There is no way to discourage people Or is it your own? I don’t know OK, good morning, good afternoon and good evening to all And thank you for joining us today for day two of the world aquaculture Webinar. So first some brief housekeeping and that is that you can find the That culture 2020 exhibitor list on world wide Web dot words dot Or images on the screen in front of you all pre recorded videos will be on the web page Got 30 days Will happen and life human aid derailment So yesterday we heard about the diversity of different aquaculture systems and the factors that will impact impacting on his production of filler. Who fish and? shrimp from Doctor Mathias Harvard hit a vehicle culture? at the old daughter pressure, then share with us some of the different components and designs in an Apple culture system that can be used to mitigate this issue So we actually have two sessions planned today on diseases and trim and 2nd session will be on sequence safety We’ve had to swap out speakers around, so Doctor player would be And as we know, disease is actually a key concern in all intensive livestock production systems, and there is no exception when it comes to equipment So I would like to briefly introduce our first speaker data Playa shrieking young Son up is the principle researcher at Biotech and STD And will be speaking on the response to the threat of divine and shrimp aquaculture Doesn’t Lie’s main research interest is in the shrimp pathogen? interactions and looking at strategies for the prevention? and control of pathogens that cause disease outbreak in the shrimp culture industry, she has a team that’s working on a national shrimp genetic improvement but nears monotone as part of a selective breeding program. For this tie. Indigenous species Logic layer is very keen on national international networks for 40 Animal health surveillance their team has been part of the UK time collaboration working on the International Network for Shrimp Health as a communication point for shrink research, I will now hang the Florida Doctor Commodities The Oriental porn XL Palamon Carini Crowder

They are still in freshwater clipfish she led quite equally, not as The less ramping fish broken balloons The wide leg trim. The pin is one of my and also the prawn of dinners Microbic Liam, including mycobacterium ependencies, an mecca, Beckham Rosenberg GI They also too speechy of clap Have been reported to be experimentally infected with the with the DA V1 in a laboratory A disease caused by the I V1 results in massive majority accompanied by the grocery of disease Select the lights by the Hit with a pen. Cleared the atoll fee with a certain color Usually has an ML soft shell with empty stomach and cuts At the moment, stream seems to the bottom and immortality in the pond can be up to 80% And echo size of the IB one infection is not clear in the pineal trim but in the macro bay cameras in Bayesian I you can see this in the figure here. The white area inside the color base at the base of the log loss term Let me be clear, sure and then in the penal trim So in the laboratory schlange it living, high mortality of chillax Very clean out as the procambarus cranky I an little penises, random I injected with the DI V1 population you In theory it can be seen with 100% or 0 survival Within 14270 days On your right hand sized to detemine cerebral the root of the Do everyone infection And it really includes here was including the immersion chilling Delivers car wash and also the pill almost which I resulted in all 100% percent maturity in the pianist One of my The histopathology sized of the DI V1 infection Include this particular morning collect allies by the presents of unique basophilic cycle. Pass the inclusion Be shown here in white A man with this color lipstick and pyknotic nuclei It had get broken off the DAV one Infection is including the hematopoietic tissues Games able to pancreas poorly Bad points Link file again and muscle The news that PCR for the DAV one infection has been developed Using this ATP is prime And the inventor just them two screen this A farm animal. They collect 600 farm animals including little penises when the mine Penes tenancies by Kobe came loose in Bertie I an make wake him japonicus I’m sorry the opinions. Japonicus ann It’s crowded within 625 Sample tested 99 of them

will far post team and with different crusty bread. For example as you can see in this table their highest positive rate was found in the from Mecca, Bacon Blue Simple GI of 50 whereas the trim PS1 of my in Chinese is about 15% Read them into the queue, develop in 2017. Based on this a TPS gene We use them to ski in our bootstrap in a program to Insta bit operating strong stock from Y capital specific specimen of P monodon from the Indian Ocean Our group participated by screening individuals from capture batch for a list of 13 known viral pathogens and parasites by nondestructively. PCR methods. While hey will be here in a biosecure facility In April 2018, we detect this DAV one in one batch, however To our surprise, all of these 80 PS Plus teep sample will cause the normal And show no growth side of A V1 infection Besides the historicity of these trim to normal I’m sorry, happy to paint lady, teach you and the lymphoid organs No surprise, he sells come with the in situ hybridization, usually the positive reaction of the DAV one using the deck, the DVD label Pro showing the positive direction of curve in the connective tissue in the attorney statio space between the hip depend detecting pools. However, in the wiper stalk with positive PCR for the DAV one You’re posting the action or curl not in the cytoplasm, but in the nuclei of the temple. Metrics, sales and sell in the sphere Loi So from this world with owed you that the white captures people down Brewster from Indian Ocean I posted the I V1 by using this Atps PCR detection There is no best side of the ivy one or no histological region in this press TPCR boost wouldn’t or step, however this curious in SQL hybridization signal that cow in the nuclei of infected cell is interesting Is this a test, the pathogenic, different among these? geographical regions, the monitors? as to be done. We have package this s study Keep in General Bio archive along with the peer review journals so you can look at this Study in the bio type now So In conclusion, for the recommendation so The synonyms for Pam, the post doc or preserving quarantine and her certification Friday one urgently needed in major shrimp producing country And the emergence of the web DAV ryone should leave leave to the warning that polyculture of different species of crustacean Maybe Englisch high list for high? spread of disease increase of susceptible? specie an evolution of the pathogens? The group up quickly in 2018 or o report reported that the light pulley kit is power positive for the IV 1, so their life it should be checked or decontaminated prior to use From our result, we showed that the why capture modeled on from the Indian Ocean That intend to use as a booster in our program With apples TPIV 1 So

The To warn that this why capture P Moran should be subjected to PCS testing for the IV one before use However, we would recommend the domesticated stop or P mode on SP A4 DA V1. Then the why capture was stopped So that’s all my presentation. Thank you for your attention When he does, a player that was a very interesting presentation or not it one and also personally for me the sharing of finding this virus in public keys which are used in my feet for shrimp mirrors the findings and other pathogens functions is well We’re now opening the floor to the Q&A session If anyone has any questions to do, ask don’t apply about presentation. You can post it on the Light Event Committee chair So that’s another column which should be to your right. So there’s a little button at the bottom of your screen or the top How do I nest in Sweden? Which you can clip onto those questions We can get some time No new question how we would move on with our next speaker Or maybe I could logical liar if I could ask him a question in your second last life mentioned there It’s mentioned about finding a way to Did one virus from the light for the keys before feeding it Is there a method to that? kind of used to support this effect? I should like this we produced in Sterile Heenan Barn index refunded For me I’m hearing you not so clear, but I would repeat the question by you asked me about the public key. If they got infected with DI V1, how to cut? the contaminated yes, yeah, OK so actually I’m a bit the other Why last that in fact? the product key you may normally do check them with the PCR and if the PCR positive we recommend you to discard it better than using it to feed the trim He I see and your Yes, that’s it OK Thank you, so that’s so the recommendation of Applier would actually be to discard any public eats that are found to be infected or carrying this virus OK, so we have two questions here and I will post the 1st first question to you The first question is Is DIV one major concern? or veneers banner? Mine now So far to what I know the one only be reported in China And not from anywhere else So Can you repeat your question again? I’m sorry Yeah Is Come on Nearest Alamein now again but however even through it has been reported in China but we recommend that the other country to start to detect

