our presentation this morning is with algo who’s a specialist at Michigan State University and he’s going to be talking this morning on dairy ventilation or ventilation in general and manure systems and a little bit about fuel switching I believe so with that I’m going to turn over to al al you there how we can’t hear you sorry there are we okay now I want to go ahead and start over okay let’s start over I’ll start with page one here dearie ventilation basically it provides for a comfortable environment for healthy and productive cows Cal’s continuously produce heat and moisture and the purpose of a good ventilation system is to remove that heat and moisture from the housing facility ok so this exchange basically occurs whether the temperature is cold in winter or when it’s hot the middle summer the most basic natural ventilation system requires the following items air exchange control flexibility good barn construction and ventilation system the value and importance of providing a comfortable environment for high producing dairy cows is demonstrated by expanding use of air circulation other cooling methods house in general are cold weather animals and basically when relatively humidity reaches around 72 degrees or seventy two percent house Derrick he’ll start feeling a mild heat stress this heat stress is increased that eighty percent relative humidity and really get severe at ninety percent relative relative humidity the effects of heat stress on dairy cows has been well documented and includes reduction of feed intake drop in milk production by twenty to thirty percent increase susceptibility mass to mastitis and other diseases reduce consumption rates and other reproductive problems the graph presented before you basically is a graph that charts production the production with regards to air temperature okay so another rule of thumb in terms of measuring when maybe to turn on your fans or or increase ventilation is temperature however relative humidity is a more accurate rule of thumb measurement but if you use temperature the general range in which house have maximum production is between around 40 41 degrees Fahrenheit around

70 degrees Fahrenheit again most cows are comfortable and can attain high levels of productivity between 41 and 70 degrees Fahrenheit if the relative humidity is not defined house are much more tolerant of temperatures below the optimum range than above so they basically are still productive at temperatures far below 20 minus 20 degrees below kanay degrees Fahrenheit they’re kept dry and sheltered from the wind most wintertime productivity problems are the results of animals being shut inside poorly ventilated barns rather than cold facilities as you notice in the pictures farmers will tell you when with a causal are confortable they usually lay down in the bin their skulls if they are not comfortable especially during summer time they will be standing up and not be laying down one production myth is that since dairy cows are cold weather animals it is natural for milk production to drop during the summer months when it’s very hot ok the chart you have here is of an actual dairy farm that basically has shown that now you can increase no production even during the hot though winter months however this operation has a very extensive ventilation system and they use it very very well as well as they monitor temperature and humidity in the facility so it has this automated system and it really can’t push the moist hot air outside the facilities and bring in cooler drier air so you can increase production even during summer months yeah yes your voice quality is breaking up are you on the phone or over the i’m on a mic okay our system is here we break up a little bit you see the same system we had before so same computer so i was hoping this would be okay is it still breaking up right now yeah did the right quality isn’t real good let me try the phone then did you give me the phone number to call it oh yeah it’s a 2560 823 75 85 oh okay and then send it out it’s 8703 495 sweat it 870 703 495 do a hit the pound yep hello can you hear me now help you upset the other one off it’s all okay it’s a better start yep okay you want me to go back a few slides rolling zakone okay basically wanted to show this graph to show the basicness of summer production and dairy the standard assumption is that dairy milk production goes down during the hot summer months primarily because cows are stressed and primarily because cows are supposed to be cold weather animals this actual production chart shows that now dairy milk production can increase during the summer with adequate and well-controlled of ventilation systems now i show my trainees this slide because they always see the advertisements aware it shows

