I always just get going with the best lines, , when I’m muted, but anyway, no,I was just saying, , great presentation Nick. There’s just so much overlap in management of invasive species and my presentation is kind of in support of the International Year of Plant Health. And so I think the two presentations go together pretty well. I’m gonna highlight as I read through the program description, it’s pretty broad, but one of the things I want you to take away from this presentation is a need to monitor. This year has been super challenging for our oak trees We have seen probably two to three hundred oak trees fail within the last year and a half And we’re trying to figure out what’s going on, what’s happening, and I have some updates. And I think it’s really interesting. I also have some opportunities for you to learn what we’re doing as far as research and looking at spotted lanternfly. It’s not established here, but we did some monitoring this summer, so I’ll give you some good updates. But if you have any questions please feel free to put them in the chat box as Erin mentioned. I’m the Forest Pest Outreach Coordinator for the State of Illinois, so my position is funded through the U.S. Department of Agriculture, their Animal Plant Health Inspection Service, so USDA APHIS, under the Plant Protection Act, and then my cooperator is the Morton Arboretum. So I’ve been with the Arboretum for almost 13 years and I’ve enjoyed every minute. I love my job. So, without further ado, let’s dig into this. And I’m gonna actually move over here so I can get full screen, there you go, good. So this year was supposed to be a big huge celebration. Why are we celebrating plant health? This has been in the works for a number of years. We’re working on increasing global awareness on how to protect plant health and so certainly invasive species are a huge component to that. We want to be able to help start end hunger, reduce poverty, and then really protect the environment. So, this is a good opportunity to learn some tools that Nick had shared with you on how to get rid of some of these really, , significant invasive species. But the celebration wasn’t quite as big this year, so I thought I would take the opportunity to kind of end this year and highlight kind of what the basis of this program is Forty percent of our food crops are lost due to plants and pests and diseases. And as I mentioned before, millions of people are without food, and to be honest with you after going through the last nine months and seeing how reliant we are potentially on, , imports from Canada or Mexico or China for our food and our medicines, I think it’s something that we need to take into consideration, and look to really living closer to the land Climate change is upon us. We’ve seen it. I’ve got some updates for Illinois, and then human activity, so you’ve got these weather events that disrupt our ecosystem. And then you’ve got the human activities, whether it’s moving firewood, or buying seeds from overseas, and planting them, sometimes these altered ecosystems create a niche for our invasive species to just continue to thrive. We know that trade has picked up, and I love this slide, because who knew Illinois is the number one producer of pumpkins? Hey, happy fall! I think that’s great. We all need produce, we all need healthy plants, we all need healthy food. Right in the center of this PowerPoint screen is a shot of Asian longhorned beetle and look how really truly destructive that pest can be. And that pest can hang on that tree for four to five years. And Nick showed you that invasion curve, I have a slide of it as well, and so it is pretty accurate, to be honest with you, and we’ll have another example coming up a little bit later, , but we need food for pollinators. We know we need food not only for people but our wildlife. We need healthier ecosystems and natural resources. I just mentioned that, , keeping, making sure that our water, , our rivers are healthy. Thinking about the loss of ash due to emerald ash borer in the riparian systems is staggering. Soil erosion increase and siltation aquatic impacts. I mean we know very well that some of our aquatic and our terrestrial species

can really hang out in highly degraded areas, so it is a concern. I love just putting up pictures of wildlife and birds and a fox. There’s 20, I’m just going to back up, there’s 21 million family forest owners in Illinois and 36 percent of that is America’s forest land. So we’re talking about a big percentage, a big area, and they’re privately owned, and it really is truly exciting to see those numbers begin to increase as we see some of these farmers, boutique smaller farmers, start to get established. And especially boutique vineyards. I was down in southern Illinois two months ago and saw a number of new wineries that are opening up. So there’s a lot of excitement going on about that. In this next scene, as Nick pointed out, sort of the prevention and pathways, I always mention, , we want to be in the green, so if you’re looking at this graph, you want to see the least amount of area, the least amount of time, and the least amount of control costs. So staying in that bottom left hand corner is really important in order to make sure that we are getting an early detection and then responding very rapidly We know that human activities move pests around It’s gonna happen. We know it happens, we’re just trying to figure out how we can safeguard all these cargos that are coming in. Less than one percent of them actually get inspected, so this is a shipyard out in California Wood pallet material, if it hasn’t gone through the phyto sanitation process, so if you’ve got, people that are using, , wood that hasn’t been heat treated, it potentially could have, , egg masses or larvae in it, which is what we’ve seen as a typical high-risk pathway. I love this photo, don’t move firewood, buy local burn local, help your local firewood company out. If we did one thing, just one thing, if we stop moving wood around the country, we would significantly reduce