it or check your stop with this VIP one primer, especially given my end, the freshwater pond, the macro baking because as you see from my presentation that Christine Anymore we did hit that in China Youtube people should be concerned about the I V1 in PS1 of mine Thank you Doctor Kleiner an maybe we can look at the third question here in Release means, so there is actually a question about whether specific primers Can be developed for the ID one and I think this was covered in your presentation And I would like to add more or that Maybe one genome sequence has already been published in the public database so beside the primary side by the other 80 PS team you can also use this genome sequence to decide the timer that suit You are a possibility by yourself And Then that question Yeah, question asking about Any known treatment or control? strategies for the ID one? Would that be? I need anything a fan can do to treat infected stop or to stop the virus from being introduced to define At least to beat the bio security approach like the other viruses control the to revent into the farm, but the major message about the DMV one that we’re concerned now is about the polyculture. You can see that now people, culture model, or sorry one of my with the macro bacon, and that can cause the outbreak And the evolution of the pathogen similarly. So that is the major recommendation that the people that do Palmer that used to bully culture should be aware of that I agree that the client. So when father’s Do Far more than one species in the same agriculture system. They should be testing For example, the macrobrachium and also Penny’s bend in buying for this package, and in addition they should also be screening any live feeds like polychaetes data. Fetching the shrimp. Yes, that’s correct Yeah, so good bio security is very important Viruses and languages and as also the use of these SPF stock Is recommended SPS stock don’t apply, and if you could take one last question that we have here, there’s a question about whether DI V1 can be transferred across to all shrimp species. And I know in your presentation earlier you’ve showed three species of shrimp branch. The virus has been Found it So yeah, I think there is more A pina specie has been found to be the PCR positive for the DIY DAV one more and more I mean in several communication they found more Pinus species that susceptible for the DAV one So for example like Chinese is Anymore So I mean, it’s possible that this the everyone In fact, many PSPC Thank you very much. Have a compliance so that we We have so much to learn about shrimp pathogens It seems that every few years there is a new one That is thrown out to us So OK, we have one more question in the Q&A, but I We can look at it

Maybe we take this last question in the panel discussion later because it’s a bit broader about dumb Yet screening for life eats for certain viruses or diseases and so thank you very much. Delta Kuliah gave you because you will have to join us for the panel discussion. At the end we will now proceed with presentation from our second speaker Doctor Denise Fernando around. Current cover Will be speaking about the Microsporidian EHP Diverse And Rose site as soon have it open, right? nd white PC should syndrome in shrimp so in the past 20 years of his work in affording animal health Doctor R around during has collaborated with the FAO and Hawaii on various projects he has also been a frequent consultant for shrimp, bonds and beat companies Yes, Daddy importation risk analysis for introducing pennies, Dynamite an monotone into this alternate of the line where he also set up a quarantine strategy for import and movement of shrimp As a by a security consultant for the Ministry of Agriculture in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Doctor aranguren was responsible for setting up a bio security strategy for the shrimp industry and diagnostic them on trees He is VOA expert for necrotizing better pancreatitis Or infection with this other pack. Pedo backed up open the UI so I will now hand over the floor to doctor Good morning everyone I’m gonna start sharing the screen to show my presentation Thank you for the invitation toward a culture 2020 webinar series from the world. I got filters decided my name is Luis Fernando and I wouldn’t and this is the title of my presentation interaction of Microsporidian PHP and the white piece is central in shrimp announcement So engagement I’m going to talk briefly about four different aspects about ESP. And then in three different scenarios, I’m going to talk about ESP and White pieces in Indonesia, India an the first trip or in Latin America So this figure briefly shows how an edit pathogens such as EHPM P&D have caused a decrease in the shrimp production during the last 10 years, so that is the reason everybody is working on this pathogen, especially HP Several studies has been focus on to study the Causative agent of white pieces that are some study which we will call error has been reported as they close at Ephesians Some other enteric bacteria as there was that you can see here. I cannot even pronounce them So other reserves have been focused on the bird before Boris that resembles Gregory as they go, so deep agents or associate associated with by Whitepages syndrome And there are some reports in who is a confirmed that ESP is not a caustic agent of white. This is central So first I like to give up What is the definition of white piece is central for our? study. So basically for our study the presence of why? reach? Float in a pickle strings as you can see here with the green arrows A on the surface on the grill phone Or SHRM display lane whitish discoloration of the GI tract And sometimes associated with some soft chill in the animals is what we consider the white pieces ginger for this study Now, ESP ESP is one of the most important at against in the stream into string world while And he has been reported in since 2003. Two e 2004 purse heap enables monotone lady running panels, then Amay Basically, the target organ is the other pancreas where? As soon as they start causing severe infection

it damage the ability of the better bankers too It calls slow growth, height, size variability Usually In the later stages of the disease, he has been associated with various that we already know that we blew our opportunity or sadistic packages In terms of your case is this is can cause chronic modalities interim farming Here we have a typical picture of Animal displaying PHP. You can see the typical pale discoloration. OK, better practice there is also typically for any other enteric pathogens such as an HP, an HP envy To have a sad comparison, we have a healthy section of hepatopancreas And here we have a at. The bank is affected by ESP. We can see here there was mold in stage And also they sport stage They geographical distribution of ESP Here you can see their red circles so basically our Southeast Asian countries were HP has been reported pretty much most he important shrimp armor Project under the oil cleaning project So basically we decided to have the first approach to the white pieces. So basically as you can see here we are collecting the why each GI tract destroying testing on track Of white color And then we also took samples of animals or histopathology and PCR In all the animals in which whitefishes Hey, where is playing the animals? The GI track with? the typical whitish discoloration we were able? to confirm the process of PHP by histopathology an PCR Also, we took samples of All the fickle strings We need part of him blocks with typical strange And we did histopathology And laid it on. We did in C to happen this Asian again All the samples of technical stream Or PhD No, only ESP was found in the animals displaying white pieces We also found a secondary vibriosis Basically what is called the set the header by hypetrak ica process, usually caused by a opportunistic vibrios The next year, in 2017, we decided to visit some shrimp farms and we wanted to do a similar style. We took samples from her topancreas and the GI track He went on displaying white pieces and another phone without displaying white pieces So in this figure we can see we determine the ESP load by particle TPCR This episode behave at the bankers of the animals displaying white pieces They ESP load was significantly higher versus animals that didn’t display a wide pieces discoloration of the GI tract They in testing like a white in tasting versus their normal colour investing brownish. We also found significant differences Again, we found animals that display no only ESB but also they explain set. They have it open graphical exorcist As he has been reported the previous year Or 2018 we decided to add 1 e more sample. We have a different Sampling units healthy bond Pause displaying the white pieces and palm with history of white faces and basically is worth the farmers have observed in the past. But basically they whitefishes He’s a face of the old problem because later on the animals as they think the animals cured themselves And the enter to a different phase is called a post by kisses So we decided to take a samples again Here we have a picture of a healthy animal Displaying the brownish new normal colour. Also we have animal displaying the typical white faces and animals a host