california cows are the happy cows i think you’ve seen some of those well i basically tell them that everybody knows that happy cows love cold weather so this commercial was filmed in mid Midwest and not in California I just wanted to emphasize that cows are really cold weather animals very ventilation is also to make sure that folks that are working on operations are comfy as well okay a lot of milking parlours as well as the areas where workers are working most of the time need to be properly ventilated and aerated as well to maintain and increase milk production levels greater number of dairy farms are implemented implementing options to mitigate the effects of heat stress the energy used by these systems to provide air circulation ventilation evaporative cooling effects represent an increasing portion of the aggregate electrical energy consumed the rapid growth of cow comfort systems on dairy farms has occurred because of the magnitude of economic benefits that can be achieved it is worthwhile to consider the energy management opportunities that exist for these and systems to reduce the effects of heat stress on dairy cows a variety of measures have been developed and these include natural ventilation shading circulation fans and circulation fans with evaporative cooling systems or as some would call them misters to show you the impact of energy used for ventilations I basically have free charge here from three states are in New York the ventilation averages around nineteen percent of their energy costs electrical energy costs in Wisconsin ventilation covers around twenty two percent of that energy costs here in Michigan this is a little surprising from the data we got we are using only using eight percent and I tried to find out pretty much and looked at the average temperatures and basically found out that in Michigan we have an insulating effect by the Great Lakes and we are about 10 degrees warmer during the winter as well as 10 degrees cooler during the summer so that could be the reason wire ventilation percentages a bit down the two other states the first is natural ventilation natural ventilation of dairy housing structures is accomplished by building high sided open facilities oriented to take advantage of prevailing winds if the building has a peaked roof and open rich provides a natural outlet to allow warm air to rapidly exit the building proper orientation of the building so that prevailing winds blow through the structure from one side to the other helps reduce temperatures for livestock housed within that’s during the summer months the advantage of natural ventilation system is there is no energy input the major disadvantage is that when there is no wind there is little or no air circulation or cooling effect within the structure in large facilities most of the natural ventilation occurs through the roof through the rich openings and through the side for side openings on i will show you basically at the next slide two major rich styles are we have the conventional design as well as the california design just wanted to show you this is basic there’s an open roof here the opening here on the side for the california design one disadvantage with the conventional design is if it rains you will have a wet spot right in the middle so those are the two major rich bentley signs each the slides here shows you some daring facilities which have a combination this picture here has an open vent and these ones here have covered rich events as well as this one but if you go around and see these free stall bars you can see various styles of Ridge Ridge vents and some called the most of Barney’s we also have open to the side if you

notice here that’s another way for natural ventilation to occur on us on a dairy farm facility on some of these sites have manual curtains or panels if you notice here this is a cow racing barn here and they put panels here during the winter and they remove them during summer too for openings some facilities have automated barn curtains I have a link here on the site when you pull down the attachment or the hand out there for this presentation you brings you to a little video that shows you how these automated automated barn curtains arts are used and how they work another strategy is shady arm very simple structures with flat grills or shade cloth covers provide a place for dairy cattle to get out of the direct Sun the shade structure just cast a shadow responds to the movement of the Sun throughout the day the cows are free to move within the shaded zone as the day progresses shading systems like natural ventilation systems do not require any input of energy ok unless they are supplemented by mechanical air moving systems or misting systems as well another systems which is more common or the most common system basically is circulation fan systems the major users of electrical energy insert in circulation fan systems are the electric motors used to drive various configuration of fans and fan blades experts agree that the heat stress in dairy cows begin when the ambient temperature reaches between 65 to 70 70 degrees Fahrenheit and relative humidity is forty percent or higher it is normally recommended that circulation fan should be turned on when temperatures reach 70 degrees fahrenheit in order to keep cows within their comfort zone a lot of farmers will try to save energy and not turn on their fans but basically data that we get it shows that the amount of energy they are using for those fans will be recouped and they will even get much more over there caused by the increase or increased production during those hot days or hot periods so at this point we are seeing that training those fans on really pays off circulation systems includes several different types are all circulation fans common to dairy housing systems are actual flow propeller pants they have either flat teardrop or airfoil shape blades attached directly to a motor or to a motor and Delton drive system most circulatory fans accept the basket style are mounted in a circular ring to help control air flow through the fan now some farmers will tell you that they prefer dealt ribbon fans and I wanted to ask why that was so since belt driven fans are usually a bit less energy efficient than the direct their direct more fans and basically said they are having a better experience with being able to maintain them so that’s just an opinion of some farmers but in general their belt driven plant fans are usually less efficient overall fan efficiencies are very greatly and performance is affected by numerous factors including types of blade clearance between the blade tip and the fan housing or orifice the design of the fan housing an orifice panel speed at which the fan operates and any obstruction to airflow including fan screen guards shutters motor drive etc one aspect that fans provide is they move air and a lot of farmers will tell you in there are other resources and reference that basically say is the air movement in let’s say freestone bond is between four to five miles per hour this