the amount of pest spread. And so, I think it’s just, sometimes it can be a little bit of a bummer listening to all this stuff, but if you think, gosh man, just the one thing, tell your friends, tell your family, tell people in your community, , if you’re going camping, don’t move firewood, , either if you bring it burn it, and that’s as much as I’m going to say on that We know that they move. So this is a very busy slide of global shipping rates. So you’re starting to see that, , international trade was increasing. I’d like to see us become less reliant on international trades, but to be honest with you, I just think that it’s something that we’re going to have to figure out how to be better educated and manage the process of imports and exports and making sure that we’re not shipping things over to others other countries, which we know we have. Changes in climate, we’re going to spend a little time talking about this. We’ve gotten flooding events, I mean it’s upon us, and certainly in Illinois the statistics are there The forecast is for wetter springs, heavier rain, bigger rain events, but when you’re looking at flooding events like this it’s hard to look at, but what’s hard to think about too is the residual impacts to those trees that you see over on the left hand side We’re starting to see a lot of the decline that’s happening in our urban areas and in our natural areas too. So you get flooding and you get just soil that is absolutely just devoid of any type of oxygen structure, the roots have been saturated, compressed, so the trees are under stress. So while this may recede, it may go down, the trees leaf out, it may not happen this year, but next year you might see some signs of stress And so I hope that you really pay attention to the trees in your community and look at those signs of stress because I believe that these trees are able to show us very early on, think about that graph, think about that green area, that very early on, that they’re stressed and we need to do something about them This graph is the number of extreme precipitation events and it is a state summary from NOAAs website. So you’re looking over on the left hand side, the number of events with precipitation greater than two inches, and then on the bottom from 1900 to 2014. Obviously the 2010 to 2014 is

the forecast that we’re looking at but these are in five year increments and look over at the right hand side of the graph it just keeps going up. Up steadily within the last decade all we’ve seen are these increases in the number of events that have rainfall greater than five inches. It’s projected to increase and most likely increase in the winter and the spring as well. Extreme precipitation is projected to increase with frequency and intensity so that’s a that’s the one-two punch In the next slide, we’re looking at wetter summers so you’ve got over on the left-hand side you’ve got a total summer precipitation in inches, and I’ll tell you right now, northern Illinois is dry, and you guys are wet. In southern Illinois, just wetter summers. I mean it is just statistically shown to be a trend. So what does that mean, so we’ve got rain events, increasing rain events, we’ve got higher summer precipitation, and then we have wetter periods in the spring. So the winter and the spring what does that do? That delays some of our planting and with that planting it also could potentially delay when they would be treating with herbicides, protecting it, any of our crops. And we have seen over the last years, although not within the last year or so, herbicide damage from a change in some of the formulations and the chemicals that farmers are using. So it’s putting all these pieces together, when you start to look at that beautiful grove of walnuts or those oak trees, those oak trees that support over five four five hundred different types of wildlife and fungi and a number of species, pollinators, they serve as the migratory path, every year so the stature of those big oaks are very important to our migrating birds. But looking at this, so seeing these trends, you’re starting to think about how potentially they would impact plant health. Do we have the right species that are happier in wetter times and can take that heavy flashing, if you will, the flashing also alters our ecosystems, over on the left-hand side you’re starting to see that farmer’s field underwater, takes a week or so to drain it. Over on the right hand side, these swollen rivers they come up and they create just a big old bowl and the trees sit there and what happens is that soil compacts it reduces the oxygen and it really truly just almost suffocates these trees so altering these different types of events have been altering our ecosystems We know that plants, invasive plants, reduce biodiversity. 42 of our threatened and endangered species are impacted by invasive species. That just that mono-carpet monoculture that carpet, I can’t even think of what it is. I don’t know if it’s still grass. it’s really tough to kind of keep combating these types of invasions, but I think that with folks like the River to River Cooperative and many other great organizations in and around the state, are really doing a phenomenal job. The volunteers as well to be honest with you we could never do what we do without the work of our volunteers, so thanks to all of you if you are a volunteer New opportunities for pests to thrive. Chris knows as well. Chris I think is the jumping worm guru We just completed some published research on the impacts of Amynthas agrestis, or Amynthas species, and what we don’t know, if you look over on the right hand side you’re looking at that consistent soil signature, so that soil becomes all blocky and all of those nutrients, if there are we don’t know honestly what type of chemical compound is in there. So we think about worm castings we think about how healthy they are for root establishment and plant growth, but this we’re not so sure. We need long-term research. We need to look at the invasion effects, look at potentially how runoff is affected Erosion, soil biogeochemistry, so what is that