white pieces. Basically those animals are the ones that display the soft shell If you see you can see here in the figure that it turns in the ESP load and again the higher amount of ESB was found in animal displaying they white pieces syndrome After animals this with history of white pieces, ESP was also served as you can see here It was significantly lower versus the animals that were displaying with bases, so basically at this point we know that when the animals were displaying white pieces they used to know was higher really high On 2019 we did similar work in India. Basically we will visit 6 6 farms in this hold an Andhra Pradesh farm and Incuded farms Using the same methodology, we observed the same signs are individual level and appan level Basically the whole tape loading focal node strings A floating on the Grubhub animals Displaying bite pieces. Animal displaying the soft shell We follow the same procedure. We took samples per histopathology and samples for PCR we were able to confirm by the two methods their presence of PHP in their way Because the Lu FC A affected ones. So here we have the devil because just wanted to confirm the basically PHP was found in several environments In height for limit is up to 55, unload something. It is up to 450 also regarded the stocking density most talking density such as M pieces per square meter or high stocking density. About 80 shrimp per square meter with all HP And he was on also in small animals as six. 7 grams and also in large animals 20 32 grams In Auto D16 farms, analyze it We found HP in 15 so we confirm the result by histopathology an EC2 hybridization Here we found something interesting. Basically in the same tool Reforms force ESP sports and also we found some bacteria these basophilic message indicates the presence of bacteria, but basically it’s confirming our Suspicious the basically the combination of arse 1st and laid it on bacteria is but may be associated with the purchase of white faces Now moving on to 2016 on the Western Hemisphere specifically in Venezuela. As you can see here this is an important shrimp farmer region So we so some of the rows displaying slowbro sizes, parity chronic mortality’s, high conversion rate socials, and the coefficient of variation higher than 25%. So basically is this Typical clinical science at all level suggest the presence of a chronic infection So we run all the tests an they animals were only positive for PHP. So here we use a different Primers 18 is unsupportable to confirm the presence of ESP Also, the animals we saw their plasmodium confirmed by Easter pathology and by insita hybridization here we can see the positive reaction for each But with the what is more interesting for us for two? in the same region, the same farms that reported first PHP or EHP like? Two years later, we reported the first presence of a white piece is this is this picture has become famous inverse taken by a colleague of ours So again, we took samples for the animals displaying the white pieces and guess what we? found PHP Severe infection of ESP. Here we have some example of the plus volume plus the It used be sports presenting the affected animals This is a typical picture from one of the farms that we Analyze it, in which each P was Again, we confirmed by two different methods. We use a QQ an also this for world animals were so positive that even the nested PCR in the first step give us positive results So basically, in four different scenarios we can see kind of the evolution of PHP. White piece is basically we start with a healthy population of animal showing

the typical brownish color of the GI track, but they don’t rt seeing some yellowish whitish discoloration of the GI tract Unley even lady run. We came found the typical white a GI track In the affected animals And finally, the animals are so weak is where we observed the classiest And the soft shell in the affected animals Now we just pathology. We started with the healthy population with a healthier, better practice under histopathology showing the typical ourselves B cells in a normal values. They we start seeing some slopping All type of cells specially be sales on ourselves Laid it on these slopping off of the cells continue You see less abundance or Lipid droplets I let it on. Basically the animal is not eating anymore Even though there are no healthy cells increase, each speaker replicates easily so that may explain why the Q PCR is lower in this population. So at this point the animal probably showing this or shell At the end, these injured tissue is colonized by a telegraphic, but periods such as we know that we will live together Close association, which for impairment. So basically the animals at the end will end up with the groceries So pointed remarks we have found that there is a strong association between white pieces in from an HP And also in PHP endemic regions, ESP can explain the clinical manifestation of white pieces finger I finally we have our opportunistic pattern that the primary pathogen, in this case, the HP, is not the only one that caused by pieces, but in our study in this case it was a primary pathogen in association with opportunistic pathogens such as previous and a possible An identify environment environmental factor End up with the white pieces Ann just went up things all the team from there but also pathology lab at the university. Press owner and this is the funding agencies who provide funding for this research Thank you, I will be welcome to answer any questions. Thank you very much On So that was really interesting presentation from Doctor Movies showing the history of how this new pathogene HP came to Crystal. Report it and then be detected eventually in Damascus and specially found a clear photos of clinical Simon effective trim and with apology very fast so because unfortunately, Doctor Louise is unable to join us at this time, we will be taking g the questions that were directed to him Separately by email. So if the person participant in the audience be posted a question document, these could share shared his email address or not. Sorry, not email address and we were able to follow up with your reply to your question directly with So we will now move on to the panel discussion with them Doctor Khawaja And As promised, we did have one question that came from Junkyard is earlier presentation. So the question is if we were to look at the history of disease is spreading the called Father Keep worms, which are my feet for trim? So some packages that were found in polychaetes include viruses such as white spot syndrome virus, so looking at this, would you recommend that give one be included? to this or pathogens for us to screen for? the key points for? Circle area And that liar. You are muted Yes, I’m sorry, then I can, you ask? me again, I’m sorry OK, so if it’s looking at the history of viral diseases and pathogens that have been found in polychaetes, so as we know, usually we will find and you shrink virus and then people start

looking at how this virus was introduced and almost You’re almost assured that if you were to look in the live feed you will find all the there’s that virus there as well because my feet are polychaetes are invertebrates and so they would also be able to carry some of these pathogens into your shrimp unk. And as we know today most shrimp farms are so secure that you wouldn’t be able to sneak anything past some device security, so looking at your findings with dip one would you recommend? that this? Pathogen be screened for in polychaetes Yes, I from the work for a Chinese group from the Yellow Siri search feature it should do. They show that this public key is also posted the DAV one, but fully kid is a has en shown to be positive for several pathogens for trim, such as a app in the video politely politicus the EHP that internal sizes soon here, but opinion And now with the DA V1, so is there very much recommend that When you want to use this product key you have to be assured that they were there. They are. Check carefully that they’re free of the trim pathogens an also if it possible in the EHP work we even let come in the farmer to freeze the public key Before use because in that case you will kill the EHP an with bike racing with other wireless. I guess that it will be Q 2 And at the bottom line is possible the specific pathogen free program for the polychaete should be established and we recommend to use them No Other When we add onto this question, are there any SPS? stocks? Of them for the kids Yeah, yes Stop beating program in Thailand. We also used the SPF policie So it’s not a new business opportunities Might be something people be interested to get into OK, we have a couple more questions here, but it looks I’m just getting through the box in the right and Maybe we can look at this question Doctor Kamiya if you feel it’s a question about the management of infected Shrimp stocks And so if you had an infected a farm that was infected with EH? white feces syndrome, and iv one or any mix of these pathogens what would you recommend with the? management of the infected stocks? But from one of lesser right and probiotics help It is it is I’m now looking at the live event Q&A. Yeah, so it’s just a question from Anonymous One is that now Now, so many questions here Second, last one Yes, the question is can we get recommendation? on the management of infected? cultured species? With image P WFS&DI V1 OK so for me I will talk about this. DI V1 n let loose talk about this. ESPN wifey C so can we get recommendation on the management of infected? cattle species with infected via V1? Yep Yes Today I’m not sure if I understand the question however, I think that first of all, like I said the bull stock has to be the SPF

Will it come into use this study? I rerun a specific free boo stop and also if you want to stop the piano in the poem, then you have to check make sure that they are the everyone negative by using these 80 PS primer that really come in And be careful of the live feed and polycultures As I said in the my Visitation And the second question I cannot answer because we haven’t do any work about it Dash Model piece Lion probiotics help us since the day one is the new emerging disease which is Got the report from China so we don’t have it in Thailand by now, so we on’t have. We don’t test the this compile on the DI V1 vector stream so far OK, that is what I can say OK, I think data collider thank thank you very much for your answer to that question. I think for the second part of the question which is about whether disease is this treatable with probiotics and antibiotics. I just wanted to say that for antibiotics you are using it to treat bacterial infection And if it is, that is infecting door trim, it would not There would be no sense in treating With Finance Lighthouse that you would just be throwing throwing money away into the first one and on on top of that if there are antibiotic residues that are found in your shrimp and how there will be penalties for this I think it’s it is better to have a proper diagnosis as Doctor Kuliah has recommended It’s done when there are more abundant, easy shrimp and the fan and make sure what disease and problem you have in your stock before you embark on their treatment between For most shrimp viruses It’s done To be able to treat a viral infection once in the stock. So the best policy we can have is actually just He mentioned Prevent it from happening before it gets OK alright Questions here again from Anonymous delta compliance. So the question is how far? down the food chain does the I V1? go, whether it be transmitted through? fish oil products and justice have any effect? on humans? OK, I will start with the second question. Will it have any? effect on human? I think from the all the white trim virus infection so far no reported to have any effect on human and I don’t think they have will get transmitted through fish oil product again As I said I’m in Thailand and we don’t have the DAV one by now. So we and we don’t want to have one so I haven’t tested You better going to be enhancement to the fish eye product I still don’t know that. If anyone, anybody nt to test it and maybe you are welcome to talk about it With our team I mean I suppose some data collider concern about it being transmitted in fish oil would be if this oil is then used in Producing feed for shrimp and then set d back to trim then that could be a risk populate them Found them now So I think that’s all the questions we have You see that But I think it’s mainly true question to Greece. Yes, we just confirming this so Yeah so OK, so thank you very much Doctor Canario you have. You have help this Q&A session by yourself because Luis is not here Yes, so we I thank you very much

