hi class dr. Jim here welcome to the first lecture of microbiology this semester in this chapter we’re going to be looking at a number of different things really it’s a good introduction to what we’re going to be focusing in on all semester long and this kind of gives you an idea of the different things we’re going to look at some of the history behind microbiology and kind of some of the ways that we classify the microorganisms so it kind of gives you a really good indication of what’s going to happen throughout the semester so let’s begin with our lecture here and we’ll go through the slides as we go along you can follow along and take notes and figure out what you need to do in order to be successful in this class so let’s begin so let’s start so first we’re going to find out what is microbiology so what we’re going to do is actually go through the process and talk a little bit about what is microbiology you may have taken biology before with me or with someone else and known that we talked about a lot of different things in biology but this is going to focus in on the small thing so very very small things things that you tend to see with a microscope the second thing we’re going to look at is the history behind microbiology so we’re going to talk with you about a few different things first we’re going to talk about spontaneous generation this is the idea that things magically appeared out of thin air that basically that inanimate objects gave rise to animate objects meaning that dead things could then become alive and make new live things and so we’ll talk about that we’ll discuss a little bit about the germ theory the germ theory is the idea that germs actually cause disease now before the late 1800s many people thought it was God’s Way of punishing people and maybe some people still do is that disease is spread through God’s will but this is obviously not the case through modern medicine and modern microbiology we know that this is not the case and that microorganisms are the ones that are responsible for causing disease and then finally we’re going to look at two main characters that really change the face of microbiology so first we’re going to talk about Louie Pasteur you probably have heard his last name used quite a bit if you’ve ever drink in a gallon of milk or orange juice or maybe even some beer and that’s called pasteurization this is a method he developed in order to kill microorganisms the other guy is Robert Koch Robert Koch was a figure at the late 1800s Early 1900s who really established the germ theory and saying that microorganisms were responsible for the different types of diseases and so we’re going to take a look at what some of his accomplishments what he’s done throughout the course of history these are the two main guys I really want you to know we’ll talk about a few other figures in microbiology but really Louis Pasteur and Robert Koch are the two main guys that I really want you to focus in on and I’ll ask questions about it on the next test the last thing we’re going to look at is how do we classify more microorganisms and so this has been an important process in which we look at how we establish the names how we name things in microbiology it’s very similar to what we see in biology but microbiology we’re talking about the small things bacteria viruses sometimes eukaryotic pathogens and things like this but typically things we can’t see without a microscope okay so let’s move on alright so microbiology what is it well microbiology is the study of organisms that are too small to be seen without magnification and again we have a lot of different microorganisms that are included in this group probably the one that you’ll be most aware of is bacteria now bacteria is what we’re going to be doing a lot of in the lab and so when you come into lab every week and that stuff we’re going to be working primarily with the bacteria and again these are going to be very small organisms they’re called prokaryotes we’ll discuss what those are in the next chapter and we get into chapter four and looking at the difference between prokaryotes and eukaryotes but bacteria are these really small tiny cells very basic types of cells will also look at viruses so when we get into chapter six we’ll talk a little bit about viruses viruses are not really a cell they’re called infectious particles and because they are made up of protein and nucleic acid they’re very simplistic they’re even more simple than the bacteria in much smaller and so we’ll talk a little bit about those and again in Chapter six we’ll also discuss a little bit about the fungi protozoa Hallman Sandell these are all eukaryotic pathogens and again some of these things are small like the protozoa these tend to be single-cell eukaryotic cells and again you want to look at them under the microscope if you looked at pond water you’d see these things swimming by and doing these things but most of these other things are actually pretty large if you’re talking about worms and people getting worm infections and things like this this can be really big and we’ll talk about this in chapter 5 some of these guys the fungus the protozoa the algae and the worms themselves and again these are going to be sometimes multicellular have really good developed organ systems and things like this and

we’ll look at this in Chapter five okay so that’s where we’re heading the next couple of lectures all right so what are some of the endeavors in microbiology so if we look at some of these different things we can see that a lot of things came off the basic microbiology we think about microbiology being the study of very small things we’ve developed a lot of techniques that have been utilized using these very small organisms one of them is the study of your immune system and this is called immunology and so this is going to be really important and again this is one of those things that we really want to focus in on we get up to chapters 13 through 16 and we’re going to look at these different things and how your body actually fights infection another thing we’ll look at is again public health and epidemiology this is the tracking of diseases and looking at who’s getting infected with what how are they getting infected and why are they getting infected and so it’s kind of the study and tracking of diseases if you’re interested in a lot of mystery type novels and where did it come from and who did it and why did it this might be the topic that you really want to get into you can actually go to like UWM and go to the school so at the main campus the UWM campus is right next to it that has the School of Public Health and they actually have an epidemic epidemiology prop program in which you can take once you get into either undergraduate or graduate school and earning degree and then and get your public health degree and so that’s basically tracking the disease’s we also look at biotechnology