okay I always say this with the best place to start would be the slides if you’re going to focus on one thing you skip this slide go through the practice problems we did in class I’ve gone through and bulleted the major points but honestly I got these points by going through the slide so it just makes sense take this set it mix your slide set and you’ll be able to follow really well and put the topics under you need to know for thunderstorms and tornadoes chapter 14 understand first of all what conditionally unstable means that’s what I was describing a good environment you need to have for thunderstorm development a conditionally an unstable environment so that’s when you have cold dry air over warm moist air the reason that’s great for thunderstorms is that once you have its parcel that’s warm and moist and something triggers it to go up it’s going to continue to go up so you remember I use the water balloon the balloon in the water to show you the buoyant force where I held it down and I let go and just went up the same with that parcel there it’s going to be more buoyant than the surroundings so in a conditionally unstable environment they will just keep going up so that’s the first thing to know second thing know the ingredients for thunderstorm development so that’s just probably on the next slide exactly but those three things low level moisture instability from kind of lifting mechanism so the conditionally unstable environment is what i mean by this any kind of oyster you need to have moisture in the low level so that when you lift that parcel you’re actually going to have cloud formation in the presentation yes so are you going through the chapters to break it down because all you have on here is just this test for review so you’re going back through each one either like chapter the points yeah but she’s going through slides like that so you are oh gosh sorry I don’t understand that I’m glad that you know what my answer is okay um no examples of lifting triggers what are the different things that can cause that parcel bear to be forced upward so you all things some of them what are some of their causes orographic features you want anything what’s something that we talked about that separates air masses reports yes friends friends can trigger upward motion those are two big ones so friends diverging upper-level winds so when you’re drawing air out your air is coming in together really terrain inference you can remember those and we find because we didn’t talk a lot about random turbulent Eddie’s unequal surface heating that’s one that you can remember too that you have different areas differently you’re going to have thermals rising and that contribute upward motion ok understand the three thunderstorm types and characteristics of each do you all remember the names of the three thunderstorm types first one I would always feel sad for because it was just called what kind of boring that it was called remember ordinary the first type is ordinary the second type is multi-cell in the third is the supercell so you have three types some basic characteristics which of those three is the shortest-lived remember ordinary and why do ordinary thunderstorms not last for hours and hours something about their structure so what’s feeding the thunderstorm believe the updraft so if the updraft is what is the fuel behind it how do you kill it cut off the updraft with an ordinary thunderstorm it’s just a vertical thunderstorm so once you have a downdraft that forms when you have that condensation occurring at big raindrops are falling now then that cuts off the updraft so ordinary thunderstorms are short-lived for that reason so this is kind of why here’s an ordinary thunderstorm it has no wind shear we won’t talk about that a second and so the downdraft cuts off the updraft whereas in the multi cell and the supercell you have a tilt to this storm and so this downdraft where you have a rain falling is separated from the updraft which allows that strong to continue to last a lot longer what is wind shear whoever is what vertical wind shear is as you go up in the atmosphere what

happens to the wind in a sheared environment if you’re not sure this would be a great side to study so a Whittier profile tells you how does the wind change with height so here’s the surface and here are different pressure levels throughout the atmosphere for a no wind shear environment which is for simplicity we’re going to assume that ordinary thunderstorm has no wind shear so as you go up to be on the sphere there’s nothing pushing that storm over so it’s just straight up and down which is why it doesn’t last long however can we multi-cell in the supercell we do have one sheer speed shear is when you just have a change in the wind speed with height so these with vectors are being longer and faster as you go up the atmosphere directional share only is when you just have a change in wind direction but you’ll notice all those Barb’s for the same link and then speed and directional shear which is what we have in supercells remember that speed and directional shear those are you have wind speed and direction change in life it’s so that allows you to have a rotating room as a cyclone it’s part of the supercell and because of the atmosphere the winds are beginning to circulate with the change in one direction okay so that was this one understand what vertical wind shear is and how it affects a storm type you know the features associated with each stage of ordinary thunderstorm development so this is the slide where we had three different stages a growth stage mature and dissipating so what feature do you see the growth stage just enough draft only an updraft not a downdraft the mature stage has up and down and they’re separated well not this case but it’s showing us there there’s the formation of downdraft in the dissipating stage is only downdraft so remember those three stages and what features are present okay be able to identify the multi-cell features mentioned on the slides this will show up some of the matching section but being able to walk through some of these different multi-cell features and recognize what they are the over sheen talk guest front shelf cloud roll clouds outflow boundary so being able to distinguish between those various multi-cell features which features Scott catalysis which feature poses the greatest threat to aviation Chris I’m sure Scott can to Christmas yes microbrews and goobers even I’m sorry this is why I just discovered that two days ago there’s this awesome what does it call a roster like a picture roster it has all your faces and I would love that two months ago so that’s my way of making it excuse from our IDs yes my goal is seven different my head is like big stretch sure what that it later ok now the definition of a supercell thunderstorm and what makes it unique so what do you know about the updraft of a supercell that is not true of the other to route it rotates so it’s a rotating updraft that’s super important because what can form from that rotating updraft yeah the mesocyclone is a big rotation of the updraft and then what can form really localized area yes the tornado so tornadoes can spawn off of that rotating updraft know the process from wind shear to vortex tube’ tornado anybody want to take a shot explaining that how do we go from a wind shear environment to the formation of a vortex tube to a rotating updraft darn self-locking a little jiggle around right vertical or horizontal and then it changes like this if you have a start of like an updraft is something that triggers upward motion it pushes up on that too I can see the picture let me just look at him to try I