for Presenting during this talk and also I mean very very brave and sporting and taking the questions we will now take a short break and go through some of them The videos before our next session starts at 3:00 o’clock Where we will be joined by John John Wick as well an yes Who is here with me Talking about seafood safety. So yep, i sure great now for a few minutes So see everyone in a bit OK, Singapore is a small urban nation with around 1% of our land set aside for agriculture. Where can we grow our food in? 2019? The Singapore Food Agency put forward an ambitious goal for sustainable food security in Singapore Any? Currently less than 10% of our nutritional needs are produced locally, as if a aims to increase local production to meet a 30% of Singapore’s nutritional needs by 2030 aquaculture is a pillar of Singapore zandra food industry striving towards this goal by employing climate resilience resource efficient and sustainable technologies At the forefront of these innovations is a vibrant RND ecosystem comprising institutes of higher learning and research facilities working to ensure the technology paves the way ahead for the aquaculture industry The Singapore Food Agency has supposed to both land based farms as well as coastal farms in sea of ways from CO. Funding R&D to supporting the adoption of new technology and Future Ready solutions By utilizing innovation technology and research to maximize efficiency and productivity in our offshore and land based farms, we will be able to grow more with less and achieve our 30 by 30 goal, bringing Singaporeans as safe nd secure supply of food for years to come I think you are now we’re back and thank you for staying after the first session dispensation would be on food safety. I’m Mr drill it I will be introduced a bit later by Diana and I would like to introduce our first weekly with the John John Wiggins. Worsen. Thanks John for being online so late and German or so early John, we speak about ASE certification in

seafood is ahead of supply chain as surance for their pocket risky. Watch it cancelled and yeah, 32 years of experience in seafood production sourcing up food, food safety Or better prediction industry and transition now input deportation, seafood importation He is now sourcing food for darling Robin Hood services and Joan I will let you go through your presentation now. Thank you Action, food Safety and Human Health presentation to the world Agriculture SOC December the 15th, 2020 ohn M Wigglesworth Hello, my name is John Wigglesworth and I’m headed supply to insurance with our Culture Stewardship Council known as the ASC. Today I’m going to talk to you about food safety topics in agriculture, why they’re important and areas of focus and finally give you an insight into the ASC s perspective on the subject This webinar will focus on the overall process associated with aquaculture, farming and discuss each of the steps in the context of general concepts. Site selection feed supply that and re drugs harvesting harvesting equipment and supply chain custody Yahoo culture industry should operate to minimize the chances of food safety hazards during production husbandry and post harvest handling this is outlined in Codex Standard CSC RCP 5 2003 which offers advice on production, storage and handling of fish and fishery products but the same concepts apply to aquaculture, the code uses hazard analysis and critical control point Hazard, which is a science based system that aims to prevent Food safety problems from occurring rather than having to react to non conformance with the finished product. The hassop system accomplishes this by identification of specific hazards on the implementation of control measures and effective hassop system should reduce the reliance on traditional finished product Testing this application to agriculture should not be discounted but rather embraced as a systems approach to assessing sites for selection, evaluating the physical environment for risk of contamination and evaluating the inputs and outputs To avoid adverse effects to human health, agriculture products are at greatest risk from antibiotics, both approved and those used in improper management Patch talking to you now culture increase the risk of pathogen transfer, which creates an incentive to utilize antibiotics contamination of fish with microbial pathogens of faecal origin can be more likely where facilities are close to human habitation or animal husbandry so farmed fish are likely to harbor these passion compared to wild fish Every year, an estimated 48 million people, one in six Americans, suffer a foodborne illness of those 128 thousand hospitalized and 3000 die, few of those illnesses are reported to the CDC. A few are still a solve for both food source and contaminant, the produce category is the top category for outbreaks and illnesses 6 43 outbreaks and 20,400 illnesses seafood, however, is responsible for the second most outbreaks 542 but relatively few illnesses due to the small size of an average seafood outbreak about 10 or illnesses per hour break, while outbreaks associated with USDA regulated foods include poultry. 372 outbreaks, 11 580 illnesses, beef 200 outbreaks, 5450 illnesses, and pork 153 outbreaks and 4000 or one illnesses. Pound for pound fruit and fresh produce around in the safest foods to eat However, seafood was assessed to be the most hazardous on a pound for pound basis A consumer survey found that seafood is the category that concerns consumers the most contributes into consumer concerns 85% of seafood is imported and the FDA which inspects only one to 2% of those imports, has identified numerous violations from drug residues too. Excessively high pathogen levels in certain product the most widely consumed seafood product in the USA. Shrimp, which comes from large aquaculture farms overseas. In addition, a study found that seafood fraud Has become more common with an estimated 1/3 of seafood being mislabeled, mislabeling at least consumers in the dark about where their food comes from, and what species they are consuming, which could have adverse health consequences as demonstrated in 2007 when toxic puffer fish was mislabeled as monkfish provenance and food safety go hand in hand Entry point to understand is that through born almost from agriculture

can be prevented through appropriate food safety measures and while there is a certain degree of shared responsibility amongst government regulatory aquaculture process and consumers the agriculture industry can institute farm management programs around how sip and basic good husbandry practices in partnership with certification schemes that promote responsible management of aquaculture operations that has To the identification and assessment of hazards risks associated with production processing, distribution of aquatic foods and puts the responsibility to produce safe product firmly on the agriculture sector, the principles of hazard should form an integral part of the farm to table food safety continuum, thereby increasing consumer confidence in product from aquaculture and expanding market opportunities. Equally aquaculture certification schemes have effectively reduced their opinions Such as antibiotics and chemicals by improving water quality and resulting in reduced farmed modalities Facilities should embrace the principles of good agriculture practice for the species they’re farming, since it has a knock on effect on husbandry, animal welfare and ultimately product, say farm hould be in areas where the risk of contamination by chemical or microbiological hazard is minimal, and where the sources of pollution can be controlled affluent should be treated appropriately for settlement and waste management to allow organic loads to reduce before discharge into the environment. Growing Walter should meet minimum standards This is suitable to produce products for human consumption Farm should not be cited where there is a risk of contamination of the water in which the fisher reared such as areas located close to animal husbandry or human habitation which present challenges. If there is the risk of faecal contamination into the watercourse or chemicals fertilizers additives should be applied with good agriculture practice in mind to avoid contamination. Products destined for consumers I could put you feed represent a potential risk of contamination from chemical mycotoxin or pathogens. Feed should be stored appropriately. Correct temperature and time parameters in gredients should not contain unsafe levels of pesticides chemicals microbial toxins or other adult rating substances feature be labeled correctly with formulations reflecting the standards regarding hygiene. Ingredient should meet statutory requirements for levels of pathogens mycotoxins Her besides pesticides and other contaminants that may give rise to human health hazards Additive, such as colors must meet legal requirements in the country of production and country of final sale. Feed it is compounded industrial or at the fish farm must contain their only additives that are permitted by the competent authority in the country production and in the country sale veterinary drugs should be administrative encoded with recommended practices Comply with national regulations and applied under veterinary supervision. Finally, and perhaps one of the most important components is that there should be an appropriate system of ingredient The product tracing again effective e problems, is a key tool to creating safe aquaculture feeds and save agriculture products Estimated 70% of farmed aquatic species are dependent on feed to complete their production cycle of feed constitutes the greatest single input in terms of costs Thus, feed represents a major component of the environmental and social footprint of agriculture and it’s important to define precisely what constitutes responsible and sustainable. Aquaculture feed production considering environmental and social footprints feeds are important since agriculture is the fastest growing animal production Sector in the world and is forecast by the UN Food and Agricultural Organization to provide 2/3 a seafood destined for human production by 20 0. Feeds are subject to the same supply chain. Risk’s finished product itself contamination poor processing and for storage This data is a compilation of the official refusal statistics for shrimp from the USA, EU, and Japan. The data serves to illustrate that although antibiotic use is reported to be getting less due to mobile security and improved husbandry practices, antibacterial therapy remains the last option to combat bacterial infections in aquaculture and this is reflected in import refusals, the presence of India right number two was also reflected when India faced in EU ban for antibiotic presence in August of 2017 In November of the same year, a second report evaluating controls in place for fishery products from India concluded that while the controls in place for the fishery system are capable of providing adequate assurance, the official controls do not apply to domestic production and as such, the sharing of water resource between export farms and those for