soil made of, is it more acidic, does it alter the plant communities. So basically our woods have been invaded bare patches seems like a perfect opportunity for a pest like this to come in and get established. This pest also came by human activity. Fishermen want to get something that’s going to be really super effective, and so anglers snatched up jumping worms, or Amynthas agrestis, and use them and typically if they don’t use all of them they just dump them by the lake, and there you go. Because this is parthenogenic It basically has its own cocoon so it doesn’t need anybody else if you’ve got one, you’ve got an invasion. But it’s another opportunity where we see these invasive species come in and then they can thrive in areas that are altered, that are highly degraded, because they have very very minimal nutrient needs. Keeping our soil healthy, I think this is really basic, but to be honest when you think back to that water soaked community you got to get back in there when the water recedes, everything dries out, and look at how compacted that soil is. Send it out for a sample, get it tested, but do some digging around, you potentially might need to amend it. Make sure you’ve got some mulch put that mulch back mulch is just like taking the forest and bringing it to those trees in our communities Healthy soil promotes a lot of biological diversity. Obviously there are water benefits as well as carbon storage. I put this in here because I believe that most of the problems with our trees and plants start below the ground. I would say probably 75 to 80 percent are below ground rather than above ground, and I think it’s really important for us as we think about having healthier plants to make sure that we are taking into consideration our soil structure, looking at the microbial community, figuring out like is it clay, does it really stick, can you can you squish it in your hands, and create this ribbon effect, like you just take a big old ball of clay and you start rolling it and get that big old ribbon or that little snake like figure If it’s got that heavy clay component you need to amend it or if it’s just like coffee filters and it just kind of falls through your hand you might need to add some density to it, but making sure that you got a healthy soil is one of the best ways that we can improve plant health Ecosystem management, I think we’ve talked a little bit about it, I love the idea of talking about invasive species removal and fire It’s fall, hopefully we will get a fire season, a little bit of one, I’m not sure what’s going to happen up here in the north, but using the tools that we have in order to kind of reset the clock, help manage those broad geographic areas that have been infected with invasive species Fire can be a really good tool and if it’s used effectively, it’s used properly, and it’s used at the right return intervals. So having that fire come back in potentially at different cycles in different areas in order to promote different types of ecosystem functions is very important I love this slide, integrated pest management, I want everybody to take a look at this. If you don’t know what integrated pest management is you should definitely look it up, take a look at this, take a screenshot of this. I’m going to walk you through it. I mean I think it’s really important you gotta figure out what’s going on with your tree or your plant and then monitor Is it environmental, like are all the plants around it looking the same brown dried crinkly, or is it just one? Is it just host specific, is it just a crab apple, or is it just a walnut tree, and then evaluate it. You got to figure out what’s wrong and I think Nick had a really good idea about using that phenological calendar. I know that Chris and I are we’re all very familiar with the management of invasive species and utilizing that phenological calendar but I think it’s something that we need to add to our toolbox. We can figure out ways to better manage species based on what they’re doing in that time in their growing season. Whether or not their bud burst, whether or not there’s leaf on leaf off, so it’s really important sometimes you can create an opportunity. You don’t have to have chemicals, you don’t have to have mechanical,

you can simply take something like a tree wrap if it needs it. And then making sure that you’re taking action so you’re seeing a survey there, we survey for gypsy moth statewide, and it’s been very effective. We’ve been able to kind of put out some hot spots. We had some areas pop up over the last three years and we’ve worked with the Department of Agriculture and the federal Slow the Spread Program for different types of treatments for gypsy moths. So we’ve really been able to kind of go through and slow down that movement of gypsy moth from the east to the west and then really kind of put out those little hot spots that we need to. And then looking at number five monitor monitor, monitor, monitor, I can’t say it enough. There’s some opportunity, there’s some tools you guys may have some tools as well, so I look forward to hearing how you monitor I mentioned to you about oak decline and we easily have had probably eight or nine phone calls from areas in northern and central Illinois that have lost up to hundreds, hundreds of oaks It’s shocking to see that the decline has happened and so most people go back and they say well it was 2012 up in northern Illinois when there was a big drought, then we had the polar vortex What I’m seeing right here are the stag horns You can see it fine twig die back that comes up And also you just see these fine twigs peek out above that crown, the top part of that tree That is a sign of stress. That is a sign potentially, and most likely, of two-lined chestnut borer. We will most likely lose, we at the arboretum, will most likely lose about 12 trees that are over 250 years old and most likely they’re due to just an infestation of two-lined chestnut borer, no management and they have been that way