We wish you useful information “Eng : Ali Hassan – (002-01001737218)” In the name of Allah, with you brother engineer “Ali Hassan” fire fighting and plumbing design engineer The subject of the course, inshallah, on the fire fighting systems Today we will talk about the components of fire fighting systems How do we protect the place? At the end of the course, I hope that the engineer will be able to work in the protection systems of the place from any fire expected to occur inside And how to design fire fighting systems in place But at first I loved to let people know the importance of fire science And how the speed of fire spread and the time required for the complete destruction of the place In the absence of fire protection systems At first we watch this video together This is a fabricated fire To try to find out the length of time necessary for the complete destruction of the place We will see together how to condense the smoke in no more than 2minutes and half And how to destroy the physical objects in the place Almost minute passed We see now the fire destroys anything that corresponds to it We see now the fire destroys anything that corresponds to it In a minute and a half we see the smoke condense inside It is certain that the smoke is rising because the temperature is high where the air density is reduced Most cases die within places where there is a fire as a result of suffocation from the smoke, not the high temperature itself For this reason, the fire engineer must be integrated with the HVAC engineer Where he designs smoke extraction systems In less than two and a half minutes the smoke filled the place Certainly, if there is a human being in the place, he will face death It takes about two minutes and 40 seconds and we see together how much the fire has happened Firefighters are starting their work now to fight the fire because this fire is for study only
From this video we learned how to destroy a shop or factory as an example in a short time of less than 5 minutes Here a third element enters the fire, the area where the smaller the area, the faster the destruction What are the major goals of fire protection systems? First, the continuity of operation since it is not true that in case of fire, the system does not work This means that the design is wrong or that the operator of the system is wrong Here the system must work continuously as long as the fire exists Second, the fire protection system must protect the physical objects in the place This means preserving the place and its contents because this is considered money Thirdly, it is more important that the human element is preserved within the place This is the most precious element in the place and is to protect people in the place from fire or smoke What are the components of fire protection systems ? Basic components of fire protection systems First passive fire protection Second, active fire protection Third is education First is passive fire protection, which belongs to the architect and civil engineers Which is the design of fire rated walls and the building’s body This means that if I were in a room with fire rated walls, it would be two hours The heat or fire can’t reach room within two hour This means that passive fire protection is available in the presence of the building, whether it is a fire or not Active fire Protection from it’s name is that means that it is activated in the event of a fire This concerns the mechanical and electrical engineers The Electrical Engineer is responsible for fire detection and alarm systems Where it provides the detection and alarm devices inside place The mechanical engineer is responsible for fire fighting systems that deal directly with the fire From here we confirm that the electricity engineer is responsible for fire detection systems The mechanical engineer is responsible for fire fighting systems Third, education is the task of civil defense In some buildings there are people responsible for dealing with the fire, but first So that the civil defense men come to deal with the fire and completely extinguish it These images show us the components we explained in the previous slides First passive fire protection as we see Where the architect and civil design fire rated walls
If I were in this place, fire or heat would not reach me until after the time when this wall was designed Then the electrical engineer responsible for detection and alarm systems where the detection devices determine the location of the fire Then the alarm work system so that the people in the building can give up the place Some signals are also given to some systems to activate them. We will talk in detail about this later After that, the fire fighting systems, which are responsible for the engineer of the mechanics, Where dealing directly with the fire until it is extinguished And finally the civil defense or firefighters where the fire is dealt with either inside or outside the building which has a fire In the beginning, the causes of the fire will be clarified The fire itself is produced by a combination of three elements, which are as follows First, fuel, and here to avoid only materials such as benzene or kerosene, اFirst, fuel, and here to avoid only materials such as benzene or kerosene, Second, the heat or the ignition primer must be heat for fuel combustion The third element without which the fire is not caused is oxygen or air