domestic production resulted in cross contamination through the water supply It uses a combination of formulated feeds, antibiotics chemicals, soil and water treatments, pesticides, fertilizers prebiotics and probiotics. However antibiotics are some of the treatments that are most frequently used and come from compounds from synthetic and natural origins that killer impede the growth aquatic pathogens. However, they are also applied as growth promoters and preventative treatments So what constitutes the common therapies employed? A review of antibiotics from the top 15 producing countries 50 published papers representing the Balkan replied picture the Review reported. 67 antibiotic compounds we used in aquaculture from 11 or 15 major couldn’t lose between 2008 and two and 1873% sed oxytetracycline sulfadiazine and florfenicol a 55% use sulfadimethoxine erythromycin amoxicillin and enrofloxacin on average produces used 15 antibiotics But Vietnam and China used 3933 antibiotics respectfully. While there is a shift toward the restriction of band antibiotics, such as Nitrofurans Mclaurin Fenichel and those deemed by the WHO s critically important for human medicine penicillins quinolones, planner clinical and nitrofurans are still found regularly in aquaculture products What is the implication of antibiotic misuse to? human health? Adverse drug reactions occur when an individual developed antibiotic sensitivity with a knock on effect to human treatment. Options for disease antibiotics sensitivity, cause diarrhea, nausea, vomiting rashes, and gastrointestinal distress such adverse reactions are immune system mediated impacting various organ systems. Some antibiotics such as tetracycline’s, so fun, amazed, and penicillin Around 2 genic can contribute to allergenic symptoms chloramphenicol increase the risk of subjective Elling, aplastic anemia and agranulocytosis, by owering white blood cell count the occurrence of antibiotic resistance arb an antibiotic resistant genes args, is another way that antibiotics create a public health risk because antibiotic resistance can transfer from the aquatic organisms to humans, the fish pathogens another er aquatic bacteria Exposure to antibiotics can develop a orgs through various mechanisms. This is transferred to humans indirectly by bacterial plasmids and directly visu, not pathogens such as aeromonas or librium alteration of normal gut flora results in an increased number of infections from pathogens that are resistant to antibiotics, resulting in increased treatment failure and more severe infection Position on antibiotic use within the ASC standards No antibiotics on the WHL list of critically important antimicrobials for human medicine can be used antibiotics administered it under the ASC salmon and Tilapia farm must be prescribed by veterinary practitioner as part of an agree treatment plan. However, the ASC has measures in place for all of his agriculture farm standards should the farmer use antibiotics or medicated feed for shrimp health? and welfare, the ASC shrimp standard Allows for some level of antibiotic to be used, but the treated shrimp will not be authorized to be sold as ASE certified and those shrimp products are thus not allowed to carry the ASC label if the ASC becomes aware that a label shrimp product has positive for antibiotics that error investigation would be undertaken. Determine where and how the product encountered the antibiotic Harvesting of farmed fish and crustaceans and other aquatic products must be conducted in a manner that minimizes the potential from chemical or microbiological hazards after harvest the fish must be held, packed and transported under conditions that further minimize the potential for contamination Appropriate time and temperature controller essential to minimize proliferation of microbial pathogens or spoilage organisms Essentially, seafood must be treated according to three rules. Wash it often, keep it cold and move it quickly Saints, nets and traps used for harvest should be carefully selected to ensure minimal damage during harvesting, harvesting areas, and all equipment for harvesting catching sorting, grading, conveying and transporting of life products should be designed for rapid and efficient handling without causing mechanical damage equipment should be easily cleanable and free from contamination convey ing equipment for live and slaughtered product should be constructed of suitable corrosion resistant material

That does not transmit toxic substances and should not cause any damage or injuries Surface is in handling areas should be non toxic smooth impervious and in sound condition. To minimize the builder processing ways and increase the risk of microbial contamination, adequate facilities must be provided for the handling on washing of aquaculture products and they must have adequate supply of cold potable water Adequate facilities must be provided for washing and disinfection of equipment. Containers for processing waste material must be clearly identified suitably constructed, sealable and made of impervious material separate An adequate facilities must be provided to prevent contamination of product and dry materials such as packaging harmful substances, awful and waste materials hand washing and toilet facilities must be available and isolated from the fish and shellfish handling areas, and there must be an appropriate pest management system implemented to avoid cross contamination We complex international supply chains for many seafood products, substitution and mislabeling of seafood is a globally recognized issue. The ASC chain of custody Standard is a trace ability and segregation standard that is applicable to the full supply chain from Certified Farm to the product carrying the ASC logo each company in the supply chain handling or selling an ASE certified product must have a valid chain of custody certificate This assures consumers and seafood buyers that the ASC label product Come from a certified responsible farm we use the Marine Stewardship Council MSC chain of Custody CRC standard to verify the origin of seafood sold as ASE certified. While the COC cannot guarantee a perfect supply chain it does serve to support food safety because of the rigor in the provenance and program assurance resources Food safety in the agriculture industry starts at the hatchery works through the farm, impacts the feed supply in his part of the handling process through processing and shipment of finished goods It must involve site selection, feed and puts husbandry, harvesting and processing to be comprehensively effective. Food safety must always involve a systems approach such as has it in addition to formal certification schemes represented by schemes such as ASC standards, which provides structure to develop food safety and aquaculture Trace ability and an understanding of provenance of origin are paramount in underwriting any food safety system and systems underwriting. Provenance should always be challenged to ensure that they work Feed standards the ASC feed standard defines requirements for factory practices and parameters for responsibly sourced ingredients. The standard is a tool that recognizes and rewards responsible aquaculture feed supply and applies to all stands. It provides an additional mechanism for producers and retailers to mitigate environmental and social impact through their feed supply chain site standards. ASC standards set requirements for farming to guide seafood producers in minimizing key environmental and social impacts of aquaculture The standard covers 11 farm groups and are based on sound science applicable to different locations types and scale of operations. The standards covered by diversity feed pollution, disease, antibiotics and social issues Yes, he is acutely aware the necessity for trace ability through the aquaculture production supply chain and its trace ability and segregation standard is applicable to the full supply chain from a certified farm to the product carrying the ASC logo. Each company in the supply chain handling or selling an ASE certified product must have a valid chain of custody certificate in this way, while the ASC cannot assure fraud will never happen, the ASC does have a mechanism To formally intervene and act in this way, the ASC logo supports Kredible supply chain assurance to consumers Thank you for taking the time to listen to my web and R Thank you very much John for your presentation or a lot of information. We have a couple of questions they already came in there. We have already published on our Q&A section here and for those who are watching us please feel free to ask any question for John since he’s up in the middle of the night to answer order order questions or journal will start with the first one that we have and the first question we have is the following Are there any risk of NT Mcclure of? macro macro Del resistance when? used in a coculture when used often? in a folder? I’m sorry, could you repeat the question again? Are there any risk? of antimicrobial resistance when we use too much antibiotics?