prevents flies and other insects that usually bother in pasture cows from landing on them so therefore with air flow speed at at this level it provides a lot more a better a better environment for four cows and then I’d rather that much mid flies especially the biting flies the six major types of fans as you can see here we start out with what we call a basket fan it has kind of a fan covered with a mesh wire mesh you have a box fan you have a panel fan are we see a lot of the least types fans here in Michigan and surrounding states we have funnel fan and we have two examples of example here of large low volume high speed fan as well as a low volume low speed fans are these big fans here are also called paddle fans as most manufacturers call them some of the efficiency ratings or or category these fans are presented on the table that you’ve seen here as you can se see here the basket fans have the lowest operating efficiency level the high volume low speed temps have the highest the general operating efficiency level and most of them are in the moderate and box fans can be from moderate to high so this is as a general rule from the energy efficiency levels of the various types of fans as you can see in this picture here we have panel fans that are being used here we also have open sights and I believe they use me manville curtains for the sides the ends are also opened out so basically this this facility uses a lot of natural ventilation from the sides and from the ends as well as from the fans and this also has a rich depth over the side and just can’t see it so the design of this facility is pretty effective in terms of providing providing a cool dry facility for dairy cows here are other examples are fans or signal motors are mounted over cows back to keep them cool are also in the holding area we have fans to keep them cool as well so these are some of the heirs where fans are being utilized fans are also utilized in the milking parlor itself to help cool that area for those that are milking the cows some folks have calf housing and they have these panels they put up during winter they remove these panels during summer here is here is the operator operator basically in the process of putting these panels up and each stall for the Cavs have also fans that bring in outside air another type of ventilation system is what we call tunnel ventilation system basically these fans they are relatively large fans are put in one end of the facility and basically either you can change the directions or either blowing air through the facility from one end or another or at times reversing the fans and sucking the air out from one end to another so these are another type of ventilation systems that you may see up there in derry facilities some systems are combination of circulation fans systems with evaporative cooling a dairy cow produce a large amount of heat but she is not very efficient at de sibbett facilitating that heat at temperatures about 70 degrees Fahrenheit if the tempers are 60 degrees Fahrenheit or

below a cow can dissipate excess body heat through convective conductive and radiant heat transfer from the skin however at higher temperatures above 70 degrees Fahrenheit cows have to increase heat dissipated dissipated by panting as a cow pants she increases her breathing rate that increased precinct air flow through her lungs evaporative and convective heat transfer moves heat from her body in the exhaled air however only about twenty percent of the excess body it can be dissipated this way at high temperatures above 90 degrees Fahrenheit which commonly occurs during the summer months in the Midwest air circulation need to be simple supplemented with evaporative cooling to keep cows comfortable now not all forms need evaporative cooling or misters but some some barns and some facilities that are not designed as well do need this okay evaporative cooling in dairy resting barnes uses uses the cooling effects of rapid air flow and circulatory front fans along with the cooling effects of the evaporating water there are two common types of systems used to provide cooling water you have the low pressure sprinklers and high pressures ministers fan maintenance okay basically dairy ventilation circulation system requires scheduled maintenance for maintenance can reduce fan efficiency by as much as forty percent cleaning with fan parts especially the blades can improve long-term efficiency accumulation of as little as 18 inch of dirt on the fan blades can significantly reduce fan performance proper lubrication and bearings and other moving parts will keep performance level high and reduce energy in reality we all know though that if you go into a dairy farm arm maintenance of fans is not a high priority I mean dairy farmers have more a lot more important things to do but if you can explain to them that there is a benefit for maintaining and clean fans hopefully they could develop maintainence a regular maintenance system that they can follow are also dead and damaged or misaligned sandwich should be repaired or replaced simply cause an imbalance and reduced and life and performance repairing replacing the fan blade is are less costly than repairing or purchasing a new then purchasing a new fan some of the recommended monthly fan maintenance procedures are first of all your Disqus of all disconnected power remove all dust accumulated on the controls and motors as well as remove dust and develop with the fan blades fan housings shutters and guards lubricate called private point source of shutters as well as if the motor is not filled the sum of the areas where you can lubricate check all wiring for service pack from the service panel to make sure there are no damage wiring components for fan belt driven fans make sure the police are properly aligned and the belt has proper tension ok replace any worn belts reattach all guards before turning power back on if fans are thermostatically controlled compare the term set with a reliable thermometer so these are some of the things that you could do to make sure your fans are in maintain their efficiency for a much longer life span now some of the problems cannot be seen visually directly this is an example of a paddle fan right here and which we took a infrared camera and took a picture of it because we were suspecting something must not work quite working with his fan and we notice that this fan was operating as a much higher temperature level than the other fans and we finally found out that there was a small leak on the spin so these are some of the tools that that an auditor or somebody who’s looking at the doing energy efficiency assessment other of their farm can use