There must be oxygen with the fuel if there is heat to complete the triangle of fire The oxygen percentage must be 14 to 16% for ignition Therefore, there are some systems that reduce oxygen to less than 14% The fire is then extinguished by breaking the fire triangle There are some systems that reduce heat as cooling works for the place where the fire In most of these systems, water is an essential element And there are some gas systems that deal with the same point is to reduce the temperature of the place where the fire Third, fuel control is the most difficult solution is to remove the fuel to break the fuel triangle This is difficult in practice except in the case of a gas or oil pipeline as an example Thus, we can remove the fuel from the fire triangle This concept began to develop into fire tetrahedron, the entry of a fourth element with the triangle of fire Helps in the completion of the fire or the continuation of the fire, a chemical chain reactions In short, it is the combination of elements of fire, oxygen, heat and flammable fuel Some unstable compounds such as CO are produced Or OH or an atom of oxygen and thus these elements or atoms are unstable, we call it radicals Those unstable elements try to unite with oxygen
Fire continuity is given to transform from unstable elements into stable elements So if you can overcome the chemical chain reactions you can overcome the fire Now to overcome the fire there are three basic elements, which are as follows First by reducing the oxygen content of the place This is done through the gas systems and foam system we will learn them in detail later Second, by removing the fuel from the place and like we mentioned that if we have a gas or oil line and we closed the valve is controlled fire so we can extinguish fire Thirdly, the fire is extinguished by reducing the heat produced by the fire and this is done through water based systems Which are the systems in which water enters as a basic element There are some gas systems that do the same job we will talk about later But mainly the systems that reduce the temperature is where the water enters, why? Why is water used as a basic element in traditional firefighting systems? First it is cheap and available Second, the water has large specific heat, and we find a value of cp 4.2 kJ/kg.k What is the meaning of specific heat? The amount of heat required to raise the temperature of one kilogram of water is one Kelvin One thermal degree and its own unit is kJ/kg.k Thus, to raise a kilogram of water we need 4200 of the heat For alcohol 2500 and for aluminum 900 and for glass 700 and less material is copper 400 Thus you will find that the highest element is water, which requires 4200 J/kg to raise the temperature of one degree Therefore, water is used to extract heat from fire and is used as a key element in fire systems Thirdly, the large latent heat is necessary for evaporation This means that you need large heat approximately 2257 to convert water from one phase to another This shows that you need a large amount of heat to turn the water from liquid into steam, which is approximately 2257 kJ/kg Thus, the three basic qualities of water It permits its price and its ability to pull out a quantity of heat making it an ideal choice as a means of firefighting After that we will learn about some of the definitions of the fire code, what is the code of fire?
The code is the laws, regulations and directives set by fire engineers and some institutions such as NFPA Such as the NFPA, which is used by most designers as well as the English code and the Egyptian code Who puts the code? First are manufacturers who manufacture components of fire systems As well as engineers specializing in insurance companies as well as consultants All of these are the creators of international codes, which are used by all designers of fire systems So that if I design a fire system for a building in Egypt is the same as what is designed in America as well as in London Most of the codes we deal with are American codes NFPA, a national fire protection association Some definitions you may find in codes such as “UL” mean underwriter laboratories FM also concerns factory mutual fire research Both UL & FM are approvals for components of fire systems Which are US approvals given to the components of the fire systems or a complete fire system that is useful for fire fighting By means of the credit mark, whether the UL or FM or whatever the approval, the part is judged whether it is suitable for use with the fire system or not The word “shall” means mandatory, meaning that the code is not violated in that The word “should” means a recommendation that means that if you take it correctly, and if you do not do it, it do not affect “Approved” word means that he is accepted by the institution responsible for civil defense The word “authority having jurisdiction” is institution responsible for forcing the fire designer to do specific things to fight the fire inside There are some requirements in codes of dispensing with something or exceeding a certain thing and took the consent of the Civil Defense does not have a problem then AHJ means that the party responsible for civil defense agrees to the amendment There are some points in the code that the designer requires and does not include AHJ Then there are some other definitions that can be met Such as FM mentioned in the previous slide and you will find its own mark as you see it