for a long period of time. Drought, we’ve had not enough, we had too much rain, cooler spring temperatures, and then we had no rain. So there’s a lot of varying factors that are going on, but I want to make you aware of this because I think it’s really important that when you start to see just these two little horns these fine twigs up there, they look dead, you think huge oak tree, who cares? Sometimes you can’t do it for everyone, every tree, but to be honest with you, for those high value trees, those trees that are really important in that ecosystem for the support of wildlife and not only wildlife, carbon sequestration, rain runoff, you name it, air, the air we breathe. I mean, we lose these big big trees and we’re really kind of putting just kind of mixing up the ecosystem. So two lined chestnut borer, look for fine twig dieback Generally these trees are stressed, there’s reduced growth, they start to look shrubby Twolined chestnut borer, it’s that borer, that d shaped exit hole, super tiny. Generally starts out the top part of that oak tree. This is a newly planted tree. I think it’s really important for us to take a look at that. Look at that shrubbiness that occurs. So basically what you’re seeing is that the main center leader has, it’s completely dead, all the fine twigs around it are dead, and all it’s doing is sending out some epicormic shoots, like trying to put out as much leaf area as possible in order to capture some photosynthesis or photosynthate, and send that energy down below. Photo monitoring, we started photo monitoring, if you’re not doing it right now I highly recommend you do it, because you write it down, you put it into a spreadsheet, and you kind of go I don’t know did it look that bad last summer? And you’re like yeah I don’t know, so this is an area that we’re going to continue to monitor and you can start to see, let me see if I have I can pull up my pointer All right in here so this was June, and this was yesterday, so still looking at kind of all this die back right here This side seems to be really kind of declining

quickly, but we’re trying to get a feel for what is going on, and how we can better monitor it. So looking at treatment trials with pactor butazole looking at with two-line chestnut borer, definitely not at the same time, but we’re trying to figure out when the best management applications would be. Known pests, we just mentioned gypsy moth before Asian longhorned beetle, got an update on South Carolina and again twolined chestnut borer we just talked about it And spotted lanternfly is not established in Illinois but we are really concerned about it. We did some good monitoring this summer on tree of heaven, and looking at the distribution, we know it’s everywhere, we’re just trying to document it Looking at gypsy moth, honestly, got some hot spots. 250 plants, we know that the immobile females are key. If you see those white females and they’re flying around, take a video and send it to us, because we want to know Potentially that would be the Asian gypsy moth, so there is potentially and there is been some positive confirmations of Asian gypsy moth in Illinois but not an establishment, so it was just one dead adult. But we would need to have a DNA done on that. Gypsy moth, it’s a heavy defoliator, so again, that caterpillar feeds, I was in a community and I went in the homeowner’s backyard, and you just see this frass coming down and you’re like I felt badly for them. Thankfully we were able to put up some traps in order to help monitor and as soon as we did I mean I think there was over 500, I think at the end of the growing season that we counted. But again seeing that thinning in that tree is really a telltale sign. Watch out for egg masses this winter, fall/winter, get rid of them, scrape them down. If you can squash them, get rid of them Make sure that when we’re doing those traps, if you’re interested in hanging those traps, I think Chris you might have done some trapping with Frederick, have to double check on that. But, again looking at that heavy defoliation, so gypsy moths are not going to kill the tree, it’s just going to be the one two punch that potentially would invite that two-lined chestnut borer Known past Asian longhorn beetle This is what keeps me up at night Host trees, I added cottonwood. There’s now over a hundred listed hosts… let me just back up on that one I got him ahead of myself. I added cottonwood. A new establishment in South Carolina, so again think about that curve, a piece of property was a homeowner’s association, thought their maple trees and their cottonwoods didn’t look that good. I think they got a couple samples and tried to figure out what they were. Once they identified it, they sent a crew out from USDA APHIS and Dr. David Coyle from Clemson, great guy, and they put a team together and this is what they’re dealing with. They’re trying to do trapping in a very swampy area. It’s highly problematic, highly problematic just trying to get in there with any type of equipment to do any type of surveys to see where that front is. And then put a management plan in has been significantly challenging. Just came about within the last year, so again, they have a DNA on Asian long-horned beetles, same DNA as the populations that exist in Ohio Doesn’t mean it came from Ohio, it’s just the same population, same family. So high risk for movements, don’t move firewood, that’s what you need to make sure that we remember. We want to try to avoid areas like this. I know in southern Illinois we’ve got some swampy areas that would really complicated, surveying for Asian long-horned beetle if it were to become established. Be like Barry, Barry was the one, just like us, most of our known forest pests are found by people like you and me. They’re just people that are out there looking at their trees, they see something, they want to know what it is, and lo and behold, if it’s invasive, make sure you report it, take a picture of it. We really always want a picture. Always, always, always. Video/picture is super helpful