in terms of looking great detail into their fans this is the fan that was had a little leak very bright light that shows it was offering a very high temperature compared to the other that was not as hot and was operating a much lower temperature so this example of fans operating at different temperatures with one leaking a little bit oil selecting fans okay to compare fans from different manufacturers the Bayou environmental and structural system lab that is called short for be ESS at the University of Illinois at urbana-champaign conducts standardized tests on fans with accessories and publishes the test results selecting fans for energy efficiency simply expressed at flow rate per unit of input energy or CFM per watt is becoming very important a higher CFM per what rating will indicate a more efficient fan remember that both fan performance and energy efficiency can vary widely for an example a 48 inch fan can have an officially as low as 13 CFM for what or as high as 23 CSM per watt at 0.01 static water pressure for the same application this is why it is recommended to review testing information from the be e SS when comparing fans of different sizes or from different manufacturers it is very useful to study their rated performance data and to find out if the evaluations have been tested under conditions similar to those in your facility in addition ve SS have identified imported fan selection criteria they are want to feel there that must be moved at different static pressures energy efficiency comparison among fans quality of dealer support reliability and life of fans suitability for intended application and cost one thing I just like to point out here that actually this is this is a duplicate slide so I’ll just move on Barnes ventilation tips reducing ventilation in a naturally ventilated dairy barn during frigid winter weather might seem like a good way to keep the barn warm but this strategy could be a disaster some dairy producers who have insulated naturally ventilated freestyle bars are thinking about tithing them up reducing the cracks reducing some of the spaces between panels or walls or ceilings okay closing the eaves Inlet to keep the barns warmer the barns may seem too cold and drafty for the cows however barnes of this type are designed to be cold within a few degrees of the outside air closing eve inlets will create wet damp conditions and lead possibly to respiratory health problems for the cows wet damp conditions will be evidenced by fog conversation or frost on building surfaces and of course high humidity at 30 degrees Fahrenheit and 1100 pounds dairy cow will give up about 20 pounds of water vapor per day through respiration and losses through their skin and sweat this moisture must be removed by venting air it can take a venting rate of around 170 cubic feet per minute per cow to remove it closing even let’s restrict the ventilating great ventilation rate and causes moisture to accumulate in the barn as moisture accumulates it will begin to condense as cold surface as cold surfaces and if the surface are

below freezing frost will form in addition here in severe cold weather and during blizzard conditions even less can be partially closed to reduce airflow and the amount of snow blowing into the barn according to the Midwest plant service the minimum inlet opening during severe cold weather is one-half inch for every 10 feet of building with there should be note here there should be an inlet on each long side of the building when normal winter weather returns Eve inlet should be reopened to the standard one inch per 10 feet on both sides of the building cows need a dry grass free resting area graphic conditions at TAO level can be reduced by patching curtain holes minimizing gaps at the ends of the curtains and sealing around or still meet small wind gaps with extreme wind and extreme low temperatures occur avoid the temptation to keep uninsulated naturally ventilated freestyle barnes too warm they were designed to be cold and dairy cows do quite well in cold temperatures when they are dry protected from the wind and properly fed and watered I wanted to note that some of these comments are from heaven yani from the University of Minnesota Extension oops I did the ventilating summary our box type fence and large low speed paddle pipe bands are often called high volume low speed or HDLs bands are the two principal types used for animal housing box fans are used in conventional title barns or lose housing such as freestyle barnes the HDLs fans are recommended only for loose housing applications with high side wall heights if fans are being used choose the most efficient ones available and make sure they’re equipped with totally enclosed motors generally as span diameter increases the efficiency old-school goes up for example a standard 48 inch box fans would have an average efficiency around 17 CFM per watt while a high efficiency 48 bucks fans will move 20 CFM per watt or more are twenty percent increase in efficiency I think we have a typo here I apologize this is a comic the first one is a comparison between a 36 inch box fan compared to a 48 inch box fan well high volume low speed fans are normally recommended for loose housing applications they may still be considered for modern and open free stall facilities keeping a fan in good repair is an important seem as important in reducing energy costs as buying the most efficient model poor maintenance can reduce a fans efficiency by fifty percent or more for fans that are dealt ribbon belt adjustment is a single biggest maintenance problem with certain types of fans belt driven fans must be regularly adjusted through the hot season for full air movement so they should be easy to adjust when the fan is on louvers must be fully open otherwise restrict the flow of air from the building a restricted fan operates longer and there’s a heavy heavier load to achieve the desired amount of cooling with which costs more electricity installing thermostats to control the fans on and off operation save energy and increases productivity research has indicated that dairy cows begin to show heat stress at around 70 74 degrees Fahrenheit with seventy percent relative humidity okay so it is recommended that the thermostat is set between 70 and 75 degrees Fahrenheit use thermostats designed for outdoors in damp dusty conditions mounting the thermostat out of the reach of animals but in an area that will actually accurately reflect air temperatures around the livestock to