You will find it printed on the component of the fire system As well as the UL and its mark as shown and meaning that it is listed, whether or not the UL or FM means it is approved Both are US approvals There is another approval called “LPCB” or loss prevention certification board, is british approval There is another German approval called VDS and LPCB british approval, both of which are European approvals The previous approvals, namely, UL & FM, are US approvals and are used in the Gulf States and the United States Currently there are some components of fire systems that come from China with forged seals There must be certificates indicating the authenticity of those seals After that it is necessary to know the types of fire and this means the nature of the fire place This will depend on the type of system used to extinguish the fire in place For example, the electric rooms where there are electrical switches, if it fell water will lead to short circuit Therefore, it will increase the fire instead of extinguish it, so we use the gas systems to fire in such a situation Therefore, the codes classified the types of fire depending on the nature of the fire inside the place Of the most famous code Australian code and American code It is the code used both in the course and in the projects Which we will talk about, God willing, in this course First, for fires involving solid materials such as wood, cloth, rubber, paper and some plastics classified as “class A” Whether in Australian, European or American code Second, for flammable liquids such as kerosene, benzene, petroleum, paints, waxes and oils that do not contain cooking oils Whether vegetable or animal oils are classified as “B” in Australian, European or American code Thirdly, flammable gases such as natural gas, hydrogen, butane and propane, the European and Australian codes give them the classification of “C” but american code classified flammable liquids and gases as a “B” class Fourthly fire which includes minerals such as sodium, magnesium and potassium Both Australian, European and American codes are classified as “D” We will find the fires caused by electricity or electric fires, we find that the Australian code
gives it a classification “E” and the European Code also, but the US code is classified as “C” Finally, the fires in which the cooking oils are entered are classified by Australian and European codes as “F” ,but US code classified it as “K” From here, we find that the most important column is the American code, where fires are classified as A, B, C, D, K You will find on the below right of each slide the paragraph number of the code for those who want to increase their information from the fraction being explained You will find the edition number of the NFPA and section number for easy access American codes are the most important codes used by designers specialized in designing fire systems The first code is NFPA 1 and his address is “Uniform Fire Code” is one of the largest codes in the US code This is considered an introduction to NFPA which mean a “national fire protection association” After that, NFPA 10 specialized fire extinguishers, whether manual or automatic Then NFPA 11 is a specialist in the foam system, whether low, medium or high expansion We will soon know the meaning of a low, medium and high word Then the NFPA12 is a specialist carbon dioxide system Then NFPA 13 is one of the most important codes we use in design and specialized in protection systems using sprinklers In this code sprinklers are distributed according to many considerations, including the degree of hazard and space area Next is NFPA 14, which is the code for the fire hose cabinets, their distribution and their sizes, and how the flow and pressure are calculated for operation After that, NFPA 15 is the code for water spray systems and we will talk about it in detail later, God willing Then the NFPA 16 is the code for the foam systems, which operates through sprinklers and we will talk about them in detail later, God willing Then the NFPA 20 is the code for the fire pumps, through which the pumps are determined and their number, selection
To provide the amount of water needed to operate the fire systems in place and installation Then NFPA 24 is the code for private fire systems such as tanks that store the water needed to operate the fire systems and we will talk about it in detail later Then NFPA 25 is the code to test fire systems if they are working or not as well as their periodic maintenance Then NFPA 101 is one of the most important codes, which is specialized in determining the types of fire systems according to the nature of the place,in which sprinkler systems needed or not This code is not for the mechanical engineer only, but it is of interest to both the Civil Engineer and the architect. For example, the distance between the escape stairs and the width of the corridors It is a code that belongs to more engineers, whether mechanical or architectural or electrical is required, for example, the electrical engineer to provide a means to detect the fire and alarm Then NFPA220, which is the building construction code, is for civil engineers Sometimes we resort to this code to design fire hydrants and we will know that in detail later After that, NFPA 409 is the code for the protection of aircraft hangars whether for storage or maintenance It is protected because of its importance and provided its own codeا Next is NFPA 418, the code for the protection of helipads Next is the NFPA 750, the code for water mist systems And will be talked about later, God willing Then NFPA 2001, it was one of the most important specialists in clean agent gases systems like FM-200 This code is used by most designers of fire because it is used with electric rooms, which has a human element and of course a certain percentage Also used are British codes such as the FOC Fire offices committe and the British Standard BS