But definitely if you see it, report it. It’s about an inch, inch and a half wide, the male adults, the antennae wrap around all the way at the base of the body. The female’s antennaes not as long. But looking at that wood, look at the damage to it. I mean you’re thinking about maple trees as its preferred host, and maple tree is, it’s a big industry. It’s a big big industry and we’re deeply concerned. Usually if people ask me we’ve got over 40 pests in Illinois, like are you worried about all of them? Actually no, I’m only worried about a handful. I’m more worried about the borers. Because the borers get underneath that bark, they disrupt the nutrient flow, they can get into the heartwood, that center of the tree. They can create a hazard, where you’ve got one dead/dying branch, and then that Asian long-horned beetle can hang out there for a number of years and slowly just taking that tree down So it’s something to make sure you watch out for Signs of infestation. looking at that, I mentioned that dead/dying branch, you’ve got oozing, so if you’ve got feeding going on in the bottom right hand side there’s frass. So, what is frass? Frass is like that pencil shavings, if you will, sawdust is another good example of it Used to be that August is tree check month, and to be honest with you, I’ve kind of expanded, every month should be tree check month. It’s great to get out in the winter and take a look at these trees and try to figure out what’s going on. If you listen to the woodpeckers, usually they can guide you to where there might be a potential insect invasion If you could take a pencil, take the eraser and stick it into a perfectly round hole, you need to have that tree evaluated by an arborist right now, as the leaves are starting to fall, and certainly in October/November/December, it’s a lot easier to see those holes on the tree if they’re there And you need to make sure you just get a pencil, and if I was with you, which I hope to be next year, I’d be handing out pencils so that you could take them home and use them on your own trees This is a potential threat to Illinois. I’m not sure how many of you are familiar with spotted lanternfly, but I think it’s something that we need to talk about, because it is moving So each week or so, we get another positive. One dead adult found now in Greenwich, Connecticut, there’s a population on Staten Island so it’s definitely moving around. It came in, a pretty typical pathway, a high risk of introduction are importers, stone importers So egg masses were found on all these pallets, stone pallets. And basically what happened was they didn’t need them, they didn’t use them, and so the eggs, they ended up hatching. And then they found their favorite host, tree of heaven And in Pennsylvania, tree of heaven’s everywhere and I think I could honestly say tree of heaven is ubiquitous, it’s everywhere. So if you look at a distribution map on the Department of Agriculture, I mean most every single state shows a distribution of tree of heaven. So it is a very big concern You’ve seen the quarantine area around here, it’s expanded a little bit, there’s a little blue quarantined area over on the far left hand side of Pennsylvania, sort of right on that Ohio border If you go up, you can’t see it in here, but each one of the counties has just kind of one dot and that just simply means there was one dead adult found in that county. So you’re starting to see how potentially this is making its way out. Pathways. Spotted lanternfly female is indiscriminate. She doesn’t care where she lays her eggs, doesn’t need to lay him on, spotted lanternfly oftentimes it would be wood pallets, it could be rail cars that hang out. That’s one of the biggest risks of introduction into our urban areas, think about, ya think about Illinois, and Illinois has, gosh I can’t even think of thousands of miles of rail lines, and intersecting, or connecting, the east coast to the west coast, and then north and south. And so right behind that, that isn’t that picture over the right-hand side that’s an Elgin tree of heaven just hanging out, out over there, so that rail car came in, had egg masses, and then boom found tree of heaven

That’s how these populations get established. And that’s how they get looked over. Nobody’s going to want to look at tree of heaven. Nobody’s going to want to monitor a tree of heaven, but it is something that we did this summer. So it was very eye-opening to see it. Egg masses very similar to gypsy moth. One thing I think is very unique is the egg masses are that white that you see underneath the female. And it takes about 30 minutes, she lays that egg mass and then she goes back over it with a thick glassy or thick waxy coat. This is last year’s, so it looks like dried up sausages or tire tracks. So those are some good signs that you can take a look at Why do we care? We’re thinking about agriculture We want to make sure the U.S. Department of Agriculture, any threat to any of our food supplies gets regulated almost immediately. I mean if there is an economic threat, if there’s a threat to our agriculture, our food supply chain, our systems, our food systems. They take it very seriously. So spotted lanternfly, it’s not only grapes, hops, almonds, apricots, cherry, maple, oak, pine, nectarines, peaches, plums, poplar, sycamore, walnut, willow, and on and on and on. They think they have over a hundred hosts, if you will, sort of 70 is that sweet spot that is most likely to occur, but they have documented around the world that spotted lanternfly can feed on over 100 different types of plants So in the United States, apples, we produced over 10 billion pounds of apples and making that probably almost 3 billion, 2.9 billion dollar a year business. Our hops, our hops is about 600 million dollars. And then our grapes are valued at over six billion dollars annually I like to look at this, and certainly in the tree, where you see the chipper. If you had to take down tree of heaven. Wow, it’s amazing, I mean they provide ecosystem services, they’re responsible for