we have the incredible opportunity we had and we are glad we were successful to have with us a man who speaks about the unique challenges of women in the most challenging regions of the world you know I i really liked reading his column before he started writing about women but now after he started writing about women I love him so it’s my pleasure to introduce two-time Pulitzer Prize winner and new york times columnist mr. nicholas kristof not yet I want to say a couple of things about you with their Krista he brings readers of his column and his books like half the sky firsthand insights into the lives of women and men from around the world his writing his passion and advocacy illuminate issues of poverty Global Health and Human Rights to me one of the most amazing things about him is his wisdom in his writing and his voice and I want to give you just a very quick example I recently read an open by him addressing the discrepancy about the authenticity of the book three cups of tea by greg mortenson and the physical management of mr. Mortenson nonprofit and i was was very important that we i breed that and I really digested because he was our speaker last year at graduation and for those of you who have not read that book mr. greg mortenson discusses his effort to build schools in Pakistan Afghanistan after failed attempt to climb the world’s second-highest mountain k2 in his recent open mr. Christophe doesn’t adopt the sensational tones that have filled up the media about mr. Mortenson he reminds us that there might be some things that we need to be looked at but we should never forget that every little effort that’s made to educate girls is has major impact on societies and we shouldn’t be throwing everything mr. Mortenson have have done just because of the few allegations I was just really touched by that by that voice of wisdom and voice of reason which really characterizes everything he rise he’s traveled to more than 140 countries including multiple visits to hot spots such as Iraq Iran North Korea and most recently Somalia looking at drought and maternal mortality rate and he traveled to Egypt to also find out where the women are in tahrir square square he shares the stories of those he meets to inform and inspire all of us in his writing I think that was a turning point when New York Times had a special column related to women today we are absolutely thrilled to have him right here in New York not somewhere else in the world to share his observations insights and stories about women in urban area let’s put our forks down our knives down and give them a warm welcome thank you very much thank you very much I’m really delighted to be here I understand it’s gone very well this morning I’m also I’m just back from from Somalia and I’m sure everybody who is coming here has said how happy they are to be here well you know considering that a couple of days ago I was in Somalia headed to the airport and my security car full of gunmen their car broke down so considering the ultimate alternatives boy I’m glad to be here and I’m especially glad to be here because i think that the mission of the conference and of the center is going to be so important I of course believe that the central moral challenge for this century does involve the role of women and the truth is that increasingly women are urbanized and so the challenge is how to meet those needs in an urban setting there isn’t enough that we know about that and so you’re helping to address that and I really welcome that research that is going to come out of the work you do people are always a little bit surprised that a new york times

columnist and a man to boot should be writing so much about some of these kinds of issues let me explain a little bit how that came about it really arose from my travels and in particular some of the encounters that I had as a reporter and I think one that was kind of an epiphany for me was in Cambodia in the mid-1990s or so I was writing about teenage prostitution I went into a brothel in the tool court district of Panem pan and spent an afternoon interviewing two girls who had been locked up inside that brothel one was 15 no one had been sold at 14 by her stepfather and other had been kidnapped by a neighbor at 15 and sold to that brothel and they were locked up there if they had tried to run away they would have been seized by the police and sent right back and maybe what really shook me the most was that the fifteen-year-old told me that when she went missing when she was kidnapped her mother began searching all over Cambodia to try to find her in Cambodia if your teenage daughter goes missing the place you look as the red-light districts well after months of searching the mother went into that red light district and into that brothel and they had this joyous reunion and in my naivete I asked will then why didn’t your mother take you away and the girl said something that I just seared me she said the brothel owner who was a woman that the brothel owner said that she paid good money for me my mother would have to buy me back my mother didn’t have the money and I just could not believe that that was happening in the modern age and it felt just like slavery and the more Cheryl and I began to report on these issues the more we came to see them in a new light and to develop to central themes the first is that justice in the 19th century the central moral challenge of the world was slavery and in the 20th century the central moral challenge Westar telat Arianism in this century we really believe that the paramount moral challenge is the oppression that is a lot of so many women and girls all around the world now when we say that I think people sometimes perceive that as hyperbole as spin as a jerae shin to get people’s attention and it’s really not it really is absolutely how we see it one reason why has to do with a with the fact let me turn the tables on you and ask you about this are there more males or females in the world today let’s let’s