All right, everybody I encourage anyone who hasn’t found a seat yet to please find a comfortable place I will point out that there is popcorn, M&M’s and other mix-ins for a little extra entertainment down here Just in case anyone didn’t get quite enough supper I’m Neal Smatresk, the president of the University of North Texas, and I’m proud to welcome you here to this event tonight, which is going to be great It’s the first of the Presidential Lecture series We established it today We did so by inviting a terrific speaker and someone who I think you will all really be able to relate to, because he has both academic origins, but he has a mission now that is truly intergalactic This is my gift, if you will, to the UNT community, and to North Texas, and I hope as time goes on, people who are both town and gown will come to appreciate the kinds of lecture series, the intellectual content, the academic content, the social value of what we’re bringing to them I want to remind all of you that we have a mission Our purpose here is to prepare the creative leaders of tomorrow Lectures like this will help to serve To do that as well as inspire through imagination, the kinds of creativity and innovation that we believe we bring to this region Today, we want to inspire all of you to soar higher I think you’re going to hear about a lot higher today And so introducing Dr. Thomas Zurbuchen, will be someone who is close to him, who as number two in all of NASA, ran many different divisions that were responsible for bringing you the incredible discoveries that we are now accustomed to attaching NASA’s name to That is our current chancellor and friend of UNT, and the UNT system, Lesa Roe Thank you, Lesa This is one of those just awesome days for me because I get to introduce Dr. Thomas Zurbuchen He is an amazing scientist, a true leader, an innovative thinker, a colleague and a great friend Thomas is at the helm of NASA’s science mission directorate and if you want to know just how huge that is, it includes the earth, it includes the sun, it includes the solar system, it includes the universe How big is that? And so, under the science mission directorate, is over six billion dollars in missions that are in development or in operations and all the research that comes with that Before coming to NASA, Thomas was the professor of Space Science and Aerospace Engineering at the University of Michigan in Ann Arbor He is the university’s founding director of the Center for Entrepreneurship in the College of Engineering there Thomas’s experience includes research in solar and heliophysics, experimental space research, space systems, and innovation and entrepreneurship He has a PhD in physics from the University of Bern in Switzerland, and numerous honors and awards One of my best days in NASA was when I was on the plane with Thomas for the 2017 solar eclipse I got to watch Thomas in action It was truly inspirational as he was just All the science was coming in, and we had the instruments on the plane, and he was describing it to someone like me, in a way that I could actually understand it, which was just fantastic It was great to watch him in action, and was truly one of the best days that I’ve had in NASA Thomas also helped me to decide to come to the University of North Texas system, he was

one of the first persons I reached to when I was deciding to come this way I don’t know if you can blame him or thank him, one way or the other, but it was … I really, truly valued his advice and his leadership in making that decision Thomas, thanks for your advice, for your wisdom, your friendship, and your inspiration Thank you for spending so much time with our students today That was what Thomas really, truly wanted to do when he was here Thank you for that, and for all of you in the audience, I give you Dr. Thomas Zurbuchen Thank you so much What an exciting day I’ve had today I started in Washington D.C and learned all about fixing planes, and how sometimes that leads to delays, and then of course weather happened Everything worked despite all that I actually came two minutes late, and I just had a wonderful day Hang out with faculty and with students, with some of your deans, some of your academic leaders You couldn’t be more fortunate to have these leaders at the helm The one thing I said over dinner, I just want to repeat it here, probably the one thing that I learned, if I came up with one adjective that describes the faculty, it’s caring You could not believe so many things were said without any students there, that gave me that impression Of course, that’s how I also felt when I saw the students I really felt they were in a place that was surrounded by people who cared People who want them to be successful, and of tomorrow What I want to talk to you about, is about the word that is a mouthful, and it’s of transformation I want to talk about science and transformation, but if I do it well, hopefully when everything is said and done, you’ll be able to exchange science into what you want to have your impact in Where you want to lead, and you basically think about what you