biotechnology is a huge field lots of jobs and lots of different things in the in the area of that and again can be very popular we do offer classes and by technology these are top eye barbed wimpy very well-established a lot of research behind what she’s done and so if you’re interested in these types of classes I highly recommend looking into the program and seeing maybe this might be a profession that you might be into along with this too genetic engineering and the recombinant DNA by or biotechnology if you look at this this is again the manipulation of genetics using either genes from one organism and putting to another or modifying the genes and this is what we call these genetically modified organisms so if you’ve ever looked at a package that you might buy the store a lot of times they’ll say either GMO free or GMO or some indication of what a GMO is what a GMO is is something that’s been modified in the laboratory the genes have been modified to change it or add genes to something to give it more nutrition or other things like this there’s highly it’s highly controversial in the sense that some people think are making Frankenstein and changing things and these things now get into humans and that stuff there are other people say that is perfectly safe and we’ll look into that when we get into the genes and genetics in Chapter nine but again this is something to kind of think about and again being educated is what I want you to get out of this figuring out what it is and then you make the decision or whether you want to actually eat it or not that’s up to you okay so those are some of these microbiology things that progress out of the beginning of microbiology ok so where did everything start okay and so we look at this little time table up here and we look at what are the origins of the microorganisms and so if you look at the idea that the age of the earth the age of the earth is roughly around fifteen billion years old maybe a little bit older than 16 billion and all depends on what people think geologically or you know in the idea of space time and things like this well for the longest period of time for about about ten billion years there was really no life on this planet it took time to cool the planet down to actually get rock solid rock actually form water and other things like this and until you had the right combination ingredients do we not see any cells the first cells we saw were the prokaryotes and we’re going to talk about the prokaryotes again in chapter 4 looking at these these are very simple cells that have some DNA on the inside they have a membrane surrounding it and that’s about it and then they have some fun stuff on the outside that we’ll look at again in chapter 4 these guys ruled the world for about two billion years and so from four billion to two billion these guys were the only things around eventually what we saw is more complexity that occurred this complexity led to what we believe is the eukaryotic cells eukaryotic cells the difference between that and prokaryotes is eukaryote cells have a nucleus they have a nucleus and some organelles and things like this that do some of the processes we start to see multicellularity or we start to see more and more of the diversity of plants and animals and finally we get up to where humans are now one of the things I like to discuss is where do we all fit in this biological world or you know the time so if you think about time is a clock on the wall if you look at the clock on the wall where do we fit into that think of the earth starting at 12

o’clock midnight let’s say on Sunday night okay so at 12 midnight that’s when the earth started okay if you go all the way around through 12 o’clock the next day so 12 noon on Monday and go all the way around to about 6 p.m. Monday night that’s when the first cells were actually appeared so it took a very long time for the first cells to even show up okay when we think about where humans end up on that we have to go all the way to 11:59 and 59 seconds on that clock so right before the clock strikes midnight one second before that’s where humans appeared so if you look at it humans have a very small portion of that clock okay evolution has taken a long time to go from the prokaryotic cells these single-cell organisms all the way up to humans and that seven you know six hours that it took to get through now it doesn’t seem like much six hours but that’s a very long time than the idea so you’re talking about four billion years before humans and anything else started roaming the planet so it kind of gives you some perspective and how long things are actually happen okay so again we’re going to look at two types of cells and again in Chapter four we’ll talk about the prokaryotes these are microscopic unicellular they’re always found in unicellular there’s no multicellularity and again lacking nuclei or membrane bound organelles the other types of cells we’re going to be looking at are you Curia so when we get to chapter five we’re going to talk about the eukaryotic system those types of cells you’re going to see some are unicellular but many are multicellular when you talk about the more complex animals and plants and things like this these are going to be multicellular and again they have organelles that do a lot of the functions inside cells in Chapter six we’re going to look at viruses and many of you are probably not you’ve probably heard of a virus but you probably really haven’t studied much about viruses before maybe an A&P may have heard some things like this but probably generally have not and so we’ll examine what a virus is and again we don’t consider themselves we actually consider them as infectious particles they have protein on the outside a nucleic acid on the inside and so we’ll discuss this again in Chapter six and kind of give you an idea of what these are these viruses are much much smaller than what we think of bacteria and really really tiny compared to eukaryote cells so we’re going to see a very big size difference when we look at these different things when we get into the next couple of chapters all right so this kind of just gives you an idea of all the different types of things we’re going to be looking at throughout the semester so again most of stuff we’re going to be looking at is going to be the bacteria this is Mycobacterium tuberculosis this is the bacteria that actually causes tuberculosis and so again you see these different shapes and things like this this is called a bacillus or rod-shaped and we’re going to talk about this again in Chapter four so don’t don’t worry about scrambling and writing this down or anything like this but this just gives you an idea of what the types of things we’re going to see this is a fungi a fungi is multicellular it’s eukaryotic and again people have fungal infections a lot of times we call these mycosis where people get these fungal infections so things