actually have a show of hands here let’s put you on the spot if you think they’re more males in the world today can you raise your hand and if you think there are more female the world today can you raise your hand I actually afraid the first group was right the first group of about three people they’re more males in the world today there are more females in the United States they’re more females in Europe they’re definitely more females in this room and given equal access to food and health care women live longer in an egalitarian world there would be more females but the point is that this is not in the gala tarian world and then in much of the world this gender discrimination is lethal the upshot of that and also of sex selective abortion is that you have between 50 and 110 million women who are missing around the globe that is why there are more males and females worldwide and just one one way to slice and dice those statistics is that in any ten year period more females are discriminated against to death than all the people who were killed in all the genocides of the 20th century it’s just a stunning figure and when you think of it in those terms it’s hard I think to see why this would not be the central moral challenge of the century but the other theme that became increasingly apparent to us is that putting aside all the injustice is if you simply look at how you can most cost effectively address so many of the great challenges of this century whether it be global poverty whether it be carbon emissions linked to climate change whether it be social conflict terrorism then so often I mean though there are no silver bullets here nothing works as well as we might hope but typically the most cost effective intervention is going to be to invest in girls education

to bring educated women into the formal labor force to attend to their health and watch a virtuous spiral unfold that ends up benefiting men every bit as much as women and the that that is why we are you indeed that the that we shouldn’t see women and girls is the problem but as the solution and since the events of sunday with the capture of Osama bin Laden in Pakistan it’s maybe noteworthy to just divert for a moment and think about Pakistan and Afghanistan in that context I think that sometimes we sort of psych ourselves out and think that discrimination against women and girls is deeply embedded in a culture and that one really can’t do very much about it and it’s true that that is a challenge but until nineteen seventy one of course Bangladesh was a part of Pakistan and when Bangladesh became independent in 1971 it had very little going for it was incredibly poor it was famously described by Henry Kissinger as an international basket case the one thing that it really did do was invest in girls education today in Bangladesh there are more girls in high school than boys and it still obviously has enormous problems ahead but the result of all those educated girls was that they began to fill civil society organizations like Grameen like brac work on public health issues and they also began to enter the formal economy and all those garment factories producing shirts for the American economy gave a new dynamism to Bangladesh in Bangladesh we don’t see the same degree by any means of social conflict of terrorism in pakistan and other hand girls education and women were broadly truly have been neglected especially since the 1970s and and and president/ceo hawk and the upshot is that in the tribal areas that are most noted for conflict you have only three percent female literacy seems to me that one lesson and we see this in many other areas as well yemen would be a good example is that while there are no there’s no simple tool box for the kinds of problems that present us in pakistan afghan Stan that focusing more on investing in girls bringing those educated women into the labor force is an important element that we need to address more fully and it always horrifies me that since nine eleven we spent close to twenty billion dollars in Pakistan essentially supporting the Pakistan military which now it seems elements that may have indeed harbored Osama and on the other hand we have done almost nothing to promote education in Pakistan especially girls education in Pakistan or women’s health or this effort to to broaden society there and over that time period ten years I think we actually would be beginning to get some returns if we were relying on that kind of a tool box and the trade-offs are enormous for the price of one American soldier in Afghanistan for one year you can start about 20 schools and and endow them for the first three years of operating costs well I also want to offer a couple of caveats I think that there’s you know that while it’s very important to focus on women in urban areas because that is the future that is where increasingly the women are I think we should be wary of thinking that the problems in the urban area isn’t necessarily worse than the area’s than the problems in rural areas the problem is that you know women in rural areas face enormous challenges women in urban areas face enormous challenges there’s somewhat different challenges education is somewhat easier to deliver in an urban area on the other hand in an urban setting you have people who are plucked out of there their support network the hierarchies that you can work through tend to be shattered the traditional hierarchies and they’re also tend to be problems of insecurity and danger and sexual violence so the problems are are are different but not necessarily heightened and the other thing that I think we need to be wary of is that when when focused on all the terrible things that happen two women around the world there’s a tendency sometimes to think that the basic problem is men and maybe as one of the few men here I’m just feeling defensive but one of the things that really does strike me after reporting on

