexual but has there been any at all with them or for example pansexual or asexual that has given any sort of invitation okay I’m just going to look to my colleagues in social now there’s there’s probably literature that is not in the social field but in the social field do we know any you’re going to hear from one of the reasons in about five minutes you’re going to hear about transsexual research her research and the one study that I did on transsexual employees in the workplace I think are the only two I know in IO and and social now there’s probably some in the clinical populations which makes me both sad and happy if it’s doing well if it’s seen as something that’s a problem and we’re looking at strategies on how to cope or change or do reparative therapy I’m very sad because I was just wondering what makes bisexual and pansexual and asexual on people harder to study oh I think it’s the identification I think it’s the identification issue I think nobody has okay so let’s talk about this area of research this is very when I first started doing this people said you can’t do that research first of all it’s not going to get published journals are not that’s not a very good issue you must this must be a meet we caught me search so instead of research as me search so you must have issues with this okay I do research on obesity so before people meet me they often think I’m the gay overweight woman okay who must have like some hang-ups and has some political agenda it’s hard to get the populations it’s hard to get the journal article the journal editors will also say geez you’re studying a really specific type of individual if who’s gay if you’re looking at self reports and looking at their experiences because these are individuals who are out and those are different from people who are not out what does it mean to be bisexual again going back to what is it is bisexual that person who had a college experience is it somebody who loves and is you know there’s a many different definition and I just think there hasn’t been research on lesbians and gays there’s been so little on lesbians and gays there’s been less on trying to figure out how to work within the parameters of what bisexual means and even less than that because I think bisexuals often just this is what researchers do i think is they see bisexuals as lesbian and gay unless they don’t acknowledge it at which point they get that gets closeted and they’re counted as heterosexual so our counting are being counting is not good we have time for one more question over here well I think one of the major points that you’ve made throughout this talk has been about how people who are LGBT need to stand up and be counted and I know that especially for a lot of young people who are LGBT they’re not only in danger of those kinds of interpersonal discrimination they’re all so they could be in real physical danger from coming out and standing up so do you have any ideas about how people in that situation could could contribute yeah I think that’s a wonderful question and I would hate wouldn’t it be horrible if somebody came out from hearing this talk and something horrible happened to them and then I would feel like I had that on my hands and yet if you look back to Anderson Cooper’s I mean I think when you’re talking about people who are under 17 I’ve been looking at mostly adults I I don’t want to answer that fully without carefully considering what that means what I would say is it’s really important for for schools just as they are organizations to to take charge and to understand that there is a

vibrant gay lesbian bisexual transgender community in each and every one of them that often remains hidden and we need to do more as a society to again make that something where there is knows where there is ZERO tolerance where there is where there’s evidence that people can get support where it is something that appreciated where it’s not something that people where there’s consequences for any bullying but I don’t think I think again so we’re starting to see these celebrities we’re starting to see people you know redefine the stigma is something that they’re proud of that should be happening in schools too and i think that the younger population can probably learn from what’s going on with the older population too okay thank you very much you