like athlete’s foot or ringworm or so and so these other things these are types of fungal infections people get algae tends to be not a parasite on humans but it can cause problems with SiC particles and releasing toxic agents into water and things like this and so some of you may have heard of Toledo Ohio a couple years ago where they actually weren’t able to drink the water and it was because of these algae blooms and again that’s something that we worry about because it poisons the water you can’t drink it kills all the fish in a lot of different things and we’re seeing these happen more and more often and again this is due to a lot of things that actually are happening due to man dumping phosphates and other things into the waste water and it’s getting in there so we’ll again discuss that more as we get into the algae some other things this is the virus these are very tiny particles and so this is the herpes simplex virus here these are the one that caused cold sores and so you may have seen people or you yourself have suffered through a cold sore and this is a little opening in the skin it’s an infection of the subcutaneous skin and that and it causes an eruption that occurs for a couple days and then goes away and again we’ll discuss more about what a virus is here in a couple days and look at those different things in the next chapter or in Chapter six another guy is the protozoa lots of different types of protozoa over there these are like animal cells but on a small scale so we’re talking unicellular they have to eat and they do have a tendency to have parasites associated with them and so we’ll discuss this we get into a later chapter chapter 20 23 and 24 when we’re going to be looking at parasites and those things and one of the main parasites are protozoa where they get in and cause infections and things like this and then the last group that we’ll be looking at again later on in the chapter in chapter 23 are the worms and so we call these things comets that’s the Latin word for worm and again

this describes the different types of things here you see cysts of a round worm that causes Trichinella this is when you don’t cook your pork chops long enough in that stuff and you can end up getting these types of infections this worm actually goes and insists into the muscle it leads the intestine goes into the muscle and can cause problems and we’re seeing this more and more in the Southwest United States for meat that’s imported from Central America and Mexico and that and people are getting these infections due to eating undercooked or raw raw meats in this case and again we’ll discuss more about this in Chapter in chapters 23 and 24 alright so this just gives you an idea the sizes of what we see and so most of the things that we’re going to be looking at are very very small okay in the range of micrometer x’ two nanometers so very very tiny so if we think about what a meter is a meter is a big meter stick and again we’ll look at this in the lab we’ll talk a little bit about the sizes and things like this all when we work on microscopes I’ll go through a little spiel about how we do conversions and things like this and look at these things but think of a meter stick pretty long it’s about three feet and that when we get into the millimeters and centimeters we’re talking about the really small things you can barely see those we’re now talking on E and a magnitude of a thousand times smaller than one millimeter and that is a micrometer or micrometer and so very very small ten to the minus six you may have seen this before in biology maybe you’ve talked about a little bit in a AP but this is a very small number and then when we get into the viruses in that we’re now talking about the nanometer range which is really tiny this is now about a million times smaller than a millimeter so we’re talking very very small or ten to the minus nine and so you can kind of see the ideas are how big or how small these things are so we’re talking about bugs and these are tiny bugs like a louse or a lice type of thing this is one millimeter in size so very small we get into the bacteria a lot of the bacteria are pretty tiny these are anywhere from 1 to 10 micrometers in size so the coli or Staphylococcus are very tiny and then finally when we get into the viruses these are very very small these are about a thousand times smaller than the average bacteria so very very small and then you get down into the atom range in that and then you’re talking about very very tiny in this case and so we’ll look at all these different things again as we go through the chapters in the next couple of days okay so one of the things I like to do is throw some concept questions and as you go through now I will read the question and give you the answers and I want you to think about a little bit you might want to posit here and think of you you know kind of test yourself I will give you the answer after a couple of SEC’s then we’ll move on so one of the things we’re asking is which of the fine things does not describe a fungus now I didn’t talk too much about a fungus here in this case but I wanted you to kind of get an idea of what some of these things are so does a fungus contain a nucleus does it have 80s ribosomes is it useful in decomposition whereas the photosynthetic now again this might be a question that if you didn’t have biology before it might be really tough but one of the things that we know about a fungus is fungus do not have chloroplasts so again they do not or undergo photosynthesis or photosynthetic and so this one’s kind of a tough question starting to start off a little rough here in that stuff they’ll get better as we go along but I like to throw these in just to see if you’re paying attention not worth any points or anything like that’s just to see if you’re paying attention to the lecture so we’ll go on all right so how do humans use microbes so when we think of microbiology a lot of times what we think of is disease infection what happens to people when they get sick well there’s a whole other realm of microbiology which we utilize microorganisms to our advantage and so some of these things that we talked about and again we’ll bring them up later on semester when we talk about DNA and some proteins and things like this but one of the things that are very useful is biotechnology and again we see things now we can manufacture foods and drugs and vaccines using these microorganisms it’s a very important part of the field and like I said if you’re interested in doing some of these things in May we’re going to try and do a few these things in the lab this semester but if you want to really hunker down and do some cool things you can always look at the biotech program that we have and not going to take some of the classes that we have very very popular classes some of those things that I think they’re really good techniques and things like this that you can really learn and learn something from okay another thing is genetic engineering and again this is changing or moving genes from one organism to another that’s the GMOs that I was talking about before again very important and then the last thing is bioremediation that’s something that we haven’t really discussed now this is actually where you use microorganisms to clean up different waste or different spills or things like this so probably the most commonplace where you hear it is like