this so much is that I think that that is simplistic and it has struck me so often that the notion of some kind of global female solidarity is hugely overdone and it’s so many of the terrible things that happen to women all over the world happen at the hands of fellow women most of the human traffickers around the world are women most of the people who decide to cut a girl’s genitals are the mothers the in in India a vaccination decisions are made by mothers and a mother is only half as likely to vaccinate her daughter as to vaccinate her son so and the other side of that is that if we want to elevate this issue on the agenda and get more resources and get more attention to it then it’s very important that this not just be considered a women’s issue because that will immediately marginalize it and at the end of the day you know the Holocaust wasn’t just a Jewish a few civil rights weren’t just a black issue and when you have somewhere around 50 to 120 million women missing around the globe that’s not just a women’s issue it’s a vast human rights issue that concerns men as well as women and we need to form a united front to address them a few key issues that I think need to be very high on some kind of an agenda focusing on women’s health in urban settings one is that is very near and dear to my heart is the notion of human trafficking which really is a modern form of slavery in fact the there are a couple of differences that that are illuminating one has to do with scale the peak of the transatlantic slave trade was actually back in the 1780s when you had just under eighty thousand slaves a year transported from Africa to the new world just under eighty thousand these days the numbers are somewhat disputed but it appears that about 800,000 people are transported across international borders each year are trafficked across those borders and that does not even include those who are traffic within a country which is a common form of trafficking I mean the scale in other words is greater than at the peak of transatlantic slavery and another difference has to do with the value if you will the commercial value of somebody who has been trafficked one thing that protected slaves in the early 19th century was that they were valuable to their owners and the owners did not want them to die for that reason in 1840s a healthy young slave was worth in today’s money about 40,000 US dollars in contrast you can buy a girl in a brothel in India and Pakistan in Cambodia in Malaysia for a few hundred dollars and as a result they become disposable and that is indeed why brothel owners in those countries who periodically kill girls who are uncooperative some of you may know that in 2004 I did something that raised a lot of eyebrows and journalistic circles I ended up buying two girls from their brothels in Cambodia one I paid just over 100 one I paid 150 dollars for other just over two hundred dollars for and the thing that maybe shook me the most was that I got receipts when you get a receipt for buying a human being in the 21st century that really should be a disgrace on this age and in working with him after I took them I worked with a Cambodian NGO took him back to their home villages and set them up in small businesses and we had a series of a people’s 11 tended to work out one was resettled quite well the other one ended up a few days later running back to the brothel she turned out to be addicted to methamphetamines and she got her meth from the brothel and we tried a couple more times to get her out each time she desperately wanted to start a new life but she also had this incredible craving for meth and she couldn’t get over it and so I thought that this was hopeless that she was going to end up dying in that brothel but and I think that indeed one of the challenges with human trafficking more broadly is that we kind of give up that

we think that prostitution is the world’s oldest profession it’s unfortunate it’s tragic but it’s just in del will be a part of life and the truth is that my experiences really have taught me that we can make real progress on this it may well be that a thousand years from now there will still be prostitution but there doesn’t there don’t you don’t have to have a situation where you have 14 year old girls kidnapped and locked up in cages and in this case this girl who ran back to the brothel repeatedly after I’d given up on her there wasn’t facts and further movement and it turned out that because various journalists including me were writing articles about the problem in Cambodia the government began to get a little bit embarrassed and because also the US government was doing an annual trafficking in persons report that embarrassed the Cambodian government the government began to send word through the national police force to try to clamp down a little bit now they did not actually close down the brothels they did not actually arrest the trafficker in this case but they did began to demand more and more in bribes the upshot was that the trafficker in this case who ran that brothel she you know she’s a businesswoman she was just trying to make money the best way she could and with there being knees in facing demands for bribes she just found that it wasn’t worth her while anymore running a brothel she closed the brothel and turned it into a grocery store and this girl in questions my mom then you know was able to leave the brothel married a policeman who had been a customer probably because if you want to get a steady supply of meth in Poipet Cambodia than a policeman is it good is a good source of it and you know this isn’t it’s not an ideal solution in anyways but it was a reminder that one really can chip away at these problems and make progress and we shouldn’t just accept realities as they are we can change those those realities I think it’s also important to remember that issues like trafficking or not only a problem of urban settings in places like Cambodia or India Pakistan but also very much here in the US and it’s true that the atrocities involved in trafficking tend not to