carbon sequestration, they clean our air, they clean our waters, they help with storm water runoff. It’s still a tree, even though it’s an invasive tree. It would be significant. It would be costly to have to remove it. I mentioned that they feed on grapevines, they don’t feed on the grapes themselves. They have a piercing mouth part that they use to suck the petiole, or the leaves, if you will, the vines, but not actually fruit. And when they do that, all they’re doing is weakening the plant itself, so instead of spraying four times a year, you’re now spraying 12 times a year, just trying to get these pests off these plants so they don’t alter the chemical of the fruit. Which ultimately would impact grape juices or wines or whatnot This pest also goes into, kind of, our forested community. Looking at the impacts to trees, so what they suck out, they got that really sugary, sooty, or honeydew sweetness, and they pass it And then what happens, it kind of blankets that trunk of the tree and it can create that black sooty mold. It can really wreak havoc at the base of the tree and cause it to be a high-risk tree. When looking at the social-economic, or the socio-impacts, people cannot get out and recreate, can’t walk around your trails, can’t sit on your picnic table, so this pest is pretty invasive and definitely something that is a generalist. And that is a challenge where you’re talking about managing. Tree of heaven, many of you know what tree of heaven is, just drive around and take a look and I’m sure you’ll find it. It looks a little bit like walnut. Very heavy seeder, it has that winged samara on the top right hand side. It’s got one seed in the middle, so it’s very different than that ash seed that we typically see. You’ve got that leaf scar, that large leaf scar, you’ve got the lenticels, gray lenticels, and then that really super long leaf with all the leaflets. It can be anywhere from 10 to 41 leaflets so it’s very very very distinctive once you see it. And then on the bottom right hand side you start to see those little teeth, or those nodes, that kind of bump out kind of looks like a little mini thumb If you’ll just allow me one moment to talk a little bit about why tree of heaven From 2014 people are like why tree of heaven, like why does this need tree of heaven? A spotted

lanternfly doesn’t need tree of heaven. Tree of heaven increases the fecundity of, or the viability of, the female egg masses, so she starts out her life on tree of heaven, and she ends her life on tree of heaven with laying her egg masses and feeding. They are more likely to be viable and complete their life cycle the next season will grow into adults. But she takes her, or the male and female, early in the season, they take their piercing mouth part, and because of those lenticels that you saw, they pierce that, they open up that lenticel, and they use the turgor pressure, so the pressure of all the nutrients coming from below ground and going out to the branches and to the twigs and then taking in that all that nutrients and then bringing it below ground so that up and down that elevator that highway if you will, they’re using the tree’s mechanics to feed themselves. So that hole stays open, that nutrient comes into them, and then they are able to use that tree, based on, kind of this really wild plant-host association. So I just digressed for a moment. If you do see it, we have a dedicated line, email, so Illinois Department of Agriculture 815-787-5476, or email, lanternfly@Illinois.edu definitely want to see it. We want to make sure that if you think for a reasonable doubt that you got something funky going on, we’d rather hear from you than not hear from you So what did we do this summer to kind of figure out what we were doing in this covid 19 time, we’re looking at the distribution of Illinois, kind of I mean that, distribution of tree of heaven within Illinois, both northern southern western and eastern Illinois. And we had an intern from Doris Duke conservation joined myself and we did some socially distancing field work. We looked at a 2010 tree census tried to ground truth it to make sure that what was seen in 2010 is still seen, was still there today And so, lo and behold, it was, I think we’ve added probably a couple hundred data points, so we’ve got over 1100 1200 data points, and that’s very very helpful when you’re trying to characterize the risks associated to the state of Illinois should spotted lanternfly get established. So what we went out and did, is we looked at areas and we worked with Bugwood to update their app and allow us to create some priority areas. And then based on those priority areas, look at what the vulnerable points of introduction might be. One of them would potentially be the Shawnee Wine Trail Looking at I think I went to Feather Hills Winery, and it was just on a lark that I stopped there, and I pulled in and it’s a beautiful vineyard, and what is ringing the property, tree of heaven everywhere. So just because you have tree of heaven doesn’t mean you have spotted lanternfly, but if you’ve got people driving in from around the country, potentially from the east coast, they park their car, it could happen, it could not. We’re just trying to figure out what ways in order to go about prioritizing education, outreach, and then monitoring should we get an establishment and honestly I grabbed these pretty recently, actually like just an hour ago, and I’m not really sure why these numbers are so low the more you blow it up the higher the aggregate gets so we’ll see, I’ll have to take a look at that, but we, East St. Louis has got a huge kind of like a bubble, if you will, like right around it. I mean it’s a lot. There’s a lot of confirmations Over on the left hand side, we’ve been working with Matt Helmus from Temple University, and I encourage you to look up Matt, look at his lab. I might be able to get his website up and running but basically what they’re doing, and he got funding through the Department of Agriculture to look at the distribution, what is the likelihood of the distribution of spotted lanternfly, and if you look right here so this is 20, this is 2025, what you can do is pull up this iEcoLab and it goes all the way out to 2050 and it can show you the distribution,