when we have oil spills that occur out in the oceans and things like this so one of these big some of these companies now actually harvest bacteria that can eat up oil and so what they’re do what they do is basically dump the bacteria in the water and they would go and eat up the oil slick so that the oil can escape and then the oil is degraded by the bacteria and the site is cleaned and so these are some of these new technologies that are coming out and are really important and a lot of people are getting into these fields because there’s a lot of money to be made so if we can do this naturally the way you know that the earth is actually doing it instead of using harsh chemicals or harsh conditions and things like this bioremediation is a really a nice way to go and try and do things naturally okay all right so what are some of the life styles of microorganisms and so this is where we think about where do microorganisms live most of the microorganisms that we ever come in contact with our free living meaning that they don’t care they don’t want to be on you they don’t want to have anything to do with you they’re pretty much free living we see these guys in the air the soil the water on surfaces everywhere and again they really don’t want to cause you home they don’t want to even be bothered by you and again it’s one of those things that they’re just the free living organisms most are harmless and again some can be very beneficial depending on where they live the ones obviously that we worry about and why you’re taking this class is the ones that cause disease and so we determine these guys we describe these guys as parasites these are the ones that live on or in body’s body of another organism and can cause damage to the host and so this is the thing we worry about when we talk about infections and things like this so probably the most ones that you’re going to hear about the semester as I describe these different microorganisms are the ones that cause disease but I do want you to know that there are plenty of microorganisms out there far more microorganisms out there that don’t do anything to you or actually provide a benefit to you so don’t think that a germ is a bad thing all the time sometimes these things were very good and maybe some of you take them called probiotics so we’ll see we’ll talk about that later on go okay so we look at diseases obviously when we think of diseases we can turn these things as pathogens pathogens are microbes that cause or do harm okay there are roughly about 2000 different microorganisms that actually cause disease and you can see on the side over here on the right side whoops I’m sorry how many different diseases are actually out there and again this is just a when we’re talking about diseases and things like this is not every disease that is out there at causative I’m working on organisms but for the most part these are the main diseases that we see that are caused by infectious particles roughly 10 billion new infections every year worldwide and again you think about the population we have about 7 billion people that means you roughly suffer from one point 1.3 infections every year and so you probably get sick probably maybe once maybe twice a year and that’s about average for most people sometimes if your immune system is weakened or maybe you have a little one at home that goes to daycare and they bring everything home with them you might get sick more often other times some people don’t get sick and offer your and good little good deed for you you got a really healthy immune system if that’s the case but roughly most people suffer from one or two infections at least a year and so are those numbers going up you know it depends on who you ask and what you look at and things like this but that’s a whole nother story for another day okay and again there’s about 12 million deaths from infections worldwide and so this is obviously a big number so people do die and so again we’ll be looking at a lumber different diseases when we get into the upper chapters from chapter 89 of things that are trying to kill you and how they kill you and that stuff and we’ll discuss how fatal these things are but you can see over here on the right we have a lot of different diseases that are caused by far the one that causes most problems is the respiratory infections and this includes pneumonia influenza flu kills more people every year than a lot of the diseases that we suffer from and so it’s one of those things that you just say oh I got the flu and then you live and you go on no big deal but flu kills a lot of people every year and you don’t hear much about it here you know you hear the news oh there’s the outbreak of flu in that stuff but when we hear Ebola everyone panics because oh my God we’re all going to die and really only about two people you know in the United States got it last year or maybe four people got it and only one of them died from it okay and so you look at this flu is by far more pathogenic one that causes more disease and causes more deaths prettier than any any time every bola has flu has killed more people every year than Ebola has ever killed people so think about that the next time when you talk about flu or Ebola or freak out about

different things okay another big disease obviously is AIDS obviously HIV we’ll discuss that as we go along throughout the semester diarrheal diseases obviously when you have a problem of dirty water drinking dirty water or contaminated food you always have a problem with this and then your simple bouts of food poisoning and things like this can always cause problems tuberculosis even though in this country it’s not a big major disease it is in many other parts of the world and so again we have a lot of we have this free-flowing society that go from place to place so again not to say that you’re going to catch tuberculosis or anything but it is very common outside the United States other diseases malaria malaria is probably by far the worst parasitic disease and I’m talking eukaryotic parasite in the world kills more people kills millions of people every year roughly about 300 million cases every year malaria and that equates to about three to five million actually dying from the disease and typically small children are the ones that are most at risk for that disease we also talked about measles measles again not in this country although when we have outbreaks like we