ensure accurate readings the thermostats need to be protected from direct sunlight and check clean and perhaps recalibrated and monthly since since dust can also affect accuracy that’s basically for fans now I’d like to segue into manure systems okay when you’re handling all dairy farms produce and then must dispose of waste products from two major sources the wastewater from they’re milking centers and the waste products from digestion other public process of dairy cows a significant amount of energy is used basically especially in California where they have a higher level of environmental regulations are they they use a lot of energy and systems to take care of this waste as well as milk center milk water waste water so the source of basically waste and manure manure is Bishop washing of milking equipment Kyle prep wash pans back flash of milking equipment on parlor and holding area flushing of manure there are four types of manure collecting systems employed and dairy farms flushing systems utilized water to dilute transport manure on automatic alley scrapers vacuum operated collection equipment tractor or skid steer manure scrapers example here is a pretty much a tractor driven skids a blade that basically skids and scrapes the manure from the center aisle here that’s one example the chart that’s presented here it gives you an idea of pretty much how much or a general indication of how much manure is produced for lactating dairy cows okay as as production your production level increases / dairy cow the amount of manure or so goes up so as we note here the lower access here as you increase the production level per year of your dairy cows the amount of manure produced also goes up so this is kind of like a guide for you to use to try to see the mountain when you’re being produced on a farm there are various minus assistance on this system here is a flush system and the water is usually put in a pumping system the pumping system has a filter filter and what it does it reuses the water and flushes the the facility again so basically they are reusing the water off and using a filter simp to kind of clean up the water to reuse this is just basically open lagoon where some of the waste is being stored some of this some of the lagoons are have filters or have have film on the sides some of the lagoons do not so the variation terms of the size complexity this manure lagoons vary quite a bit manure is spread in the field several ways this is the this is an example of injecting the manure into the soil which is pretty much the most efficient way in terms of retaining the nitrogen content of the manure some are just stored here and then spread out into the field usually this system is done sometimes for daily hold air is spreading there are be careful though there are restrictions in application of manure in some states with regard to winter regulations with regards to offset from from waterways as well as regulation terms of applying manure in fields with high phosphorus content so those regulations impact your manure system and how you dispose of your manure in the field as well now estimated nitrogen losses now I focus on nitrogen because it’s one of the more expensive elements

that we farmers use to to augment the natural occurring neutrons in their field for growing crops actually notice at the bottom the lagoon system which is very common here in the Midwest you lose seventy to eighty five percent of the nitrogen in the manure now I’d like to highlight that because I want to give you kind of like an impact and value that later on so these are kind of a describes the various systems and their various storage facilities and the nitrogen are lost given those storage facilities the bottom line nitrogen is too valuable to lose as a crop Newton swell as it impacts air pollutants and as an added energy efficiency aspect it has been calculated that to produce one pound of nitrogen requires equivalent of 11 gallons of diesel in terms of energy use that covers production and manufacturing aspects transportation packaging and as well as delivery it is worth time to calculate the savings that can be relaxed by making a management change for example in giving giving the example of one pound of nitrogen or five pounds of diesel if you can save reduce your nitrogen input let’s say in a corn operation from 140 pup 40 pounds nitrogen to 120 that’s a saving around 20 pounds of nitrogen per acre that’s equivalent to 2 500 gallons of diesel in terms of total energy costs now nitrogen around 70 70 cents per pound that’s around the 14 dollar savings per acre so making good use of the manure and the nitrogen the manure that’s coming from your dairy animals has a great deal of value basically month when your man recovers collecting and spreading of veneer computer it covers storage in some cases where in us and bedding it also covers separation of Santa manure it requires muted management it also looks at the impact of manure application on new prints of the soil it looks at runoff issues and for some of the larger farms they may be required to have muted management plans or certified nutrient mutant managed plans to provide provide a plan as well as record-keeping systems in terms of manure applications in their facility it also provides for energy some energy efficiency opportunities together with manure people have used when you look at the anaerobic digester systems I’m not going to go into deafness just wanted to mention this in general a DS can help control order path of introduction I’m on your emission controls liquid the minus stabilization as well as actually increase the amount of nutrients maintained in your manure that you can put on your fields these are some of the gas yields and just wanted to point out here that cattle manure has the least amount of gas productions among all the other potential feedstocks so therefore for cattle manure on you need a lot of manure to really equal the gain some value of gas productions from other feedstocks sources here is an example of some of the data that’s been provided for for the amount of gas yields the electricity generated and the need of number of animals to produce 100 kilowatts this is just for information purposes what I’d like to and also some general cost