but what it’s doing, and it’s a model, and that’s why we’re contributing to it, we want to get positive confirmations, not necessarily herbarium specimens, but positive county confirmations, so that we can participate in this model, and start to run different scenarios to see is it likely to come into southern Illinois, or would it more likely come in transportation routes or these corridors up in northern Illinois, or potentially through rail. So it’s super exciting to see that these models are continuing to exist and be developed and they’re looking for Illinois to participate in the pilot so good news, more to come on that, but I thought you should know that out of the model that he ran by 20 25 potentially could be up and around Cook County More to come on that. So monitoring options, iNaturalist is super cool we’re using EDDMapS Pro, which we love, it’s a great field application it’s got a great dashboard, it’s all for invasive species. I highly recommend it iNaturalist is super cool as well. We’ve been able to migrate all of the data records on tree of heaven in Illinois from iNaturalist and move it into EDDMapS Pro so that we can create a more complete set of data points We mentioned this before about phonology, looking at the national phenology network, this is super cool, this is if you’re into monitoring looking at the phenology of the plants is very helpful. If you see something report it. I think basically, the Illinois Department of Agriculture, I mentioned that before. Greg Rentschler is the USDA APHIS, he’s our state plant health director, and then this is my number at the Morton Arboretum and my email address, anybody’s got any questions, I know that Erin and Chris both have my contact information if you need it. And I think it is about 3:48. I was supposed to be between 45 and 50 minutes, so I appreciate your time and I thank you. If you have any questions I’d be happy to answer them and I appreciate it your time Great, thanks so much Tricia. I’m going to encourage anybody that has questions to go ahead and put them in the chat box, and we’ll go through, we’ve already had several come in, so one of them specifically was about, you were talking about heat treatments, and somebody asked instead of like the large ways that the people do heat treatments in bulk, what other options are out there for smaller scale heat treatments for people that may want to treat locally wood that’s harvested? Or be able to use stuff on a smaller scale? Yeah I think kilns are probably the best option if you’re looking at smaller scale Some of our sawmills might be a really good resource for that, but I need to look into that, but that’s a really good question, I would say the use of kilns is probably the best option that you have for smaller quantities if you’re doing something at your home or small community Okay great. Somebody asked can you put that contact slide back up. they wanted, they didn’t get a chance to write the info down that you had up there your final slide. Yep, okay So somebody else asked how do you assess dicamba damage to trees if they think they have that? I think that you need to call the Illinois Department of Agriculture. I think that the District Foresters also well aware of it. There have been some protocols that are developed, and so Dr. Frederick Miller along with the District Foresters and the Department of Agriculture Scott Schirmer have very clear field identification photos of what potentially dicamba damage would look like Kind of looks like wind tatters, or not tatters, but very thin sparse, cupping of the leaves as well. Okay great. Somebody asked about two-lined chestnut borer and what groups of trees does that species attack? Right now it’s oaks. I mean it is it is We’ve heard more problems with two-lined chestnut borer on oaks and so I can’t, to be honest with you, answer specifically what the other tree species would be

Okay, let’s see, somebody asked, you had a Asian longhorned beetle and they asked basically, are maples the primary host for that, but I know there’s other trees as well, right? Yeah, there’s a number of trees, so they have that broad host preference. Its main host though is maple So silver maple, not so much sugar maple, red maple, that’s what they’re seeing in Ohio Cottonwood was the new add to the list for the South Carolina find, and you think about cottonwood, think about our river systems, and I mean, there’s cottonwood everywhere, so maple’s the preferred one and obviously maple has that strong agricultural impact, so that economic, that agricultural impact, I mean that the syrup industry is huge, and so if those maples in Ohio, they’ve taken down probably 40,000 maple trees off of public and private property, and they’re probably four years away from wrapping that program up so though it’s devastating Okay thanks. Somebody asked what’s the best way to report tree of heaven? So what’s your preferred way to do that in Illinois if somebody wants to do that? EDDMapS Pro, and I can send a link, I can follow up Chris with you and Erin and send a link. We have a little training video on it So if anybody’s interested, all you do is watch just a few minutes and I’ll get you set up. EDDMapS Pro is, you download it on your phone, you need to set up your account on your desktop, and from there that’s the driver of what your data sets are. You pick your county, you pick your tree, and then if you have it, you report it, and then it gets verified on the back end. Chris is a verifier, I’m a verifier, and it’ll get added to the set. So EDDMapS is the one Okay great. A couple people asked about what was the app that you mentioned after or after or before iNaturalist? They just, you went through the apps pretty quick and they just want to kind of review those apps that you mentioned there you had I natural? I know iNaturalist and then