did last year or two years ago with Disneyworld in Disneyland where we had the outbreak and that tends to be for people that are not vaccinated so if you’ve been vaccinated with the MMR vaccine you’re protected you shouldn’t have measles any time in your life hepatitis B a lot of us have to get Backson especially going on to the nurses or other health care professionals you have to be vaccinated for hepatitis B so another one again it’s a blood-borne infection that people carry and tend to carry but now we have vaccines less likely tetanus parasitic diseases and other things out there are you know kind of wrap it up but by far the biggest disease that is out there is the respiratory infections and again this includes colds pneumonia flu things like this and again most of us suffer at least once a year with some type of infection in this state as we go on okay and if you look at the again looking at diseases in the United States versus the world you can see there’s only two infectious diseases in the chart of in the United States and again very low numbers I mean 65 thousand that’s a lot of people that die from that and again 33,000 die from it it’s quite a huge number but again when you compare that to heart disease or cancer it’s far less it’s you know only a tenth of that of what you see either for heart disease and cancer and so it’s one of those things yeah obviously we’re concerned with but it’s not something that we’re all paranoid about over you know catches you go into other parts of the world you can see respiratory infections is the third leading cause of death infections you know in this thing HIV and AIDS diarrheal disease tuberculosis malaria you don’t see these things in the United States because the United States is a more developed a health care system works pretty well you know I guess that can be up for debate you know we get vaccinated for things we’re protected from things other places in the world not so lucky and so we see a lot of these diseases and so I want you to be aware that yes the United States doesn’t see a lot of infectious diseases number seven and number 10 on the list but you go outside the United States and simple things like respiratory infections like the flu kill numbers of people diarrheal disease because of the lack of clean water things like this tuberculosis malaria are huge huge problems every year that cause death in a lot of people okay alright so let’s move on to the history so let’s talk a little bit about where a microbiology came about and so really a microbiology stems from very early on so they it’s kind of the idea or looking at the unknown and then before we had microscopes we really didn’t know anything about microorganisms because and a way of looking at once we saw what these things look like we started studying it more and more and obviously we saw a lot of these different things so some of the things that we’re going to see today is microscopy was obviously the big thing we’ll talk a little bit about the scientific method and how we perceive things or how we go about testing things we’ll talk about the development of medical microbiology why is this important why do you wash your hands when you’re operating on people things like this and then finally microbiology techniques so we’re going to look at all these different discoveries as we go about throughout this this section now obviously we couldn’t look at microorganisms without a microscope and so antonie van Leeuwenhoek is the one guy that actually came up with the microscope and his was a very simple microscope this is basically an magnifying lens and so he came up with this idea hey I can look at things and what he did was he looked at things inside his body so he looked at the scrapings on his teeth I’m sure you looked at the things crawling in his skin because people then shower probably stuff crawling in his hair and all kinds of different things and he noticed that these things were very very small again he can magnify things up to about 300

times our microscopes go up to about anywhere from 400 to 600 times and if you’re talking about oil up to a thousand times so it really hasn’t changed that much from van Leyden Hookes time period to now but again it allows us to see a lot of different things and we can see most of the bacteria and other things we can’t see viruses but a lot of the really small things we can see using the microscope okay here’s a picture of van Leyden hooks microscope and again you can see very simple it was kind of a magnifying lens here you put the specimen on this little nail here you can move it up and down you can move it back and forth to focus it and kind of look at things and these are some of the things that he actually saw so he saw some rod shade bacteria he saw some things moving and he kind of showed them through motility some of the other shapes that he saw some bigger things and again he was able to describe some things based on the shapes that he sees and so again lots of different shapes and again we’re going to talk about the shapes of bacteria and what they look like here in chapter 4 but again this is kind of some of the simpler things that he saw very early on with this simple microscope okay the next thing was a scientific method and so this came about at around the same time that microbiology was getting started and so again this is the process of kind of figuring out something that you see okay and so again we basically come up with a question so when we do the scientific method the idea is that you’re going to look at something for a little while and then you’re going to formulate questions based on what you see so you make some observations and then you come up with a question or a guess and then this is what we call a hypothesis and a hypothesis is an explanation that you’re either going to prove or disprove based on the data you collect okay and so that’s the idea then what you do is you come up and you come through and make some experiments you kind of test your question is it worthwhile or isn’t it worthwhile you then can publish your data and that stuff it gets repeated and then you come up with these different things you say yay or nay into your hypothesis and if it is good you say okay you publish your work and say hey I found something to this interesting question if it doesn’t work you start all over any ask new questions and so you kind of come up with these different things and that’s pretty much the life of a scientist okay if things are well supported we start to see these things building up and so this is where multiple people see the same things and can repeat these experiments over and over again when they’re highly repeatable and actually able to be done we call these things a theory and so you may have heard things such as the theory of relativity or the theory of natural selection or maybe the cell theory that all things come from cells and so these are