estimations arm that you may want to look at later what I’d like to focus in this last few slides is basically looking at the manure pump agitators a lot of the costs of the manure system is in the pumping of manure the pumping of manure to other two tanks or either the pumping of newer to provide for irrigation to other parts of the field most men your pumping systems especially in areas where you have single-phase electrical service is done through ppl power by tractors or done through diesel run generators and given the high cost of diesel right now on it has become a very costly operation so what we’d like to do is look at the possibility of converting a diesel-powered mine your system to that of an electrical system okay now there is one common assumption here and the basic assumption is that you have three-phase electrical service are to your farm okay that is one requirement at this point i will mention some of the other aspects with regard to that but for now you can do these calculations by knowing two different things if you know the hours of operation that your tractor up this running to run your manure system you can make that calculations another way is if you know the number of gallons used by your current manure pumping systems we can also do the calculations I will go through an example here for you okay let’s see that you know the number of hours that your your tractor is is being run to power your manure pumping systems now you’ll have to go to the following website here there’s a link on this presentation to look at the model the make of your specific tractor and get your fuel efficiency with regards to ppl now the fuel efficiency of a tractor is different from the fuel efficiency of running its PTO as a detractor as a PTO source so this website will give you that information I have an example here with John Deere 7320 diesel tractor which has a PTO rating of around almost 110 horsepower and uses six point seven gallons per hour diesel if the PDP deals writing that load okay and say you are using this tractor to run affording equivalent of forty horse farm on your pump the closest table equivalent is around 48.7 horsepower per gallon at that his priciest was a 4 4 10 of four gallons per hour okay so first of all this is the information that you can get from that website now plugging in the numbers here okay we got an estimate of 864 gallons being used by this farm to pump manure at a price of diesel farm price I’m putting three dollars and seventy-five cents so your total cost just the fuel costs for pumping linear we’re not even considering the maintenance costs for the tractor is 3240 okay are using so that is your actual cost now if you’re going to convert and use an electric motor to replace that power source use 364 gallons times what we call 12.5 water horsepower are per gallon since there is no exact numbers for you’re pumping what we have used are the irrigation numbers from Nebraska so by doing that and following the equations here the equivalent of of an electric motor pumping the same amount of volume that your tractor has is basically our cost of 1222 dollars with an assumption