the National Phenology Network. Okay do you so they can just search for National Phenology Network, that’s the best way to get to that? Yeah, it’s really cool The other one is the iEcoLab but if you look up Matthew Helmus, h e l m u s, you should be able to pull it up. He’s just getting started in his research and we’re super excited about it. Great, so here’s a question, this is definitely one that I want you to address, somebody said, so should we stop trying to eradicate tree of heaven? And I’m really hoping that you do the right answer here Do I, do you stop trying to eradicate tree of heaven? No you need to continue to eradicate tree of heaven, you need to get rid of it as far as I’m concerned. Do what you can. The big difference and I get asked this is should you remove tree of heaven in order to mitigate the establishment of spotted lanternfly. The answer is no, I mean if spotted lanternfly is going to come and it gets established in Illinois, if you’ve removed your tree of heaven that’s going to help, but it doesn’t mean that you’re not going to if you have other trees on your property it doesn’t mean that you’re not going to get it. So okay great definitely yeah, definitely, I mean, get rid of that. Can you speak a little bit about, somebody talked about all the intermodal traffic, and the transfer and things going on in Illinois, like you talked about how much, kind of global commerce we have, and kind of does that make us, are we, are we more highly worried here in Illinois because of that? For receiving new invasive pests? Absolutely I mean you think about, you think about Lake Michigan, you think about the ocean, you think about, we’ve got over like a hundred public use airports. I mean spotted lanternfly has been transported from the east coast into Rockford on a cargo plane and thankfully because there was a Japanese beetle treatment, that adult was killed before it went on to California, but you start to see how we have these very vulnerable points of introduction so we’ve

got rail lines, we’ve got airports, we’ve got interstate, and we’ve got, we’ve got recreation, so people coming in and they may not know it but maybe there are egg masses People are moving back and forth, you’ve got pods and whatnot, so it’s being really vigilant about when you are moving or you’re transporting, or you yourself are going from a known area that has an infestation, you ought to make sure that you get your car washed, you double check what you’re doing. If you’re camping, get your gear clean your gear do what you need to do Don’t move firewood. But yes, Illinois he wants to view, Illinois the sweet spot in the country, I mean we got it all, so and thankfully we are getting funding, because of those high risk pathways. So it’s nothing to be alarmed at, it’s something to be aware of. Sure absolutely We have one question, and it’s kind of specific, so what I’m going to do is ask it but I’m going to reword it a little bit until I think it’s a little more general question Somebody’s asking about what might cause thinning or tip die back in pecan trees, but really what I want to ask you can address that one, but I want to ask you basically is if somebody has tree health in general that’s declining, they don’t know what’s causing that, kind of, what are their steps to figuring out what should they do first, if they have something, they don’t know what’s happening, they’re concerned, kind of where do they go, where do they start? Right, and that’s a good point, so that, and I can’t speak specifically to pecans because I don’t, I don’t have that in my toolbox, but I would say in general as you kind of reframed the question, when you start monitoring and you start looking at these very simple signs, one of the things that’s super important, especially with two-lined chestnut borer, is getting a pair of binoculars. Getting into that tree, looking at that tree, and starting to notice where those exit holes are. Looking at the whole tree and from there you have to see what is the response to the tree, all right, that’s why I like photo documentation I like looking at things year over year over year to see what is really going on with this tree Right now for me, the oaks, and if you have a high value, the pecans, if you see fine twig dieback, I would have it reviewed by a trained arborist, your district forester, I think that you need to document it with pictures. I think you need to know what this response is, so if you’ve got one dead and dying branch, when did it die, what happened? Get your soil tested, I mean, you start to look at when you’re thinking about when your kids aren’t feeling well, and they’re just kind of hanging out, they’re like I don’t feel so well, what do you do, you check their temperature. What do you have, a stomachache, did you eat something, have you been exposed to something? It’s the same sort of thing when you’re looking at these trees. Looking below ground, pull back that soil, start to see what’s going on below ground as well. So it’s doing a number of things and doing it consistently and doing it over time and then being able to go to the resources that you have. Extension, District Foresters, Department of Ag, trained arborists, are great. Okay great. We have time for one more question, and one came in, basically another question about the apps, that they just, they were didn’t catch the name of it they said there was an app you mentioned appsat or ap sat or something can you specify what app they were asking about? There’s Well there’s EDDMapS Pro and EDDMapS. So, EDDMapS is the desktop, EDDMapS Pro is on your phone, so your phone app, so if you were looking at if you have Android or Apple or whatever, it this is the field monitoring portion of it. So if you download it, it’s real easy to find that tree, drop a point, identify it, take a picture, it goes into a queue, and then you hit upload. So EDDMapS is desktop EDDMapS Pro is the app on the phone So that’s EDDMapS, so for them to make sure, Early Detection and Distribution Mapping System, that’s what it stands for