be quite as horrific in the US as they are in some of those other countries but they are still enormous and we can’t begin to talk credibly to other countries about their problems unless we do more to clean up our own act I think we also tend to have a misunderstanding misapprehension about the nature of trafficking in this country we tend to think that it involves just foreign women being smuggled into the u.s. that is indeed one element of it but I tend to think that the biggest part of it and also truly the worst part especially in terms of the age of the girls involved has to do with domestic American grown girls who run away from home ended up under the control of these pimps it typically is a girl from a troubled home maybe a rebellious girl luzon difficult terms with her mom then her mom’s boyfriend hits on her at 13 she runs away to the bus station and the me person on the lookout for girls like her at the bus station is the pimp and the notion that a pimp is a business partner of these girls is a complete misunderstanding of that relationship every penny that the girl learns every penny they don’t you know there’s no like you know 50-50 split every penny a hundred percent goes to the pimp she is completely under his control and it is incredibly aggravating when prosecutors and police then go and arrest those fourteen year old girls and send them to do van all detention and let the pimps go and let the John’s go we need to change our law enforcement approach and a particular go after those pimps they are just as subject to incentives as that Cambodian Brock loader that I mentioned we can change their setting and get them to steal cars instead or do whatever else we can change their motivations well another issue that I think has to be really high on the global agenda as we look at women’s health and cities is reproductive health generally and this is one frankly that is to some degree in a budget crisis right now it was one that I was

reporting on last week in Somalia and maternal mortality and maternal health is one that has particularly galvanized me in the course of my reporting to come across women who died incredibly needlessly in childbirth when we have we know exactly how to save those lives but the problem is that they have three strikes against them they’re poor and they’re female and they just are not on the agenda of that country and in addition to the maternal debt in Somalia one woman in 10 will end up dying in childbirth 11 and 10 in her life lifetime risk of death and childbirth for every woman who dies you have about 20 who were injured in childbirth and I’ve seen a lot of really wrenching things in my travels but maybe the thing that is just about more heartbreaking than anything else is an obstetric fistula and I’m sure you many of you know about them typically it’s a it’s a child birth injury that very often occurs to a girl whose pelvis isn’t fully formed isn’t ready to have a baby there’s no doctor around the baby gets stuck the baby dies she suffers internal injuries at leave her in continent she’s leaking wastes she smells she often has foot drop so that she nervous and her legs as she can’t walk and her life is effectively over unless he can get unless he can get surgical help the one of the the people who most move me is an Ethiopian girl mahaboob uh who was married at age 13 to a man in his in her in his 50s promptly got pregnant delivered at 14 and the bush by herself suffered a fistula she because because she was stinking to put but to be blunt about it that folks there put her in a hut and took off the door so the hynas would get her that night she’s unbelievably strong unbelievably resilient unbelievably courageous there was a stickin there in the hut and all night she waved it around her head and shouted at the hyenas to keep them away at dawn she knew that there was a American missionary who lived about 30 miles away she said off she good she couldn’t walk she said off crawling to get to him I finally arrived half dead on his doorstep and he could immediately tell from the smell that she had a fistula I took her to the auto sob of a fistula hospital in the capital of Ethiopia and she got $350 surgery that gave her her life back and I was once telling the story of this girl and one of the people in the audience was a obgyn named Steve Aerosmith an American and it turned out that Steve had been the one who would repair that fistula and he remembered maha booba very well and the aftermath of it was that when she was recovering from that operation the she was in the hospital so the staff asked her this would help out with odds and ends and they realized she was incredibly bright and the answer to help out more and more and she’s now a nurse at that hospital it’s just a reminder that you know what we’re dealing here is not just tragedies but also opportunities we can take these people who were squandered assets and turn them into into productive resources for their families their communities and their countries if we’re going to make progress on issues like maternal mortality though we have to also think about other aspects of reproductive health and one of those has to be family planning you can’t if you can have if you can reduce the number of pregnancies in some of these countries by half you reduce the number of maternal deaths by at least half in Somalia one of the families that I talked to that had just lost a mother a mother of eight she there had been no family planning anywhere around was completely unavailable and the nurse at the local health PO said that if she had condoms if she had injectables then at least some people would use them would take them but there was absolutely nothing available and use of modern