can do to transform, namely, to leap to a new level To bring a new level of understanding to bear, to open up a new set of innovative space I want to talk about what that means in science, and my hope is you’ll learn it there I want to start with true wisdom here And I’m going to read this here, and that is that, action without vision is only passing time Vision without action is merely daydreaming, but vision with action can change the world Of course, a quote by Nelson Mandela I’m going to talk about those two things Vision, which is really important It’s grabbing an idea that’s in the future and so elusive that most people don’t even see it, and bringing it out of the future into the present That’s what vision is about The only way to do that, Nelson Mandela said, is by acting It’s by doing things, specific things Learning how to do those things And frankly, little steps sometimes Sometimes backwards steps But keep doing, bringing action to bear He said, vision alone is not helpful, action alone is not helpful Together they can change the world They can transform it That’s really what I’m going to talk to you about I want to talk to you about some of the missions that we’re working on right now I want to talk about where the vision component is, and I want to talk about some of the things that remain hidden to people who are not looking under the cover, that are just as important for achieving the transformation of our understanding, than the vision is in the first place It turns out sometimes our reward systems don’t reward the action people as much as the vision people I just want to make sure that you understand, those of you who are students and those of course who have wisdom beyond the student level, and even beyond where I’m at They understand, this is really trivial, they know that very instinctively You have to focus on both I want to talk to you about this, and the way I think about it, some of you are … where’s the math dean there? There you are I want to talk about how a particle propagates in a turbulent fluid This is a model, a particle propagating a turbulent fluid Basically what happens is, the particle starts somewhere, and it gets bumped around a little bit It makes little, tiny little steps, you see up there I went backwards right now, I didn’t want to do that You see the tiny little steps? Every once in a while, they take a leap

It turns out that much of nature is organized such that actually, if you want to calculate how much progress you make, how far that particle moves, it takes the little steps, but it takes the big leaps For the mathematicians, those are the levy flights of course, in a non-Gaussian fluids Basically the point is, what I’m going to talk to you about … Progress in real life is just like that Little bumps, little steps, going backwards, going forwards, all of a sudden take a real leap Because you were always ready because you had that vision right there, and you were ready for it You took the leap when you could I want to talk about that Remember that picture, for those of you who are geeks like me That helps me I want to talk about one of those This is our anniversary here at NASA, and so at the Apollo program Of course for us, the world opened up, space opened up by that little rocket First of all, the most important thing you see is Van Allen in the middle, is shorter than the two others Do you see how he’s on his toes? Pickering and Wernher von Braun are holding up the rocket This of course, was a response to being behind, being beaten The Sputnik had flown over, American hats, antennas set, noticed that yes, the space is open now, and not by our own innovation, but by innovators elsewhere That actually scared us a little bit Scared our parents a little bit, perhaps What came together is a crash program beyond belief Within just a few months, Van Allen, in the middle there, who had a Geiger counter … The stuff that you use in the lab to measure radioactivity, the little clicking device? That’s what he had there, except an electronic version Pickering over here on the left, who knew how to take that and put it into a system that actually sent the data down, and actually did the work Von Brown, the rocket man, who after World War II of course, came to the US, tremendous innovator, that on the rocket side Together, they did a crash program I talked to some of those people and it’s incredible that it worked, frankly Together, they did it Now, what’s really important is that the number three here By the way, there’s others, but the thing is, it’s not Van Allen The space is named after him now, the Van Allen belts It’s pretty cool if part of the space has your name I once walked into the senator’s office, “Do you know that a guy in your district has part of space named after him? That’s pretty cool, nobody else has that.” Then the other district Van Allen is there, but he couldn’t do it alone Neither did the rocket guy, neither did Pickering Together, the engineer, the systems person and designers came together and created that transformation A transformation at the end, that looked like a total loss, because