can’t afford on this picture so you have this to imagine is to bits rotating and then all the sending of some sort of mechanism to trigger to go up that forces that to vertical so now the two bins upward and you have on the backside of storm you have this rotating updraft that’s what gives you ever take back your has important yeah any kind of like bars any of those trip mechanisms yeah it can trigger that to start to be fresh awkward and then if you remember the conservation of angular momentum that was the ice skater demonstration so as she pulls her arms in what happens the speed of rotation is faster yes and so with the tornado tornado development you’ll have a rotating updraft in the thunderstorm and that is that up drop is stretched and it becomes thinner than this the spin increases the rate of rotation increases and eventually you can have a tornado development from that process I understand the basic features of a tornado know what a hook echo is what a tornado vortex signature is and how meteorologists identify the vortex in the mesocyclone using radar so let’s look at echo why is it called echo it comes from a radar echo so the hook echo is just an echo that works like the hook so in this it’s on the backside of a storm it’s where the rotation of the updraft is certitude for awesome that precipitation into itself so you have their rotation here’s the updraft it’s imagine it’s coming out of change its part of the updraft but it’s rotated so it’s kind of grabbing that pre step of pulling rocking it into itself and that’s where you can see that’s what allows us to see that back side of the rotation because it’s pulling precip into it and then this image on the right is from radial velocity so this is where the radar is able to measure if there’s an object coming towards it or going away from it if there’s anything rotating the subjects sitting here rotated in front of me part of it is going away from me in part of it’s coming towards me so the radar is able to see that and so they can identify circulations like look at this particle so when we have red and green together that indicates you have winds going away from you in the red and can be towards you in the green so there’s a rotation here at this storm is that perfect sense to understand why lightning occurs it has to do with charges and the separation of charges and how can you estimate how far away lightning is do you remember the rule five seconds everyone did you see it Oh for how long sorry smile for a mile so if I would if it was ten seconds between when I saw the strike and I heard the Thunder would be how many miles away two miles so remember that little conversion okay chapter unless did some problems to go through if you like chapter 15 is hurricanes first just know the basic wing pattern in the tropics so here in the US typically winds are from west to east what’s the pattern in the tropics the opposite so it’s from the east to the west which is also called westward headed towards the west what is the name of an area of low pressure that occasionally triggers hurricane development the very first thing to happen in this whole hurricane lifecycle you have what kind of wave in the name of it it’s an easterly wave so we go back to the lecture you have just kind of a little easterly wave that starts to come from the east to the west and creates a area of lower pressure and then you can have convergence in that area and that is the beginning of the hurricane lifecycle I understand the basic structure of hurricane in its features so that’s like the eye the eye wall what do you all remember about the i miss design features it’s calm how about the temperature characteristics but compared to other parts of the hurricane is it warmer or colder war in do you remember why it’s warm when we were talking about circulations for climate we said the

really more berries that glow over because of what this subtropical high and what kind of motion to be associated with hi stinky so same of the hurricane you have this I that’s warmer than the surroundings and clear because you have sinking air within the I so the air is going from a localized area of low pressure or high pressure down to the surface where we know the low pressure center is and so so you have an area of high pressure here so that because the pressure gradient force that’s like a while back high to low pressure you have air sinking and sinking air is not conducive for clouds we get clouds with rising air so you have a clear your eyes that’s warmer than the surrounding how about that what happens to pressure as we go in towards the center towards I pressure get higher lower lover and it’s at a minimum within the various interpreter cute how about wind speed as you go towards the I what happens when to get faster but then once you after you leave the eye wall and you enter the eye and the winds dropped off significantly understand what fuels a hurricane and have a basic understanding of the ingredients necessary so this is the slide where I had big red letters on the top there’s the ingredients so you need warm surface water you need to be a deep layer of warm water because otherwise as you start to have winds you’re going to mix a lot of the cold water up and even have one swimming together the ones that we have not really talked much about I won’t expect you to know like the week tradewind inversion and one of the big ingredients and the kind of the driving force behind in hurricane is this conversion from sensible to latent heat so sensible he is something you can sense and measure so you can take a thermometer put in the ocean water if you measure the warmth latent heat is the heat that’s released when that warm air eventually rises and convinces and compensation releases heat so that process of converting warm ocean temperatures to latent heat is more the big driving forces behind a hurricane I understand the stages of development of hurricane those those four stages where we start with the tropical depression and then we go up to I’m sorry disturbance and depression the tropical storm where it receives its name and then the hurricane know how to determine which side of the hurricane has the strongest winds when you are given the storms direction I feel like felt got this really well this is a slide where we hooked at circulation around the eye so on the eastern side of the hurricane you have wings going north and this storm is also moving toward so on the ease you have the storm storms motion plus the wind speed so that winds of you is strongest on this side and the weakest here because your store motion is opposing the wind motion however if that form of change directions that scenario would change them you would had store motion here and the winds would be going to west on the north side of the gherkins you have the strongest ones here the weakest here so be able to look at a hurricane and then understand where the strongest winds would be honestly if you would just go through the problem we did in class these two slides just be familiar with that where we went through and we talked about where the strongest winds we also talked about storm surge so the storm surged for typically occur in like the right front region so if this hurricane is moving due west this will be the right front region so just imagine the hurricane spins it’s like gathering lots of water with it then it just pushes that water into post so no kind of where the greatest storm surge occurs and then just know they’re different threats that are posed by a hurricane and then we just talked about the storm surge any questions on hurricanes okay this is my least favorite so climate change understand some of the possible causes of the past