It is used in the design of fire systems and in some Gulf countries, which resort to design Then the Egyptian Fire Code, which is used to design projects in Egypt and is used alongside the American code In the beginning we will explain the components of different fire systems In this slide we started to divide fire systems into two parts, manual and automatic In the automatic system, the system is operated without human interference, but automatically sold On the other side we notice the manual system needs a human element to run it or intervene in itself to deal with the fire In the automatic system we began to divide it into water based systems and gas based systems In water-based systems, water is used as an essential element, while gas-based systems use gases to deal with fire In water-based systems, they are divided into sprinkler systems and foam systems sprinkler systems are divided into open and closed head sprinklers Later we will learn together the meaning of a closed or open word In the beginning, the closed sprinkler systems are divided into a wet, dry and preaction system and a combined system of dry and preaction We will know later the components of each system and when we use it Then open sprinkler systems are divided into deluge system, water curtains and water mist The foam systems are then divided into low expansion, medium expansion and high expansion Then the gas systems are divided into clean agent, carbon dioxide and aerosol We will talk later about the aerosol system. Clean agents are divided into halocarbons and inert gases For halocarbons, they are hydrogen and carbon And we will talk about them later, God willing As for manual systems, they are divided into water-based systems that introduce water as a basic element and gas-based systems As for manual water systems, the most important are the fire cabinets and currently there is no building free from them It is divided into Class 1, Class 2 and Class 3 These divisions depend on the size and we will know about them later, God willing After that the fire hydrants, or as the Egyptian code called the fire faucet Then the fire monitors, which we will recognize the design, selection and distribution later, God willing Then fire extinguishers, including water, such as wet chemical, foam extinguishers and pressurized water extinguishers Then the gas systems here are the same extinguisher containing compressed gas Such as FM-200 extinguishers and carbon dioxide extinguishers are all considered as manual fire extinguishers What are the goals of this course ?
First is the good knowledge of fire fighting systems Second, the complete design of water based systems and means full design steps design concept to the dimensions and texts on the project This will be in accordance with the requirements of the code and at the end of the course will be able to design sprinkler systems, whether wet or dry or preaction or deluge Then design water curtain systems Then the foam systems are followed by water spray systems and water mist systems Then design the fire standpipe systems Then fire hydrants and fire monitors Then a complete design of the gas systems in which the gas is introduced as a basic element Such as clean agent, including inert gases and halocarbons, carbon dioxide and aerosol Fire extinguishers are distributed according to the type of application because they have specific travel distances and coverage areas Not only the above but the type of fire extinguishing system will be selected according to the type of project to be protected Such as Salva mentioned that the electricity rooms are not protected by water systems because they will lead to short circuit Examples include cooking oil fires where water is not used as it will increase the fire and may cause an explosion Alternative methods are used for water systems such as the wet chemicals system or ansul, which we will learn later Then identify the means to extract the information from the code Like the agreement that the code is the laws and regulations used by the consultant to design the project Flow designed a project in Egypt is the same in America is the same in London Because it is universal codes if applied by the designer in any country in the world Then we will learn about a very important program that we use in the design of fire systems for hydraulic calculations, which is the Elite program We will learn in detail about this program to determine the pump needed to operate the fire system that was designed After that we will know the full design of the project whether it is drawing or calculation After that, a project will be selected and the type of system used to protect it will be defined whether it fire sprinkler or hose cabinets or not This project will be fully designed on AutoCAD, God willing Because you will have a project of architectural design and you are drawing up the building protection system We will learn this together as well as calculations using either the Ellite program or the manual method