contraceptives there is about 1% we can do an awful lot better and it was so discouraging to see support for international family planning assistance slashed in the latest budget compromise after another effort to reduce it to zero but meanwhile they’re actually there was one element of family plot 1 family planning program that did get through Congress this spring anybody know what it was it was a little obscure it was sponsored by Dan burden the Republican congressman passed unanimously on a voice vote it was contraception for wild horses in BLM lands in the West and what do you say when Congress provides contraception for wild horses but slashes contraception for human beings it is just heartbreaking and the upshot of that is going to be more lives lost the other aspect of reproductive health that I was reporting on in in somalia has FGM you know one of the great global Human Rights challenges about three million girls year in Africa alone have their genitals cut and this is something that the mothers are essentially deciding essentially father’s out of that that decision making and this since the 1970s you’ve had a major international effort to end FGM that is essentially accomplished almost nothing in the country of Guinea which I visited recently FGM is now punishable by life imprisonment and yet 99% of girls are still cut in Somalia what was kind of heartbreaking was the discovery that people have found that there because there are campaigns against the the kind of cutting that goes on in somalia’s golden fibrillation it’s the most extreme kind that because that campaign has gotten nowhere that they have essentially changed their strategy and now they’re urging parents mother is to continue go ahead and can you to cut their daughters but to use a milder form of FGM I because that will save lives both from infections at the time and much later from childbirth and I think I think it I mean frankly it makes sense they may have a convincing case that they’re going to save more lives if they do that but of course it’s not a very cheery exciting message from an NGO that boy we’re convincing mothers to cut their daughters in a less brutal way but it’s a harsh reality that is out there there are a couple of ways in which we sometimes psych ourselves out from this and of course for Cheryl and me and for this conference the aim isn’t just to inform it’s really to galvanize people they get people involved one of the things that I found exciting and talking to people about how things are going with how excited people were to go out and do something not just feel enlightened and you know that really is the the test of whether this event is going to be a success not whether you feel more educated whether you go and do something and you have a lot of ideas that you’ve heard earlier we’ve also we started a website called half the sky movement dot org lists a bunch of great organizations in the back of half the sky with lists of great organizations as well that are doing really good work but there are a couple of ways in which we psych results out I think and one is the question of does it make a difference and I fear actually that the latest uproar over Greg Mortenson is going to add to those kinds of doubts and the truth is that you know those doubts are legitimate and I sometimes think that humanitarian organizations / promise how easy it is to bring about change the truth is it’s harder to help people than it looks and I think it is worth acknowledging anybody who has traveled around the developing world has seen a lot of projects that have not gone as planned right now we’re seeing in in in Andhra Pradesh in India something of a backlash against microfinance and I think part of it was that the success of microfinance brought in more players including the for-profit players who weren’t as good and but I also think that some of that is because people in this space do if you really believe in something then it becomes very easy to especially when you’re fundraising to exaggerate how

easy it is to make an impact and it’s hard the real problems with corruption and Chad there was a study of money that was intended for rural health clinics and for every dollar there was allocated only three cents actually reached those clinics these are real problems but I guess might respond to that is that while those problems are real anybody was travel in the developing world has also seen extraordinary examples of programs that have had an amazing impact and I think we’re getting better at figuring out what kinds of interventions work and that’s one reason why the research is going to come come out of your work it’s so important because there have been real strides and better research and is the the latest sort of exciting development and in the research has been randomized controlled experiments where you it’s equivalent of double-blind experiments with pharmaceuticals but you assign different areas randomly to a control group and an intervention group and you see what works and some of the lessons have been really fascinating for example to get more kids in school it turns out that the most cost-effective way of doing that costs only three dollars to get one more year of schooling is something we would never think of you know what it is deworming we don’t think of deworming because none of us have worms most kids and much of the developing world have intestinal worms and this is a particular problem for four girls because after they begin menstruating they’re already anemic there or subject they’re more likely to be anemic and those intestinal worms will add to that in a man they’re going to be weaker their name sicker they’re going to be more likely to miss school and you candy worm a child with one pill of all been dissolve in will deworm a trial for about a year cost about twenty cents and it has a very very dramatic effect on school attendance so we’re getting smarter about what kinds of interventions work and and that that is really making a difference and I guess the other thing I would say about making a difference is that I think in the past we sometimes thought that the way of making a difference is solving a problem and we sometimes aim to change international architecture and develop new covenants passed