variations that we’ve seen those were we talked about sunspots we talked about the Milankovitch theory do you remember that where changes in the Earth’s wobble in the Earth’s orbit and the angle of the tilt of the earth those changes can be and we can consider those possible causes for past variations with the sun spots if you remember we set them the greater the number of sunspots be higher or lower the sentence radiation the energy strength you remember yes so the more the sunspots the greater than and energy from the Sun and then understand the concept of a feedback mechanism and how to tell it is positive or negative so a feedback mechanism is the idea that a change and has been initiated will be reinforced if it’s a positive feedback or it will be opposed if it’s negative so that was this one so we talked about greenhouse gases lead to warmer temperatures so there’s the initial change temperatures are warming now the more Vedic allows for more evaporation more evaporation leads to a stronger greenhouse effect because water vapor is a greenhouse gas and then stronger greenhouse effect means warmer temperatures so that’s a positive feedback mechanism a negative feedback mechanism would be that more greenhouse gases means more where temperatures warmer temperatures means more evaporation more of operation means more clouds more Clemmie actually reflect more radiation which cools is surface temperature so that’s a negative feedback mechanism do you understand the difference between those I understand the greenhouse effect in which gases in greenhouse gases then where do climatologists expect future warming to be concentrated do you remember this what part of it below do we expect to experience them the most heating fault the poles so the polar regions would be where climatologist would predict you would see the greatest effect from increasing greenhouse gases and then understand the potential consequences of global warming so I know out there like you probably know the answers to most of those so you’re welcome for doing a really bad job lecturing that day okay chapter 17 this is today understand the different sizes of climate regions we talked about micro macro mezzo in global be familiar with the controls of climate those are the things like proximity to water latitude the seven different controls that we listed know the forces behind the global temperature and global preset patterns so we said you know the main force behind the temperature would be latitude you know because of the sun’s angle in the different those different areas for precip earn also subtropical high where you have sinking air that’s associated with warmer temperatures and then for pre step we said the itcz where you have air coming together that’s normal voice you can have higher preset then drier air with a subtropical sinking ferry sinking air and then you know the köppen system climate classification subgroup a is create a great vacation in the what tropic tropics groupie is bone dry and the desert group c is slow bc here dallas so that’s the mid-latitudes mild winters moisture and then d is discouraging dismal cold winters and then e you can even colder nuts the polar regions and then h highline island and so you guys have that down and check that off if i give you a chart a precipitant like we did today in class you’d be able to tell me which group itself in and though which group is most prevalent globally do you remember that we leavin two feet be anybody have a cool way to remember that fun again 2 s’s were spinning another nice

okay so there are so many questions you can look at any questions you explain the storm surge again yes so if you look at this slide if the storm is moving or you can divide a hurricane into four quadrants so there’s divided in half this way this way across the middle so you have your right front quadrant and your right rear left rear and left front because of the storm motion and the winds you know that’s strongest on this side and so it’s as a storm circulates it’s kind of gathering water and then pushing it it’s concentrating the storm surge in that right threat region so if this storm is moving this way towards the coast you would have the right front region will be here because we’re dividing it this way in this way it’s moving that way so right front of this part and so when it hits the coast the winds aren’t pushing the water out onto the coast whereas on this side once you’re coming this way so it’s drawing water off the coast all about the winds Riddler was in the South waiting if this arrow is pointing south then the storm would be heading this direction so the right front will be here so it wouldn’t really be an effective land mass in this scenario but the right front is always where we would see the greatest storm surge any other questions so you should go with super combat about chapter 17 don’t you think pretend like it’s here at five on wednesday and i’ll send you an e-mail when i figure out where it really is yeah and i will also you know you’ve got the review if you want to come to that they’ll probably tuesday morning tuesday that’s what I’m thinking my little sidekicks and y’all have been great I’d love this I don’t know I know there’s been like lots of from just interesting adjustments for you to make but I appreciate it I’ve really enjoyed it we’ll learn a lot about teaching us what’s a lot about you I wish I wish I had more time I mean I had like a week’s notice of starting so it has been time to like really develop stuff that you all could do in class to understand things better but I mean hopefully none of you will have to retake it so you won’t have to see how much awesomer will be in the fall but there’s really nothing new for this class doesn’t lack