Then, God willing, we will explain a small part of the water based systems and we will complete the next lectures if there is rest of the age Water based systems in which water enters as a key element in the firefighting process To operate water systems, there must be four basic elements First is the source of water and pumps and we mean the source of water is the water store And here we pay attention to a reliable word means that the source of water must be reliable It is not correct that when a fire occurs, we find a water cut and therefore the fire system will not work Pumps are the heart of the fire system to provide the flow and pressure needed to operate the system Then the second element is a network of pipes which are used to transfer water from the place of storage of water to the sprinklers or cabinets Or the device that will deal with the fire, it must be the existence of the network of pipes to transport water Then the third element is the start and control devices in the fire system This means when the water will discharge and when it will deal with the fire and how the flow and pressure of the water is controlled Then it is the means to remove the water that exits water to the place where the fire is located, which deals directly with the fire, such as sprinklers or fire monitors Then first we have your drawing to show you the components of the water-based system We will see that we have a tank with water stored in it and we will learn about the design and components of this tank and the materials to be manufactured later on Tank is the source of water and there is a pipe to fill the tank we have This pipe is accompanied by valves to save water level tank by the float valve, which we will learn later Among the equipment attached to the tank is also the overflow system so that if there is a problem with the float valve does not drown the pump room The pipe then discharges excess water into drainage system if water level is increased by tank After that for the maintenance of the tank must have a drainage pipe to empty the tank completely
After that, we have antivortex plate to prevent vortex from the pump suction to prevent it from cavitation Then there is a gate valve on the suction line for maintenance and we will know the types of gate valves installed on the suction line And we will know later methods used to prevent the closure of the valve to prevent the system From operating in the event of a fire because the pump can not get water from the tank Here is the main pump, the electric pump, which gives the flow and pressure necessary to operate the system There are also pressure gauges on both suction and discharge of the pump to see if the value of pressure is true or not In the pump room there are three types of pumps, the first of which is the main pump which is the electric pump and connected to the main electricity of the building It works in the event of a fire in the building that is being protected Then there is another standby pump which is either an electric pump and connected to a generator or provide a diesel pump This pump works if the electric pump is not working to provide the flow and pressure necessary to operate the system Then there is a small pump called jockey pump or a pressure maintenance pump is a compensatory pump Compensate the loss of pressure within the system as a result of leakage but is not responsible for fire fighting It is certain that the pumps are tested every specific period to know their flow and that is through the test line The test line is a pipe with a gate valve and then a flow meter and this line is discharged either on the tank or on the pump suction Thus, the value of the flow out of the pump is known Then you will find on the three pump line or on the main header a valve that allows the water to go one way towards the discharge devices such as sprinklers You will find a gate valve followed by alarm check valve and then branch out into two dry and wet systems that we will learn in detail later Then the water moves towards the sprinklers to operate and start fighting the fire
Here is the control panel that receives alarm signals or gives a signal, for example, to operate the pump When talking first about reliable water sources and pumps, water must be reliable so as to prevent water outages in case of fire What are the sources of water first, the ground tanks, the second is the elevated tanks, which are the tanks on the roofs of the buildings Or at a certain height to provide positive suction pressure for pumps Then another source, such as the river or the lake for a building as an example close to a river or lake, pumps are installed and water is provided to protect the building from fire Then pumps as mentioned earlier it consists of three main pumps and backup and other maintenance of pressure which considered as the heart of the system to provide the flow and pressure necessary to operate the system Then the pipe network, the second component of the water based system to protect the building from fire A piping network is a pipe that connects water from the source to the discharge device The piping network consists of fire pipes that carry water Second, fire fittings, which