as this rocket went up, everybody expected that there would be more radiation All of a sudden there was no radiation It took quite a while to figure out that the reason there was no measurement of radiation with that Geiger counter, was because the Geiger counter was choking Because there was so much that the Geiger counter was flooded, and basically said zero, zero, zero Not because there was zero, it’s because there was too much radiation The Van Allen belt’s full of radiation out there For me, that’s an important part At the beginning of the space age, also is this picture For me, it’s science hiding out in plain sight You see of course, Buzz Aldrin back there A very colorful personality, who of course was one of the two moon walkers of Apollo 11 What he put up there is a piece of chocolate paper In saying that, it’s because it’s made out of aluminum, it’s really expensive chocolate paper There’s also platinum in it, and it was done in Switzerland The first experiment on the moon was an international experiment See the importance of bringing together in that vision, all the relevant players that could do this This is the simplest experiment that anybody has ever conceived, I believe Basically, open up that foil, stick it in the ground and wait By the way, you want to stick it in the ground so the sun is to your left You see the shadow at the bottom? Basically what happens, because the moon doesn’t have a magnetic field, the sun is blowing its atmosphere, it’s so hot, its blowing its atmosphere into that foil, and it just implanted itself there When everything was said and done, Buzz Aldrin rolled it up and brought it back to the US, and then all over the world, including Switzerland, where I did my PhD Basically, even before I was there, it’s that analysis of that solar sample, that was the

best measurement of all noble gases of the sun and the solar system Not because this is the most complex thing It’s because the details of how that has to be done that for The engineering of actually learning how to bake that out In every way, it was necessary to create that transformation of knowledge Not just a vision of going there on the moon That was also important, really, really important, that it required both By the way, I wrote a paper that for the first time, beat the accuracy of that measurement This of course was done in the 60s The accuracy was exceeded in the late 90s That’s how long this was the best measurement ever The simplest measurement you could devise Vision and action together That picture of course, is full of stories In many ways, many people focus on Apollo 11, this is where the U.S overtook the Soviets at that point During Apollo 8 when basically the riskiest of all missions, I would argue, got off with a lot of things For example, the engine that was used to get out of lunar orbit, had not worked the test before They went up there, if it didn’t work, they’re not coming back Went up there and took that measurement, that of course stands for a vision when we look at it To look at the earth from the outside To look at the earth from behind the moon That’s really what vision stands for But behind that, is a team of people that can create that That’s where it started, in the late 80s Many of, some of you were not even born then, but I was kicking around In bold-face are the missions that we were working on in all of science You see the earth, Lesa Roe talked about it, by the sun, looking at the sun, the space environment In bold face are all the ones we were working on In regular front, are the ones that were flying already You see, this is the few who were flying, there were a lot of missions they were working on The Voyagers were already flying The Voyagers were with me my entire life The last major paper, I believe I read about this was just last year They’re still creating amazing science But you see this, a lot of us working on … This is where we are today Basically, I’m going to spare you the work If you added them up, it’s 105 missions, and this is what this initial work opened up It’s the ability for us to look at the earth in a way that helps us understand the earth is a complex system Gives us a view of the globe in a way that we’ve never imagined We also, of course, recognize that in the middle of the solar system, is our star The Rosetta Stone for all stars Everything we’ve ever learned, pretty much Everything we’ve ever learned about stars, we learned there first There are stars that are so crazy, you can’t learn at the sun Like neutron stars, and black holes, different But the vast majority of stars work just a little bit like that Some of them are too heavy, some of them are too light But we learned it there And then of course these planetary worlds You’ve seen them in your school books, you see them on pictures on your wall, and then, the deep universe What I’m going to do now, is I’ll take a few of those stories and tell them from the point of view of vision and action Not all of these missions, otherwise you’d have to get sleeping bags in here We don’t want to do that What I want to talk to you about is a