of ten cents per kilowatt hour okay so if you convert just in the fuel conversion itself you have a savings of two thousand twenty dollars on fuel savings by converting I’m a newer system pump powered by PDO tractor to that of an equivalent of around a 40 horsepower electric motor okay the payback here is around 33 years okay with assumption of a 40 horsepower with variable frequency drive crossing around 4300 installation at 2,000 total cost of the system is 63 a hundred dollars so and this scenario it makes sense to try to convert but the basic problem here is you have to have a three-phase electrical service to your farm now another method for doing pretty much coming up with the same same results ours is presented on this next slide it is a much simpler easier way to do it it is based on this table down here in terms of cost comparisons all you have to do is saying i’m using 864 gallons total times the cost of the diesel at 33 dollar seventy-five cents you have your current cost what you do is use three dollars and seventy-five cents minus the equivalent of i’m using ten cents per kilowatt hour of this table 10 cents per kilowatt are is equivalent go down the column here is equivalent to a dollar 41 cents per gallon of diesel so this is where I got the dollar 41 cents here following this equation and this sample you get pretty much the same numbers of the previous method so this is an example of terms of giving a quick calculation just fuel costs as well as the cost of the liquid motor and installation to see if it is worth it for you here is a table in which gives you in general conversion rates for fuel or fuel out of comparison basically natural gas not this is the electricity rate right now that I’m comparing with and you can compare it with diesel propane and so forth issues faced with single-phase service there’s great potential for energy efficiency improvement opportunities for AG result agricultural operations however lack of access to three-phase electrical power has often limited agricultural productivity and energy efficiency options for a great majority of farms this is particularly evident in the inability you’ll use large energy efficient electrical motors in lieu of less deficient diesel motors or PPO powered systems the result of the leads to limiting farm operations like manure pumping and irrigation below optimal levels due to high cost of diesel fuel or incurring high energy costs in manure operation that bipod profits grain drying feed operations fruit vegetable refrigeration bio digestion and biomass processing also face these limitations in a single phase environment environment for manure and irrigation operations the equivalent costs over let’s say 12 cents per kilowatt are electricity oh it’s around a dollar a day per gallon diesel what an example i had was ten cents per kilowatt hour which is equivalent to around a dollar 41 cents per diesel attempts to solve this problem include installing three-phase service if available and the cost of utilities companies are giving or will be spending some of them have funding to do this it’s around fifty thousand dollars per mile that is a huge amount and as well as my installation in your facility of around ten thousand so it is very costly another option would be installed a three phase converter system coupled with soft start motors though this allows the use of more efficient and less costly three-phase motors the issue of undesirable voltage drop caused by startup current requirements of large electric motors still limits motor size around 10 or 12

horsepower so you still even though you have a phase converter you still can’t be using large electrical motors or else your neighbors will be complaining because of flickering another option that seems some farmers are starting to use right now the use of large written pole motors they are not widely used right now due to concerns by utility companies regarding inrush current demands but I have heard in fact we have three of those operating here in Michigan and the utility companies that those farms are under so far have not complained so we’re keeping our fingers crossed that they may be a solution I’m including other slides with some other fuel conversion cost data for your use and if you need to to refer to them this is just for reference and I have some more slides here for you for your reference as well as some of the wood and and other sources and I’ve included the reference in which we use for this presentation and I can that’s the end of my presentations and hopefully some of you have questions I guess I put them to sleep already Scott I see one from our King opinion that mean hi everyone I’m looking looking this one up the convert fuel conversions you had is that account for efficiency differences between an electric motor and a gas motor that table no that’s that’s an added factor that would benefit converting to electric motor this is just fuel costs totally just fuel costs yeah but in that fuel costs survey she’s looking at the energy content of the table that was done there has embedded into it some of the energy efficiency assumptions there and that table comes from the University of Nebraska studies in terms of conversion from diesel two electric motors so there is some embedded aspects to that but it I believe it’s we given the even higher efficiency motors that we’re having right now the assumption of the motors that were used in making that data was around ninety percent efficiency so weird even the higher efficiency of electric motors going into 94 95 and in the even the super high efficient motors going at ninety-six percent the the meter will even tend better towards the electrical motors okay we’ve got a comment from Mark Canha so as your conversion from nitrogen two Diesel’s seems a lot higher than I’ve ever seen okay I got this I got the result they’re from the Iowa study I can I can bring it up that’s that was kind of the rule of thumb that includes all the manufacturing costs you know if from from yeah I think he thinks that you’ve got a reverse he thinks it’s four to five pounds of n per gallon of diesel right long that it could be I guess I just used the data i got from from that but they broke it down they broke down the 55 gallon diesel in terms of how much from the refining refining the processing trying to obtain so forth so I I didn’t show the breakdown of the five gallons i just used the five gallons that that study used it could be higher but no I think it’s reversed number it could be reversed but um because I remember I was just a date I I used you know there be other sources that have a different resource so because mark and i did a mark did a presentation earlier I actually looked up the numbers because I was doing some work to in it yeah i can i get the send the study that iowa did in this and yeah it was about 120 pounds of n i would equal about 20 gallons of diesel in that range so correct I would agree with that does it but this study started the cost of productions from from crude well that’s what the same thing okay okay did

ok any other questions alright I don’t see any or hear any I think we’ll call it a day and remind people that if you’re interested on grain drying that happens on next Tuesday with Ken halothane otherwise like to thank al firs time and putting this together and be sending out a post evaluation here shortly thank you