laws that approach hasn’t always worked really well increasingly I’ve been believer in the approach that seems to be gaining more traction now which is well still pushing for top-down efforts also do bottom-up efforts you know start a school start a clinic start a deworming initiative somewhere and it may not solve the global problem but if you can be worm the kids in a particular school in a particular refugee camp then whether or not it solves the global problem for those kids it may well be transformational and the the the the story there that you know it’s so hokey then I’m embarrassed to say it but it’s the it’s the Hawaiian parable of the starfish that have washed up on the seed you know this the boy is walking along the seashore in Hawaii and the starfish were washed up and he’s throwing the starfish back and a man comes up and says what are you doing there millions of starfish you can’t make a difference and the boy just reaches down and pulls up another one throws it back in the sea and says well sure made a difference to that one that’s truly exactly what anybody can do for just stunningly small amounts of money the final way in which we psych ourselves out I guess has to do with the question of why should I care and maybe especially at a time of economic difficulties you know we’re feeling the pinch we tend to look after our own needs and becomes easier to tune out those of other people whether at home or abroad and I guess part of the answer to why should i care is that if you’ve actually encountered some of these people you’ve actually encountered a girl is dropped out of school for one of ten dollars in annual fees then you don’t ask that question if you’ve met a girl in a brothel who’s locked up there and it’s going to die of AIDS you don’t ask that question but the other answer to that is that one of the things we’re learning is that while our efforts to help other people frankly have a somewhat mixed record you have an almost perfect record of helping ourselves and one of the things that Cheryl and I really learned in writing half the sky was we we wrote about needs abroad but we also wrote about groups of Americans who were working together to try to start very initiatives to help

and typically they would start feeling oh boy this is a burden as a sacrifice I got so much to do but when they got more engaged and especially when it went beyond writing checks actually doing something then they began to feel they were not only empowering people halfway around the world or on the wrong side of the tracks in their city but truly empowering themselves and it’s also one of the lessons of neurology and social psychology in over the last 15 years or so about what makes us happy the answers are very complex and actually some interesting work on this has been done at UPenn but but one of the answers to that question that seems to make a difference in our happiness level is some it’s connecting to some cause larger than ourselves and that’s what that’s what we’re talking about today and it also offers a new perspective on on our own lives let me just leave you with the story of a friend of mine a young American woman who was an aid worker in Sudan in Darfur I met her in Sudan she was unbelievably tough there she saw things that nobody should ever have to see worked with women in particular and was unbelievably strong and courageous never flinched then she came back over Christmas vacation here to the US she’s in her grandmother’s backyard she totally lost it you know what it was her grandmother had set up a bird feeder in the backyard my friend was there thinking about how she just come from a place where babies were being thrown into bonfires because of the color of their skin and the tribe they belong to and she thought how she had the incredible good fortune to be born and grow up in a country where we take security pretty much for granted where we have the wealth much not only to feed and clothe and house ourselves but to help wild birds get through the winter and she just thought about that and her good luck and the responsibility that comes with it in a new way and that’s what that’s when she lost it and in the same way all of us here you know the fact that we are here means that we truly have won the lottery of life and the question becomes how one goes about just charging that responsibility this cause and one of its many many manifestations some element of it that appeals to you and in the course of that I think you will find yourself just a little bit happier more fulfilled gain a little bit of perspective and help change the world just a little bit thank you very much for having me here thank you very much you’re embarrassing me you’re inspiring you’re inspiring in your with your pin and you’re aspiring in person and I think you are calling us to action here and there are maybe a couple of questions and there are also a microphone if you would like to ask question well I’ll start with this question that came from you we talked a lot about human trafficking and n you have done the same mr. mr. camp crystal the it’s a huge issue in the United States is largely has gone unnoticed by healthcare providers how do we think when we think of trafficking we think it’s somewhere else we don’t think that it is right in our backyard here in New York who should point this out who’s who is best situated to locate and treat the victims they are basically invisible in our health care system and they are invisible in our city this is a group here that has been really talking about action what can we do I think they are inspired so I think it would be really helpful to hear from you on that well I think we are getting a better sense of what works and there are a lot of different in event there is no silver bullet but in a sense there is a silver buckshot that can address it and it’s not going to solve the problem but it can make a real difference among the interventions that do seem to make a difference one is much more aggressive law enforcement against the pimps as I mentioned earlier and some jurisdictions are beginning to make progress on that including new york city new york city