picture of the earth This is actually made out of three different data sources, and of course what you see is first of all our amazing planet Full of water Water very much related to life, we believe On any planet, but certainly on this one And of course, an atmosphere that brings all kinds of variability for us, but also havoc at times Here, three hurricanes are in the basin, barrelling towards the US and Florence is the one that’s ahead of it Frankly, what we’re doing about these hurricanes, first of all, the story about these hurricanes in 2018, well, you can look at that, is of course, we have the data, we have these amazing images The story about the last hurricane season is, the accuracy of prediction is unprecedented A lot of the work that happened, the accuracy of the rainfall for example, the accuracy of wind speed, where it hit, was never … it was unprecedented in previous years How do you get there? Of course, you have to create these space craft, create the vision What happens is these modelers, these data analysts that take that data and put them to bear, and basically keep innovating Take this one, I met today with a Cube Sat group

A group that builds space craft that you can Are as big as a loaf of bread or a toaster, and throw them [inaudible 00:20:09] to another, even though I don’t recommend that necessarily This is a cube set that’s out there Actually took active measurements of that particular hurricane with a cube set, in a way that’s unprecedented We have up to, I don’t know … If I added them up, insurance value or otherwise, it’s probably $15 billion worth of space craft up there looking at the earth This one was done for five million or so, and it creates a measurement that we’ve never seen That’s what I mean with that action Of course, we want to make predictions, we want to save lives That’s what earth science is, really At the heart of earth science, is that ability to have impact in society These are measurements that are so important for forecast, we believe, in the future, that we want to see more of It’s the first one, we had it up there, the first hurricane, we did the measurement of Frankly, it turned a lot of heads, because many people said you can never do any measurements from a cube set where you can beat what the big space craft can do, here’s your proof That’s many by the way, and the second one I’m going to talk about it later I’m going to talk about a story in Hawaii This is the main island, and of course, the thing that you want to know about Hawaii is, if there wasn’t continental shift, on earth, there would be a mega, massive volcano over there Every once in a while, would push gas and lava up, but since there’s continental shift, the continents are floating, floating, floating Our volcanoes are not that huge, but there’s many of them, and this is the most active one The reason I’m telling you that, I’m going talk to you about Mars Where there’s no continental shift, so the mega volcano is there Just remember, that’s the difference Basically, what happens here is we all get to Hawaii … By the way, the color code here is about learning about the crop What crop, what type of farm product grows where, and we can do that by analyzing the data over several years Now what happened of course, this is from a helicopter image, so it’s not a NASA image The credit is up there From what happens, these volcanoes are creating havoc in the lives of the population there and you see that there’s this outpouring of lava It’s of course destroying these houses, but it’s really affecting substantially, the whole look and feel Everything, including the farmland, off of these islands What we’re doing at NASA is, we’re looking at it from space What we’re doing is, we’re overflying it on NASA’s Terra Spacecraft A spacecraft that we didn’t know that we were going to do that when we were there It’s the researchers that basically look at the ability of creating impact by taking data that are there and analyzing them in a new way, and actually predicting and providing a global context of the damage that is there in these environments It’s these impacts that are really passionate to us, because again, each one of them, the transformation that happens here is, it changes lives It’s fundamental research that’s motivated by applications It changes lives in a direct fashion That’s what transformation can look like That’s what’s really at the heart in many different ways of earth science I want to talk about another story This of course, is in the Antarctic I don’t know what you could tell, there’s no penguin, but basically what we’re doing here is actually learning how the ice shields off the earth are evolving Now it turns out that every once in a while we talk to an earth scientist and perhaps like five years ago, we talked to an earth scientist and everything looks really certain If you want certainty, it’s really hard to be a scientist A scientist is all about doubt We question The way we become confident about a statement is we try to kill it There’s a theory, try to take it out, we test it, we kick it, we stand on it, we turn it upside down If it’s still alive after all these tests, it’s a good theory That’s why I believe some of the statements that are they, not because we lock in and we don’t, we’re not critical One of the things we try to understand is how does the ice evolve in the Antarctic It actually turns out that even five years ago, we only knew the snowfall in the Antarctic within a factor of 50%