in aquaculture when we have regular users to? ided by the farmers, I actually issue is well to answer the question. Yes, you’re always going to run the risk of antimicrobial resistance The issue is always going to be if you’re going to use antimicrobials, they have to be used in a fashion that is under the control of veterinary health or an aquaculture health expert Like most treatments, even treatments for human disease If the dose response is not appropriate then what will happen is that there’s a greater potential for resistance to develop An good example of this is when somebody goes to see the doctor in the prescribed antibiotics they don’t take full course of the antibiotics. They feel better after a few days Stop taking the antibiotics an those are the conditions that lead to resistance The same sorts of things can occur in aquaculture And depending on the species being being treated, I think there’s a greater propensity for things like shrimp too to esentially not necessarily get a correct dose of antibiotics versus something like a fish that will probably eat a pellet whole and get an effective dose so Yes, there’s there is the risk of antibiotic resistance and it has to be managed in the correct way with veterinary health profession OK, so that link back to a next questions John. We have a question from someone asking how can we convince the farmer to use less anti micro balance. So that’s a related question. So if you say we have to use it to work through veterinaries maybe there is also another way to basically maybe manage better than the risk of pathogens other we e work with farmers to make sure that we are using less antimicrobials? It’s In all the years I’ve been I’ve been involved in seafood It’s always the 65 million dollar question. How do you? How do? you basically turn around to a farmer and say, look, it’s? lot more worthwhile to produce a product that is not going to affect the supply chain, because ultimately that’s what happens. It’s not necessarily the farmer that sees the impact of import detention, it’s a supply chain for a country Immediately, it’s usually the importer, and that’s the factory and then it’s the farmer. By my own personal opinion is that the best way or? the best mechanisms to work with farmers? are with the processor that has all the feed manufacturer that has a sort of a technical outreach group that promotes responsible unk agriculture with the actual farmer themselves And this also leads into a sort of independent standards where the farmer themselves see in advantage whether it be through the ASC or whether it be through a different standard global gap or the GAA or whosoever when the farmer believes that they have something to gain by differentiating their product and that would also include the sort of Non application or reduced application of antimicrobials then? I think there is the benefit to sell a an idea of less antimicrobials is a better way of selling a marketable product Thank you very much Sir John and they are. I’m sure a lot of her linkage with the with the farming process and the place where the farming takes place because it may be your position or chemical product in the food the fish produce from the farm but maybe not only from the farm, so we have the following equation here, which is can you tell us a little bit more about the site selection process and How to access the risk for food safety? as well as to the environment? So yeah It’s something that actually I learned Probably an awful lot more about in the fresh produce industry where you primarily

dealing with leafy greens which don’t undergo a kill step by cooking the agriculture industry is a more challenging environment in which to say these are the parameters To say I’m going to cite my particular farm in this region, that’s number 1 #2. There’s also an awful lot of aquaculture Philip facilities are already been cited. Having said that what would I? Would I? Dentist by is important components proximity to major conurbations where there isn’t a treatment of human waste or even animal waste an I remember a situation in a factory that I run down in Honduras where water was coming in from a deep And that was being basically utilized to process product within the factory So during the rainy season, what would happen is that all the agricultural land would get a lot of water. It would compress basically agricultural feces through the water through the soil and the factory would end up with very high faecal coliforms, which created other problems within the factory. So while you can’t necessarily turn around to a farmer and say go and recite, you’re going recite your phone If you’re in, let’s say, an area in the meat on delta, or if you’re in a facility that’s located down downstream of the conservation that doesn’t have an exceptionally good Processing of that once I think it’s always worthwhile for a farm to be aware as to what they are going to go into encounter and equally the factories that then receive that product for them to be aware. As to some of the challenges that they’re going to faced on raw material that enters the facility when it comes down to primarily faecal coliforms, salmonellas the Shigella is indeed colas Thank you John and we still have a bit of time in our query couple of questions coming in so I’m going to try to sympathize at least one or two of them We have one question about whether the ASC fit standard have been issued or whether they’re devil upped an weather is C certification covers as well as PDF in shrimp hatchery The feed standard is It’s still in development. It should have actually been released, but the ASC takes takes an approach of putting it out for public consultation and those. Those comments are being addressed at the current time, the next estimated time for the release of the feed standard, I believe is going to be in the 1st t quarter of 2021 So that is that is underway, it’s been written, but it’s under. It’s under amendment per public comment. What was the second question? regarding hatcheries? Yeah, where you have the specific pathogen free stream battery actually with the SES covering those now we don’t. We haven’t moved into the hatchery phase of things and certainly not relative to a specific pathogen free certification OK, last one since we still have one minute John How about or are far? trace ability and quality control certificate can? implode, frauds in seafood or in seafood trade? No system will ever avoid fraud that the challenge is always to have in place and chanism to investigate it, so there are systems out there that Have a mechanism of chain of custody. One of them is the ASC. I believe the other one is the global gap. What the chain of custody essentially allows you to do is that when something occurs, perhaps in Europe, perhaps in the US, perhaps in Asia, where antibiotics have been detected then there is a formal process to investigate through the supply chain. Still where that’s actually a Kurd. So what a chain of custody essentially does is it gives you the The mechanism and the tools to really

get to the bottom as to where the problem resides and to take actions accordingly if it’s a trace ability system of one up and one down that doesn’t necessarily support a full supply chain, so I would say I would answer the question by saying that the more you understand about your entire supply chain, the better opportunities you’ve got to investigate fraud You can investigate fraud effectively then you have the opportunity as to where you can try to resolve it Thank thank you very much, John, and I think we have burned all the time that we had allocated for this presentation on food safety. John thank you very much again for being with us in the middle of the night That said, I will Next to me since we have to introduce me for the next presentation. Thank you very much. Thank you very much So we now move on to our second speaker for this session who is beyond religion. He indian currently holds the role of the regional manager for each S Marine services at SGS that supports private and public relations with their research or compliance sampling, testing and monitoring beyond has 19 years of experience working with environmental scientists in the public and private sectors and after three successful years as president of there was a PC chapter Your husband elected director of the Board of the work without a society where he tries to Industri Committee and the Subcommittee on Social Media So we’re running the business development for the Marine services of SGS in Asia and Pacific regions Beyond continues to deliver lectures in academia and to global organizations such as I’m Oh so Now do you? n Condition Good morning, good afternoon and good evening. Thank you for joining this webinar I’m mr. Drill it and it’s my pleasure to introduce this presentation on plastic in aquaculture As you may notice, they’re four presenters listed here and I owe you an explanation for this The last couple of months I had the chance to share a series of round table in the topic of plastic in aquaculture and we have added expert from 21 different organization participating I want to thanks all of them, they represented a large range of stakeholders, farmers scientists feed and additive manufacturers, commercial laboratories and so on This roundtable online came in because of their gency to deal with this topic within our field There are gaps of knowledge, the reporting of information and this particular topic must have the time mixes, aquaculture and fisheries which may not be appropriate And the aquaculture industry not necessarily being a large polluting industry in that respect Is definitely one of the industry that will be the most highly impacted by the presence at least of and nano plastic In the water We had initially planned to have a special session Last June we will need to wait until next June because of the actual situation and I’m looking forward to see all of you In June in Singapore Until then, we had decided together with timer S and we had agreed to organize this round tables There will be a report produced in the West Magazine in December Also published by armrest So keep an eye for it Until then, I would like to welcome three of our expert to introduce the main information that was discussed during the successive event Kissed and the floor is yours Thank you very much Mr Gillette and good morning afternoon and evening colleagues. My name is Kirsten Gilardi. I’m based at the University of California, Davis in the United States where I run the Wildlife Health Center at the School of Veterinary Medicine I also run the California lost Fishing Gear Recovery project, which works with commercial fishermen to locate and remove abandoned lost and discarded fishing gear from California’s coastal ocean Thank you for the opportunity to participate in this session and to share with you some of the work currently underway worldwide to better understand ocean based sources of plastic It’s been my honor over the last 18 months to share a new working group of the Joint Group of experts on the scientific aspects of Marine environmental protection or G Samp This working group has been focused on C based sources of marine litter and was established at the request of the International Maritime Organization. The Food and Agriculture organization and the UN Environment Programme were comprised of the 12 individuals listed at the bottom of this slide all