things that are well established these are ideas that have been well established and been looked at over and over again and been proven to be true over and over again okay and if you get something that’s really concrete very solid something like the law of gravity that’s when we talk about something becoming a law basically you can’t disprove it so if I drop something right now like my pencil over here I grab a pencil and I drop it I know there’s gravity I can’t dispute that gravity doesn’t pull that down closer to the center of the earth and so that is why we call those things a law okay so something that can’t be disputed is a law a theory is 99.999% true but there can always be that one thing that throws the theory off and so we can’t say that it’s a law concrete for sure 100% but it pretty much is you know it’s up for to be occasionally but it pretty much is and so that’s what separates a theory out from what a law or principle is all right all right so here concept check scientific theory has little or no evidence that supports it and then can best be described as a best guess is that true or false okay the answered false you are correct because again a theory is something that gets proven over and over and over again to be very concrete I just got done saying it’s basically 99.99999% true there could be that one thing out there that throws the whole thing off but we still haven’t found it yet and so a theory is highly backed very has lots of good evidence behind it to keep it going okay good job if you got it right all right so the next thing we looked at is spontaneous generation and so again this was the idea that things just magically appear and so spontaneous generation was the idea like if you think of if I had a bunch of rags sitting in the corner of my house and I just left those rags there that all of a sudden that one day some magical force would come down and create mice or if I left out a piece of meat on the desk and I just let it sit there and after a while while uh flies would appear okay and that’s saying that these nonliving things would generate living things and that was the idea of spontaneous

generation that things just magically appeared there was some life force out there that would zap something that was nonliving and make it alive okay well this was a strong theory at the time of Louie Pasteur but Louie Pasteur didn’t agree with this and he said you know what guys I think you’re wrong in this idea and so what they what he did was he came up with an experiment to look at and say you know what I don’t think you’re correct guys and I think there’s a different way of looking at these things and basically he went through and he proved that even when X to air that microorganisms are the ones that cause this generation or things to become spoiled or looking at these different things and that was using these gooseneck flasks and I have a video here in the next page that you guys can click on so that you can actually watch it I’m not going to show it here in this video but I have it included in the set of videos with the first lecture and so I highly recommend you look at it it kind of talks about the gooseneck flask and what he does but essentially what he did was he disproved the idea that that it just naturally happened that some bolt of lightning came in and zapped and it became a living thing what essentially what it was is that he show that as soon as that air with the microorganisms in the air landed in that broth essentially you get the life coming from there so the life was actually living things that were in the air okay and he came up with the theory of biogenesis which is the idea that living things only arise from other living things would either need microbes or something else that’s alive to give you live things okay now this is like I said I have this video included with you in the packet of videos it’s only like a two minute video so I highly recommend watching this it just kind of gives you an idea a little bit more of the experiment behind it it’s really good and again very short idea of what he did to actually do it looking at the gooseneck flask okay so highly recommend watching that video okay some other ideas now when we talk about the germ theory the idea of the germ theory is that germs give rise to disease and so the idea of this was established through a number of different doctors and scientists during this time period after around Lee pasture and that the human body is the source of infection okay so the first one that saw anything was dr. Oliver Wendell Holmes and that he observed that birth mothers at home were actually less likely to get infections than those that went to the hospital then again it was some of the practices that the doctors were doing at the time that actually established infections and so that was one of the things that we saw another one is the subways dr. Somers showed that again physicians were the ones that were actually carrying the disease to the mothers and so they go from the autopsy room back to delivering babies and now these mothers would get sick and they even from it and again it was due to the infections that they were spreading with their dirty fingers and so that was one of the things the last thing was Joseph Lister and again you probably recognize his last name when you see it Lister Listerine he basically came up with solvents that would actually wash the hands clean of infections and so these are some of those things we call these things antiseptics things that you can put on your hands your body things like this that kill germs that allow you to now go and do different things without spreading germs from one person to another and so he was the first one to introduce these different things and so we give Listerine da da da Lister it kind of a name name from him back from the past oh one of these things again using these things and so again two of the things that he came up with is using disinfection for hands or antiseptics and then the other thing is using heat to actually sterilize the tool so that when tools are used from patient to patient you should sterilize them first either with heat or you know basically heating them up hot enough to kill the germs and so that’s one of the things we obviously do now in medicine did stop the spread of germs okay again another wonderful video for you guys to look at this is called the germ theory diseased kind of just goes through again with some nice pictures and things like this again very short video about 5 to 5 minutes long I think it’s a discovery video has a Bill Nye the Science Guy very fun video to watch highly recommend watching this again it kind of goes through again some of the different aspects of the germ disease with this or germ theory of disease alright so when we talk about the germ theory this is that many diseases are caused by the growth of microbes and not due to being a bad person or by God punishing you okay then the two main contributors to this besides and then that I mentioned before our Louie pester and Robert Koch and again these guys did a lot to the different realms of science so if we look at these different things or what these guys did and these are some of the things that I want you to know about these two different guys okay so Louie Pasteur he was the first one again he lived in the 1800s he showed that micro microorganisms were responsible for fermentation so he worked for the wine industry wine and beer