It turns out that’s important Remember, ice melt is snow that falls minus what melts If you don’t know one of these within 50%, you don’t really know what’s happening there That’s what we’re doing We’re going there on the ground, and we’re going on the ground with scientists who are calibrating and validating data that are flying over Of course, we can measure one point We have GPS, we’re there multiple years, we overfly it with airplanes, but then we overfly it with space craft This is that space craft that only three weeks of data of that space craft over the Antarctic Now, if you imagine that space craft, so it’s basically a big refrigerator and there are eight laser points that are shooting down many times per second, and with remission, we know the speed of light is constant, right? Out of every test we’ve ever done, speed of light is constant in vacuum Basically, we go down with these laser dots, and what we do is we measure the extent of ice The height of ice as a function of time We do so, by the way, the previous measurement, you’re offered both hands here, the previous measurement had the spacial resolution of a football field This measurement has a spacial resolution of one yard We do it from space Within three weeks, that’s the measurement we’re taking We’re calibrating it there Now, I’m not going to talk about the conclusions of this, what I want to tell you, that’s where transformation comes from It’s, by the way, Lesa knows about this mission, ISA 2, it’s a mission where the laser entirely failed Everything was being built, and the company was supposed to build that laser A laser that survives launch, when you get it up there, a laser that actually works for the years that are there, with an accuracy that you know within five millimeters, what the distance is It gives you the height accuracy, I gave you the spacial accuracy of one meter Five millimeters in the other direction To do that, the company couldn’t deliver We actually were not successful to deliver the mission for the initially agreed upon price We needed to go back and actually add some money It’s something we never like to do We never want to tell the taxpayer, we use more money than we guessed we would In this case we had to Many of the other missions, we didn’t This one we had to I could not tell you how proud I was of that team when we were up there, we launched, I told everybody about this story when we launched, about how hard it was When we were up there, and every one of those lasers worked just like it should, there was not a single issue during the entire startup of that laser that basically prevented us from doing these measurements with only within three weeks We expected this chart within months For me, that’s what transformation was This is the good work of individuals, many names I’ll never know Sometimes I bump into them They make it work, not the guy I talked to, not me I’m the vision guy when I’m standing here It’s that piece that really is mattering If you look at this data, think of that The transformation of our understanding that will have huge societal impact comes from not just the recognition that we can do that measurement, it’s from those measurements, and also the guy that drives the truck on the ice and calibrates it, because without that calibration, we actually cannot do it at the accuracy that’s needed I want to talk about another one, and that is a little bit about patience Of course that’s our star, the sun The sun is magnetic it turns out It’s a frying pan with boiling oil It’s not the oil, it’s hydrogen mostly, but the arcs that you see is magnetic fields The magnetic fields that we have are steady, the magnetic field on the earth We have that sun, that’s there and boiling What happens is the atmosphere of that star, the surface of that star, is 6,000 degrees That’s hot The atmosphere of it is one and a half million Now think about it Suppose you went to a campfire, and here’s the fire, and you’re here, and your face is hot Then you walk back here, and your face burns It’s way hotter, that’s how the sun works That violates what you think Thermodynamics works Well, if you do thermodynamics you have to take into account all heat flux and all energy flux, including the magnetic one The Coronado, that Lesa and I saw on that plane, by the way if you want to see our experience, it’s on YouTube, just Google the both of our names together, there’s only one movie