seems also interested in emulating what is called the swedish model which is also the model that is getting traction in europe and seems to be i mean when i started looking into this i was sympathetic to a sort of legalize and regulate model on the basis that then you can at least get public health access to girls in the business and prevent underage trafficking in fact legalize and regulate model has not worked very well it tends to create a parallel market and underage girls and the Swedish model of treating the those in prostitution as victims getting social services and treating those purchasing sex as the criminal offenders that seems actually to work much better and that then reduces because it reduces demand it reduces the price of commercial sex which reduces the incentive to traffic people into it so I’d love to see jurisdictions in the u.s. move toward the Swedish model some jurisdictions including San Francisco have experimented with John schools but where the John’s are sentenced to have a sort of day of education in which the girls have been traffic speak to them and I think that that seems to have an impact the that they typically think that these girls or they are completely voluntarily and when they actually hear the stories they get pretty shaken they see it in a different light and there are a lot of other steps that groups are working on but I’d say that part of it is pressure on you know on district attorneys on prosecutors on on politicians to change the way we prosecute and go after pimps in particular thank you you’ve been traveling recently too many parts of the world that has revolutions for democracy could you talk a little bit about what’s happening to women in in those resolutions and and you have any concerns about their voice in them in the various Middle East revolutions women it seems to me were actually more of a presence I think than most Americans believed and part of it is that you know we tent or view of what is happening tends to be framed by television imagery and television images always end up focusing on you know rocks being thrown back and forth or people being clubbed and it’s true that the women were somewhat less involved in the rock-throwing than the men but they were out there on the streets and whether it was in Cairo and Tahrir Square weather is in rain i mean i remember in bahrain seeing these just unbelievably brave women marching toward the police and soldiers who a day earlier it opened fire and killed some of these protesters and those women marched down the street right toward them i thought i was going to watch a massacre they showed unbelievable courage now where this goes I don’t know Americans tended to be very concerned that in countries like Egypt the Muslim Brotherhood was going to end up as the victor and the woman would end up worse off that was not the view of those women out there protesting and I tend to think that that is likewise not the case i think that you know i think would be a real mistake to bet against democracy in any of these places and I and they really did play a much more significant role than I think a lot of people in this country think so one last question what starfish example can you give each one of us to leave here today well so we can make a difference in the world there are you know there are so many interventions that that really matter but I think maybe if I had to if you really force me to pick I would i might pick education and girls education as the single thing that affects so many dimensions of life that it improves a girls I mean when that girl is is an adult she is going to raise her own children better her offspring are gonna be more likely to survive we tend to think of family planning and contraception often in terms of injectables or the pill or whatever else the most in many ways the most effective form of contraception is girls education

you educate a boy it has a modest effect on his family size you educate a girl it has a dramatic effect on the number of children she will have it has an extraordinary effect and it also means that she will generate more income where she’s educated and there’s also pretty good evidence that when you educate a that when a woman generates income this research is utterly demoralizing if you’re a man that that that women when they generate income or when they have control over over assets that that money is going to be more likely to you be used to start small businesses or to support children’s education and yet only one percent of the world’s property is actually titled to women and educating girls addresses so many of these of these aspects and one starfish example there is a girl in Uganda name is betty short for Beatrice betty birra and she grew up there was not sent to school by her parents because she was a girl her parents thought oh she’s a girl she can fetch water she can fetch firewood she can look after her siblings and then when she was nine and it already missed three years of school her parents got a goat through heifer international sure you know heifer as a church in Connecticut they sent we’ve got six goats one Christmas and one of those goats ended up in the hands of Beatrice’s parents they sold the milk from the goat and I think God bit of a nudge from heifer and used that milk money to pay Betty school fees she rocketed to the top of her class stayed to the top of her class all during elementary elementary school in middle school and high school began to do really well in nationwide exams and then became the first person in her village to go abroad to study graduated from Connecticut College and is today working on global girls education in the developing world and to me and EDD her graduation party at Connecticut College she pronounced herself the luckiest girl in the world and said it’s all because of a goat you