industry and show that yeast were the ones that responsible and not bacteria and that bacteria and microbes also cause spoilage and that you keep things open to the air they’re going to spoil and taste bad because the microbes that are in the air land in there and start causing things to all apart another thing that he showed is that again the spontaneous generation so I highly recommend watching the video with the gooseneck flats and things like this and taking a look at those things but he showed that spontaneous generation does not occur that you actually need to live things to cause I could give rise to live things to develop the process called pasteurization this is basically heating things up to kill the microorganisms that are in the liquid or in the fluid first and then cooling it back down so that it’s safe to use in the human body he also developed the first rabies and anthrax vaccines out there and so again very important guy you notice that people that were exposed to these things over and over again didn’t get sick and so he formulated ideas that maybe if we take these things from these people and injected into other people they might be protected as well and it’s a very smart guy for a time when things weren’t really developed at the time so Louie Pasteur very important for microbiology ok I have a nice little video again short this is like two minutes long if you want to take a look at some of the highlights of his career what he did some of the different things that’s kind of a catchy tune in that and you’ll probably be singing the rest of the time so again watch the video very short if you had some time to look at the Louie Pasteur video as well kind of just talks about the same things that I discussed here just a minute ago ok the other guy that I want you to know is Robert Koch and Robert Koch established the Koch’s postulates and so these are one of those things basically going through and figuring out what causes disease this is the experimental steps to you to figure out what is what is causing you to kill your patient essentially so the steps themselves are involved is the first thing that occurs is that first you see someone come in with an infection obviously so the patient comes in with the infection that infection you know what you do is then you take a sample from that patient and you try and isolate it that the second step you isolate the infection okay what causes the infection the third step you do is then you take that isolate and you inject it into a live animal typically a mouse you know we didn’t typically don’t inject into other humans or things like this and we look to see does the mouse get the same infection that that person does if they do and if they get sick from it and potentially die we say okay that’s a cause-and-effect and then what we try to do is the fourth step which is reice elate that organism out of the dead animal or the animal that’s sick from that organism and if we can do that we’ve established that this organism causes this disease okay and so using those postulates we can see that there’s a lot of different things that actually can be occurred by microorganisms and again this is how we identify different diseases and it’s still used in use today okay a couple other things that he did was he identified the cause of anthrax t v– and cholera so we found the different things using his postulates to figure out some of the diseases that people were getting so anthrax t v– and cholera were caused by these things and then he also developed the pure culture method so you can blame Robert Koch for making you do microbiology lab so the petri dishes and some of these other things that we’re going to be using in the laboratory throughout the semester all stems from Robert copes work and so you can blame him for making you have to do all these different things in microbiology but again establishing the the things that we see today and establishing health and vitality and things like this we live a lot longer because these guys figured out certain things that would kill us throughout her lifetimes okay again I have a nice little video here about Robert Koch that’s again short it gets about two or three minutes if you want to learn out a little bit more about the different things and how we look through these different discoveries and that stuff highly recommend I talked about it already not not saying you have to watch your buddy I highly recommend take a couple minutes and I think it will give you a good idea of what these guys actually did all right so the last thing we’re going to discuss in this lecture and I promise I’m done and I will shut up for today is we’re going to look at taxonomy okay and taxonomy is how we organize these things so organizing classifying and naming things in biology it’s a is a chapter biology in which we organize things is you know scientists are very anal they like to organize things they like to have these things if you’re very anal and like to organize things then maybe taxonomy is for you this was a formal system that was originated by Carl von Linde he was the guy that came up with the idea of giving organisms two names okay and so it concerns with classification how do things fit together we talked about the common ancestor how do things like

humans relate to bacteria where humans relate to dogs or whatever you want to talk about in these kitten situations and we look at these things and we want to know how these things are classified so what we do is we assign names based on what they look like some of the different molecular things that we see and we can identify them through a lot of different techniques that we use in order to look at these things the identification is giving them a name so that that name can be used to identify these things wherever you go in the world and once you identify those things you can figure out what you have okay and where they place within that chart of all living things okay so this is a level of classifications and again most of the time we’re just concerned with the domain and so in this class we’re just going to talk about domains being the archaea the bacteria and Eukarya and again we’re going to talk about this in Chapter four and five so I won’t spend too much time on this right now but again we’ll look at domains throughout the course of the semester Kingdom is associated