Us out there talking about it Basically, that recognition, that atmosphere drives an outflow of solar material is a recognition that this guy in the middle, Gene Parker, when he took this picture, he was 91 years old He made that recognition at the age of 26 He almost got fired Actually he lost his job over it, because it was so controversial, his paper was not accepted, and it was the wisdom of the guy who sat next to him in the office, a guy called Chandra Secker, who is of course a Nobel Prize winner, basically overruled the referees His paper got published that said there is such an out flux of solar material and for the first time in history, that we name a mission after a person who’s alive See behind him, is the rocket The guy you see, the guy in the red tie It’s a different tie I really do own more than one tie The other guy is the CEO of United Launcher Lines who built that rocket there I can tell you how I felt standing next to Parker, and his family in tears when that rocket went up It took well over 50 years for us to be able to go measure that source Of that solar wind that he had predicted in that paper in ’58 It went up there, right now we’re taking measurements that are incredible measurements of a spacecraft that is really hard Now the most important part, if you want to fly to the sun, is guess what? A heat shield If you don’t have a heat shield, you’re not going to make it You’d fly towards the sun and on the other side comes a bunch of dust What happened here at the front of the spacecraft is a heat shield You see that white thing in the middle? The rest is just a holder That heat shield had to be invented Remember, I talked to the lead engineer, there she is in the front with the back of the head against you I talked to her about that heat shield All she was thinking about, all she was screaming about is that heat shield I remember walking in with Parker and looking at the heat shield All Parker wanted to talk about was that heat shield, because he knew that that heat shield decides whether that mission works or not That’s what I mean with action That’s what I mean with action It’s that deliberate work Doing something the best way possible Not just doing great things Doing it the best way possible and recognizing that that’s there That’s what you can see when you see that mission When you read about that mission, think of her Think of that team building that heat shield with their team, with their companies that built that By the way, it’s super light It’s basically made out of nothing It’s a foam basically And it’s working like a charm In fact, we flew by the sun for the first time We had no problems whatsoever No lost data, basically the spacecraft flew just like it should The heat shield worked like a charm without anything That’s not because of some mission guy It’s because of that action Patience that it takes to build that kind of mission Yes, we can elevate our sights and look far beyond, into the deep universe Every once in a while, I want to remind you that if you take a penny, there’s this head on it, and you look at the eye of that head, and you hold it out, at arm’s length and just look at that eye, look against the sky, behind that eye in the sky, as observed by the Hubble Space Telescope are 6,000 galaxies Anywhere you point 6000 galaxies This is a picture taken in a place where there was nothing That just sat there for 50,000 and seconds, and what you see is these galaxies You’ve never seen any one of them, it’s just as complex as ours We happen to call our home, but that’s the galaxy Talk about vision Talk about transformation I always say to people, close your eyes and think of space, what do you see? I don’t know, I see that Many people say Star Trek I don’t know The point is, you think about galaxy Close your eyes and think of galaxy, what do you see? You see a Hubble picture Everywhere on earth you see a Hubble picture What we’re trying to do si actually create a spacecraft that by far exceeds what we’ve been doing so far, in two ways First of all, see the mirror, there’s one piece missing That’s six and a half meters What is that? 29 feet? About

In diameter, it unfolds, 22 feet I don’t do feet I do meters I have two feet, not more Anyway, so basically six and a half meters in diameter It’s big Because we want to look back in time Far beyond where Hubble saw Because it’s so far back in time, the university is expanding, it’s really cold there What we want to do, we need to cool down that mirror to a temperature that we’ve never cooled any spacecraft before The way we do that is there’s five tennis court sized foils that we’re expanding in space If you’re the sun, putting up those tennis sized court shields, so I’m cooling down on the other side to only a few degrees kelvin Only at that temperature can we see the first galaxies We can see back in time, in a place we’ve never seen Okay, now I can tell you, the mission pitch, five minutes and you have it Doing this, eight billions later, and we’re still not done At the end, it’s simple things One of the perturbations we had, one of the big problems we had is fasteners were not attached properly This is the most complex telescope The reason I’m telling you that is not to make anybody feel bad My point is, the best mission people can come up with the best stories If you, if your employee is not fastening the fasteners the right way, it’s all over It takes