scientific experts in both ocean based industries and marine debris Take a moment to acknowledge their tremendous contributions to the work undertaken over the last several months as we speak we’re putting the finishing touches on our final technical report which will be submitted for peer review shortly, and we anticipate the report will be released sometime in early 2021 Next slide, please Kiss Amps working Group 40 threes charge has been to conduct a comprehensive review of the state of knowledge around sources of marine litter from ocean use uses and buy litter. We’re primarily focused on plastics Of course, our audience today is well aware of the great momentum worldwide. To address the issue of ocean plastic pollution And there’s been a lot of focus on land as the source of plastic marine debris. But there’s also a need to better understand how much ocean based industries like fishing and ship being an oil and gas development and aquaculture maybe contributing to global burden Working Group 40 threes. Charges to establish a state of knowledge on this topic and to estimate quantities an examine impacts of ocean based sources of marine litter on marine life and habitats We’ve been particularly focused on shipping and fishing as sources Ald. FG stands for abandoned lost in otherwise discarded fishing gear But working Group 43 is also examining what we know about coastal marine aquaculture as a source of marine plastic litter Next slide, please The aquaculture industry has been very interested and proactive to date in better understanding. If and how aquaculture is contributing to the global ocean plastic burden and the work of working Group 43 is really benefited from these efforts. For example the FAO conducted a large study of the use of plastics and fisheries and aquaculture in 2017 and identified aquaculture operations that depend on the use of gear could comprised in part of plastic especially expanded policy, polystyrene floats and netting, and boxes In particular, a report produced by the Aquaculture Stewardship Council last year thoroughly reviewed the use of plastic to construct aquaculture equipment than it really should be considered the definitive document on that subject Another the sound Working Group Working Group 40 has been engaged for the last several years. On better understanding, all sources of microplastics in the ocean and is issued several reports that are available on the Kids Off website And as well, there have been many many excellent papers published in the peer reviewed scientific literature examining the occurrence in quantities and impacts of plastic debris in the ocean resulting from coastal and marine aquaculture operations Majority of that research has been taking place in the Mediterranean, South Korea, in Chile Next slide, please I think it’s also important to make the audience aware of some important global initiatives underway that aquaculture industry has much to offer in terms of helping those initiatives achieve goals for reduction of the global ocean plastic burden These initiatives largely stem from the Honolulu strategy which arose out of the fifth international Marine Debris Conference held in 2011 This strategy serves as a framework for the reduction of the ecological human health and economic impacts of marine debris worldwide You nap has since stablished a global partnership on marine litter and FAO and IMO had recently launched, launched a joint Glitter Partnerships program as well Note the note that re litter will be addressed at FAO Kofi Meeting in February 2021 information about all these issues initiatives is ready readily available on the web They also like to bring to your attention some important non global initiatives, in particular the global Ghost here initiative has succeeded in bringing many nations governments nongovernmental organizations and industries together to collaboratively address the problem of abandoned lost, and otherwise discarded fishing gear. I encourage you to visit their website to learn more about the triple GI Thank you for your attention an now I’ll turn it over to my colleague Belinda Ashley Managing plastics at the farm level is thinking about macro plastics Currently there is an abundance of plastic that ends up in our oceans due to aquaculture And this is because a significant portion of equipment is comprised of plastic. For example, nets, rope and pipes are the main offenders There’s a significant Portion of this equipment as explained And the plastic waste from aquaculture results from normal wear and tear from accidents such as catastrophic losses to do with extreme weather events Improper management and

K here is some strong maintenance program, so where there exists poor maintenance systems, there is often an issue with marine debris Currently there’s no global estimates for the amount of plastic generated by the aquaculture sector, but Is some various estimated volumes from the European Economic Area 40 000 tons lost annually? Note the Norwegian aquaculture suggests 12,300 tons of plastic waste was generated in 2011 And in South Korea there considerably more 39,700 tons in 1999. But as you can see these some references are quite old with the exception of the European economic Volumes coming from a 2000 paper There is however currently and more recently one sector that certainly making strong advances towards managing plastics on farms, which is the Tasmanian salmon industry. And I’ll give some examples there of the approach So the first step for the aquaculture facility and this has been the approach for the Tasmanian salmon industries to make the commitment to manage ocean plastics This commitment looks like a is in the form of a company policy which specifically addresses the management of plastics, so it’s getting the entire business on board to commit to putting systems in place K Here is the housekeeping so having plans and procedures in place At key plan is a waste management plan at the farm level Which identifies the types of materials that are used on the farm that contain plastics and how to manage them His plan is supported by procedures and these procedures include provisions for mitigating risk of release of these plastics and this equipment into the water Also, supporting the plan is building a plastic register to map these in these replies of plastics in operations Very often there’s an underestimation and the risk register The plastic register helps identify this and the amount of plastic used at the farm And developing a register has many advantages it can help manage plastic over the lifetime, the equipment allows for planning for a cycling and to manage mitigation measures, so the loss of gear There’s really 3 levels from prevention to response written procedures and plans when they are in place So with those plans, the supporting systems and procedures that can be adequate prevention and a plan to respond if required. Although the key focus here is preventing plastics from leading the farm, so prevention really is the key, and one of the most effective ways to prevent plastic As marine debris is education, so training of staff is paramount here so that the staff understand clearly the impacts of marine debris and where in the staff’s daily activities and role they can play a part in prevention of plastics becoming lossed Will be coming loose So this stuff really should understand their role in marine stewardship in this cannot be emphasized enough in the battle of ocean plastics and aquaculture So the key areas here are a plastic register at the farm level the register, an ID of infrastructure honor in the water, waste management plans and then looking at procedures that support that, such as strength testing it as standard operating procedures for net and for rope So making sure the gear is well maintained and there’s a maintenance program in place. Anna Risk management plan So with all of this in place and adequate training of staff that estimating salmon industry has been able to reduce the plastic substantially Thank you Belinda for this very nice presentation an example from Tasmania will let now and Natalie to talk about nano plastic and microplastic reaching the farm It should be clear to you all at this point that plastics are found throughout the aquatic environments and while a proportion certainly arise from activities in fresh and saltwater systems being including as a result of aquaculture the evidence consistently indicates that the largest proportion of plastic debris comes from the terrestrial environments We may think in that same terms when considering micro and nano plastics for example