are links to change the direction of the pipe or take a branch of it Of the fittings are cross and reducing cross mean that the diameter of the branch is smaller than the diameter of the base pipe reducing tee to get a branch with a diameter smaller than the diameter of the pipe Then there is a reducer but the first threaded and the other Groovd and we will watch a video on how to install Then there is mechanical cross and mechanical tee, which is one of the most common fittings used with fire systems Then there is a coupling or flanged adaptor to connect a pipe with another or a pipe with flanged fitting Then there are split flange, elbow 90, elbow 45 and elbow 22.5 Then there is a eccentric reducers and finally flange, which is used as apart in fire systems After that the set of valves and fittings carried by something called a supports Which makes the roof bear both pipes and joints beside the sprinklers
After that, we have a set of initiating and control devices for water to flow and pressure with correct values to the discharge devices First, the valves used, for example, the check valve which is installed after the pump to prevent the water from the pump back to the pump stopped After that, the most famous valves in the fire gate valve systems are called OS&Y and are meant for out screw and yoke It is a gate valve with steams through which we determine whether the valve is closed or open If found out, the valve is open If inside, the valve is closed and each component of the fire system will have UL or FM After that there is another valve called “Alarm Check Valve” which is a check valve with alarm devices when the water runs through it and we will know in detail later, God willing Then there is a pressure switch that sense the pressure of the system and there are three of them in the system, one of which is connected to the jockey pump The second pressure sensor is connected to the electric pump. If the pressure is reduced as a result of the operation of a cabinet or a sprinkler, the pressure is reduced. The sensor sends a signal to the pump to be operated by the control panel If the main pump does not operate with the pressure drop again, the standby pump starts to operate, whether electric or diesel, to provide the flow and pressure necessary to operate the system Then there is flow switch and consists of a baddle moving at the flow of water closes the circuit in the red part shown and sends a signal to the control panel to give alarm or open a certain valve Among the valves for initiating or control the system is a monitor device for the valve and is called a tamper switch It is a means of preventing valve closure and is in the red box The tamper switch is given alarm if the valve is closed so as to make the system work in case of fire Then within the valves used by fire is a pressure reduction valve
In the case of sprinkler system as an example the maximum pressure of the system is 12.1 bar This applies in the case of high buildings that the pumps are used at high pressure then the pressure reduction valve is used There is also a valve similar to the valve pressure reduction and called the relief valve where the discharge of excessive pressure, either to drainage or tank or pump suction What is the difference between the two valves? First, for the relief valve, it discharges excess pressure to prevent breakage or leakage in the system The other valve adjusts the pressure even to the maximum of the output device, whether a cabinet or a sprinkler Finally, the control panels are the system’s own brain that receives signals from fire detectors and others or gives a signal for a pump or valve to operate It regulates the movement of the system in case of fire Then the discharge devices which deal directly with the fire, such as sprinklers Which are installed in the ceiling and we will see how it works as containing a glass bulb It also contains liquid when a fire is extended by heat press the glass and it explodes and allows water to pass And start covering the place in it to protect After that there are fire hose cabinets and fire hydrants are shown in which a fire hose is installed And we start to deal with the fire after opening the valve, fire hydrant is taken from the water to feed the system in the case of the end of water from the tank And we will learn about it and its design and types in the future, where the private and public Then the fire monitors which can be manual that controlled manually by the hand as shown and through which the direction and angle of the monitor is changed The fire monitor is directed to the fire area It is an extension of a motor and a fire tracer where the monitor is directed automatically
until the fire is controlled Then there is a foam generator and foam chambers Foam generators are used with warehouses. Foam chambers are used into oil tanks We will know them in detail and the benefit of each of them and their design, God willing, the next lectures We will do just that, God willing, and God willing, we will complete the next lecture by designing sprinkler systems and distributing sprinklers Depending on the hazard of the building, pipe sizes and hydraulic calculations of sprinkler systems I hope you will benefit from the lecture and if there is any inquiry we communicate on our facebook page or email “firstname.lastname@example.org” Thank you and Alsalam Alecom “Eng / Ali Hassan”