that action, it takes that focus to create the transformation Only two or three people not buying into that with the scrutiny that it takes, with the focus, with the intention With questioning the colleague, did you do it right? Show me Not just believing Only a few mistakes like that We cannot deliver on cost I’m telling you that to tell you it’s hard It’s hard because it requires everybody’s action Not just the leaders actions Those of you who are in engineering, I met a bunch of you, you’re going to learn that the hard way or the easy way From the beginning, recognize that the people you work with, some of them may have lesser degrees than you, they may be more important that you at certain parts in building these spacecraft I remember spending a Christmas day next to my mechanical technician when he built a space instrument that went to planet Mercury that I designed, because at that Christmas day, the only thing I could do to help him is bring him food He’s much better than me with that machine I felt I needed to be there, because he gave up his Christmas break to finish that instrument Don’t forget that That’s what action means It’s not commitment to success Buying into the vision, the vision is important, otherwise he doesn’t know why it’s worth doing that The vision is important also for him It’s sitting there and doing it That’s what you should see when you see that Of course, you read a lot, and we’re spending a lot of time thinking about how to take humans out of low earth orbit One of the most exciting things for us is after the Apollo program, is we learned how to live in space Humans have been there for, well over a decade without break That’s great We learned how to do that We’re a learning organization, we want to take them out of low earth orbit, and towards the moon, and eventually to Mars That’s a really hard mission At the end, what we have to do is learn how to land again on the moon Actually what we’re doing right now is actually recognize that we actually don’t want to do the same thing we did in the 60’s at all What we want to do is build a commercial sector that knows how to land We’re betting on them Here, action means show what you can do As many people who say they can do this, let’s see who can Only the ones that can relate vision and action to each other can create that transformation Basically, actually one of the elements that we’re going to focus on is this command module in orbit around the moon from which a lot of these activities we’re going to go forward with And on that command station will be astronauts, near the moon Some of them will go down to the surface of the moon Some of them will stay up there to work and for science, we’re part of this, because we have questions of the moon, even five years ago we didn’t know how to ask

There’s many questions about the moon that talks about the history of the earth, the history of the solar system, and we know because we studied Mercury, we studied the Earth, and we want to learn about these questions One of the things that in each one of those cases will be critical, is to recognize that, that sun that I talked to you about, which this solar wind comes out, is actually a source of radiation Radiation that under certain circumstances is a risk for astronauts I would predict that the first science experiment that we put on that command module, is going to be a radiation experiment Because again with the volcanoes, we want to predict that space weather The storms, because at the end, that’s the only way we’re ever going to be very confident that everybody’s healthy and protected with that Of course there’s many layers of security we’re going to wrap around that We’re not going to depend on one single forecast I’m not saying that We want to contribute to that Just the same way we do on earth for the humans that are off earth Once we look at the moon, of course we see the Mars right, waiting out there I want to tell you the last story about it, and the action talks about everything about teamwork I want to tell you a story, of course it has to do with Mars I looked at Mars, until something like 10 years ago, 15 years ago, Mars looks like a planet that has of course, the biggest volcano, we already talked about that, Mount Olympus, but it also has these things that look like river beds In fact some of the drawing by French scientists that way past looking through a telescope said, “That looks like river beds.” Well, asserting that and proving it are two different things, it turns out Took centuries to do that We landed on Mars We landed with Rovers, the last one of which we called, the mission we announced complete two weeks ago, Opportunity We landed there and we found that in fact, when you’re there, Mars looks exactly like some desert in Nevada It’s like, it used to be water there There’s minerals on the ground that only exist when there’s water but it’s gone Frankly, something happened with Mars that catapulted it from a place that had a magnetic field, that had an atmosphere, that had water, in a large fraction of the surface, up to 150 meters of depth, to something