it is believed that the majority of synthetic fibers will be released it to aquatic systems by a wastewater treatment and not from the fragmentation of fishing gear pens Another ropes and lines nevertheless proximity y to certain plastic sources increases the chances of any individual fish or invertebrates interacting with or ingesting micro and nano plastics of Type in the same way that I must be aware of and exclude micro and nano plastics from clothing and cleaning cloth. Skin airborne lab samples do e to the prevalence in the environment which I work so to my easy a greater likelihood of and nano plastics from things like pens, feed sacks and the feed itself Where the sourced from terrestrial systems other aquatic industries or your own facilities, we must be aware that to nano plastics aren’t readily taken up by range of species, however the amount that we see in may be influenced by a number of different factors Key amongst these other level of environmental contamination and the characteristics of the plastic material, it’s hard to consume plastics that are larger than the food that you are able to readily ingested, and it’s easy to excrete plastics which are small enough to easily pass through your digestive tract Retention of plastic by an animal is also variable changing in relation to the length of time. Plastics may be held in either the gut or that issues This is influenced by the size of the plastic with nano plastics more able to cross the gut wall and into the tissues or with the complexity of the animals and us with complex structures more likely to hold on to plastics for example, the image on screen is of a bonus of plastic fibers held in the stomach of a longer steam, unable to pass through the gastric mill and on into the hindgut As a result, the implications of both microplastic and nano plastic exposure can vary between species The impacts of set exposure on the animal may be negligible, has been reported in a number of studies but other studies have seen effects such as reduction in growth, changes in behavior, an alteration of morphology and histology, the fact is that the current depth of research is insufficient to draw concrete conclusions which will be relevant across the industry. However, this is neither a reason to be less vigilant, nor is it sufficient to assuage the concerns Of some consumers In light of these issues, it was the conclusion of our group for the industry must take the lead in monitoring and limiting microplastics. Nano plastics in aquaculture systems and in our report we highlight a number of questions that may be of interest to the industry, including where might microplastic contamination come from and how microplastic uptake might be measured And we answer identify widely used simple and globally applicable protocols that are considered suitable to answer these questions, for example the table on screen highlights measures for monitoring of plastics in another culture, setting of particular interest here on microplastics who’s monitoring requires less costly methods than those of Nana, Plastics, and maybe more accessible by most produces. It is hoped that by determining contamination levels and identifying the origins of Microplastics facilities may not only reduce their own microplastic and nano plastic footprint, but also be able to highlight where they are unduly affected by the activities of other potential plastic sources It is already been indicated that agriculture is not the greatest source of plastic debris of any size, and it is important to recognize that micro no plastics have been observed in a range of consumables, including kitchen salt bear r and bottled waters. However, the persistent media and public focus on marine plastic pollution has kept the discussion centered on fish and shellfish, and there may be a disproportionate effect On consumer confidence as a result, despite there being currently little to no evidence on the effects of plastic on both food safety or human health Again, by taking ownership of the issue by encourage ing other foods and drinks producers to do the same, the agriculture industry can take control of the quality of the product reassure customers and consumers with regard to food safety and the sustainability of the industry, and have a more impactful voice in the discussion of public policy surrounding

the plastic pollution issue for a more in depth look in our discussion Recommendations please do take it. I’ll report when it’s published All that remains for me to do now is to thank young for keeping us organized throughout this process, my fellow presenters and report contributors and you, the audience for your time. I will hand you back to go in for questions. Thank you so much Thank you very much for Natalie for closing the presentation. And yes, it’s a presentation with many presenters because it’s basically the results of a long work. As I said from 21 different position, we have received a couple of questions and if you have more in the next couple of minutes please feel free to submit them the first question I will start with is actually the second one we receive and it’s Clover of Microplastic accumulated in quarter food, fish and what kind of help conserve will arise when consuming metro macro. Best exude flu. I will try to basically respond with the general consensus that we add in the discussion In general We need to start discussing about what do we call macro plastic? because they are two schools for this one school, consider that microplastics starts at 1 micrometre fire, my broker and other schools, consider that We should we should look at micro plastic starting from zero point 1 micron because under that nano plastic can go through the gut membrane and therefore accumulating the food we eat or not it just in the guard they are impact raise for couple of species on the content of plastic in the guard because even though it may not directly affect their ganism by physiologically it may still impact, for example dejection What are they have concerns? And there’s still a lot of unknown here and this is. This is one of the biggest issue and not to pinpoint atom aquaculture as an industry producing feed containing plastic. Considering that actually we have we’re drinking from plastic bottles, we buy milk in plastic bottles and so on. And we find particle of microplastic as Natalie was saying in the last part of the presentation In a lot of different food product that we need our drink on a daily basis And that’s just a given and an overview of what these groups have been discussing about, and we had very very long and very pertinent question on this If you want to have further detail we have the report published on the West website it was put online today, so feel free to have a look at that The first equation from royal burst my is actually a very pertinent question and this is also something that we have been discussing for a very long time in this round table and introduce round table that we had been running. For example for shipping together with armrest The problem of plastic is actually what? do you do with the plastic you accumulate in a farm ownership? or wherever you are? You need to be able to recycle it and to be able to recycle it. You need to have station or governmental area where you can go with your waste of the government should pick up the ways that you found so that plastic can be managed for the end of this life you can recycle plastic. We have a big challenge though in a pop culture because a lot of the Nets and so Maybe full of biofouling and so some of these recycling existing recycling factories may reject the plastic what? do we do with it then? And that is really of equation so the question is not just an apocalyptic question, it’s a question of what are the government going? to do in order to ensure that we can manage plastic through its entire lifecycle If you remember at the beginning of the presentation we mentioned that 80 or 90% of the plastic refined in aquatic environment is actually common coming from terrorist, real addictive So it it’s coming from dumping area Steve from the reverse, and it’s not It’s not necessarily, I would say You too aquaculture so that their corporate sector is far from being the first bullet are when it comes to breast. It doesn’t mean that we should not do anything. This is what ASC has started working on. This is what Belinda was introducing in a presentation that

test Manian salmon farmers already started marking the years and have plans for what to do when they lose use and so on. So they are They are actually some things moving in our field And I think will eventually get better, but it’s time to start somewhere Now we have another comment from a rail, but I’m not sure what it is about Do you like the system acrobits? Yeah so we have a question from royal birth mother. I’m not sure what the macro bid them microbeads? Mobile application is when buying cosmetics open food and so on. I have no idea what this is So we’re not using it yet cause I’m not I don’t see any additional questions so far Alright, so it’s an application where we can find When do we have plastic in? In the in the cosmetics and food now we have had a very long discussion about what to test for and how to test. Today they are no official international standards for sampling and for analyzing and we concluded that it was actually not necessarily very bad because we’re still at the research base in many respect in this area of plastic I’m But in order to be able to widespread testing sampling, monitoring, we need to be able to start with something relatively standardized, and this is why we propose a an example in this report with why not? We start with this list of testing and testing ski for everyone There’s still a lot to develop. I do believe when we know what we’re looking for when we are capable of targeting some, I will say area or some size of plastic in some environment, and so on. We will be able to have international standards and from that moment it would be much easier for laboratories to start implementing that as a routine testing The unknown news. New question for now and therefore I think we should open. There may be one more way to search It’s too late So we have one more which I will publish now so everybody every one of you can see it. Is there any? evidence of or nano plastic impacting aquaculture? production or indication of how we might? come across these specific presence increase for example? should we expect Bible to show significant impact first? Yes, I think most of the report that have been published today and if you look at the FAO report from 2000 18 out in every single a portion of muscles or Bible that you will get you will find some level of microplastic because they’re filter feeders, so they have. There’s a relatively tential impact. But it also depends where you farm is replaced, so site selection may include, for example, evaluating whether they are macro plastic and because nano plastic is very difficult to measure as a shortcut for now until Discover much more about that topic you could consider that when you see microplastic, there must be some manual plastic as well, but that’s a very very heavy shortcut, so we have to be slightly careful on this. I think the working group that we have started here will continue working together and working together toward the meeting in June I’m so if people have interesting set of data they are more than welcome to submit the abstract to the conference so we can have a great session in June. And if you have any further questions I’m happy to put you in touch with the expert that we had in the working group On that conclusion, I think we can close the meeting for today and I would like to thank all of you for staying online with a solo, sorry again for the slight challenges on the presentation early in the In the presentation, I would like to thank supportive analyst. Thank you very much, John for joining us online so late

I’m sure is he will look into those plastic with even more Waiting for peace Because it looks like EMR is the big the big issue this year. Probably in there coming for coming years. There’s a lot of traction that’s going on for antimicrobial resistance. So much concern on the use of anti biotics in food, animals and apple culture, but I mean the I think that the narrative that is running through the session for me is that we’ve aquaculture we produce something in the environment so you are affected by all the You have to pay attention to what we add to the environment, so that’s what the product that comes out is safe for people Yeah, sorry, thank you everyone. I know we are looking forward to a new online tomorrow for next session, goodbye