with the eukaryotic organisms and so you know your kingdoms of plants animals fungi and protists and those are the kingdoms we get into file them and those but really the ones that I want you to focus in on along with the domains is the genus and species that’s basically the first and the last name of an organism and so we’ll talk about this you have a first and last name so – all organisms units using it using genus and species and again we’ll talk a little bit about how you use genus and species and identifying an organism here okay so we look at the domains again the domains fact are looking at the types of cells that we talk about we have two types of cells we have the bacterial cells and we have the Archaea cells and these are two different types and again these are both prokaryotic cells and again we’ll look at these in chapter 4 and then by far the bigger class of organisms are the Eukarya the Eukarya are the larger cells they have the nucleus they have the organelles they do the different things and so those are going to be important you call these the Eukarya these have the nucleus they have the organelles and again we’re going to look at these in chapter 5 the plants the fungi the animals and the protists are the ones that we talked about with kingdoms and again we won’t really discuss too much about kingdoms because we’re not too concerned with the eukaryotes most of our class time is going to spend with these guys down here but again we’ll look at these over and over throughout the semester so we’ll take a look at these things ok so again here’s the different domains we’re going to be talking about bacteria and archaea we talked about how everything is related if we look back we have one common ancestor the first cell ever on the planet and then everything branched off over there and this is the idea and so we’ll talk about these things again in the various chapters as we go on so bacteria archaea and Eukarya these are both prokaryotes these are eukaryotes these are the bacteria that infect us these are the ones that live in extreme environments these are the ones that make up us okay and so we’ll look at these different things as well all right and so here’s some sample taxonomy and again I’m not going to spend too much time looking at these different things right now but you can see how these different things relate based on how these things are and where they fit in little and then in the chart so again if you’re interested you can spend more time you can pause the video and look at these things but for now I’m just just showing you this as a classification technique okay so the last thing we’re going to discuss is again looking at the signing of scientific names we call this binomial nomenclature meaning two names you have a first and last name and so do all organisms those organisms have what are called the genus which is the first name and the species which is the second name okay so the genus is capitalized with the with the big letter and this species is lowercase okay so when you write things out you have the two names the genus species you always write it out our uppercase or capitalized the first the genus and lowercase of the species okay the other thing you always do is that you either underline it or you italicize this so we do this to identify scientific names so either underline these things or you do analysis okay so that’s what you do here you look at this and this is the underlined or italicized and you see the abbreviation the S aureus S aureus is again Staphylococcus so sometimes once you see it over and over again we just abbreviate this because this gets long and arduous and kind of tough to always say all the time so when we get lazy we’ve just put the s as the genus and then use the species name around here okay again the inspiration for names is all over the place and so for Staphylococcus this is basically what it looks like it’s basically around bacteria there are cox’s bacteria that has the staff which is arranged in clusters and it’s kind of gold in color so that’s where it gets the names but

sometimes they’re named after scientists who discover them or a lot of different things and we’re going to see a lot of different microbes as we go along thing I wanted to get out of here is the genus and the species first name second name genus and species always capitalized genus or is lowercase the species and either a underlined or italicized based on if you’re typing it or you’re writing it out okay all right so we’ve come to the end I know you’re excited you probably are just like God he never shuts up but these are a good video so I think you’ll get a kick out of these things as we go along okay so we looked at microbiology it’s a study of life again these our study of life smaller than what we can see with the naked eye and again these clued a lot of different things including viruses bacteria protists fungi and worms again we’re going to spend most of our time the semester of looking at bacteria but we will talk about viruses in Chapter six and some of these other guys in Chapter five okay we talked about some of the applications that we use for bacteria and these different things and again obviously the reason why you’re taking this class is due to the infections and things like this we did a little history tour of microbiology we first talked about the first microscope with antonie van Leeuwenhoek and then again we talked about the germ theory and that microorganisms and not a bad personality or bad doing bad things or what causes you to have disease but it’s actually due to the microorganisms again two main figures that I want you to know about again I’ll ask you the questions on the test are Lewy pasture think of pasteurization pester pester in this case in Robert Koch he has the Koch postulates he’s the one that does step by step thinking about the different diseases and how you do identify disease based on taking a sample from a patient affecting another organism and then isolating it out getting the same organism again and that’s the Koch’s postulates finally classifying microorganisms we have the three domains the three domains or Eukarya which are the eukaryotic cells the bacteria and archaea these are the prokaryotes and again we’re going to spend some time the semester of looking at these different things and again we’ll talk more about these in Chapter four these will talk about in Chapter five and then finally first and last name no your genus and species if you have a first name that’s the genus the species is the last name and again genus is always capitalized species is always lowercase and you either underlined or italicized when you’re writing it up okay so that should come to the end of this video if you have any questions please feel free to email me or ask me when we meet for lab I’m happy to answer them for you at any time I thank you for watching and I’ll see you next time