that’s pretty dry Now it turns out, there used to be a lot of water, there’s still water there, but not as broadly distributed as we thought there’s water under the surface Now, landing on Mars, turns out is a really hard thing Humanity’s record of landing on Mars is 40% In other words, 60% of all missions never worked What I’m going to tell you is a story of landing there Basically, the way we did it, is of course we launched it, and what we launched were actually three spacecraft Remember the Cubesats our friends are working on? The Cubesats, there are two Cubesats we call them the Marcos I don’t know Mars something You start with Marco and say, “What could they mean?” I don’t know Anyway the two Marcos, and then a Lander that went there Now what the lander is looking at is actually for the first time, looking at the inside of Mars It’s a robotic geologist looking on the inside of Mars to actually see whether that big transition that went from a wet planet to a dry planet, from one with a magnetic field to one without, whether that came from the inside It could very well be that that has geologic We’re going to do that for the first time The way we have to do this is fly out there and land Now, landing on the moon, landing on earth, basically means you go in, and you let the atmosphere slow you down With the heat shield, basically the drag is so big, it starts glowing, but it slows you down The atmosphere helps you, then you use parachutes, and you’re down It’s still hard Very hard, but we’re really good at it You land on the moon, or tonight, the Japanese are landing on Ryugu, go look on Twitter tonight I think in three hours they should touch down The way you do that, there’s no atmosphere, you use boosters Just boost a little bit out and just go down slowly You land on Mars, it’s hell Because there’s an atmosphere, so you can’t ignore the atmosphere, the boosters won’t do it

It’s not good enough It’s just enough to be a headache, it doesn’t really slow you down You need to do everything I just said and then some to actually slow down, which is why it’s so hard Now, the problem also, if you want to be landed on the back side of Mars, so the only way to actually see whether the landing worked, we needed a signal to be bounced back Think of these Marco spacecraft like mirrors That listen to what’s coming up and sending it back What’s really exciting to me about the Marcos spacecraft, I’m going to point them out The black shirt, he’s going to sit there, he’s my former student He’s the lead engineer For me, those of you who are professors, you know immediately how that feels Because if your students are better than you are, that’s what you would like to see No pride involved in that Everything is great when that happens So there I’m at, so we’re building that, setting up that landing Now, it’s nerve wrecking The way that means for my job, I prepare that landing in two ways About that amount of my briefing focus the good case This is what I’m going to say if everything works Of that amount of the briefing is the bad case Because somebody needs to get to the microphone That’s me I’m getting ready for it, I’m nervous because there’s nothing I can do I’ll tell you what helped me though One guy said those of us who have built tough, they see it in others Let’s go to the meeting of the navigators I sat in that room, and I sat in that room with the oldest person in there is the guy who did the entry descended landing for the Viking It’s like he walks on water as far as I’m concerned He’s tremendously capable, wise beyond anybody There’s nobody on earth who knows more about entries than him Around the table, there’s some of these other people You can just see them in red shirts Some of them I actually knew and they were students One of them, she just started a couple years ago, and they were arguing with each other They’re looking at the data and they’re trying to understand the data We actually realized 24 hours before we landed, that we were coming in long We’re basically going to go beyond the field that we had mapped out into a place where there’s rocks, and we didn’t want to do that We needed to make a correction, which means we have to turn the spacecraft around, boost back, and get into orientation again to land You never want to do that Of course, if you build it right, it will work That’s that action part Within the last 24 hours, both Cubesats, one of the Cubesats disappeared for six hours, it booted itself, it’s not a stable as they advertise sometimes The other one had a star sensor problem I saw this team with diverse opinions figuring out what’s happening I was never more confident that we’re going to be successful, because there’s no team anywhere on earth that I’d rather work with than that team right now What I’m going to show you is the moments that led to that [inaudible 00:48:22] Altitude convergence the radar has locked on the ground Yes, the radar [inaudible 00:48:30] Organic viper lander separation Lander separation commanded, altitude 600 meters, altitude 400 meters, 200 meters, 80 meters, 60 meters, 30 meters, 20 meters, 17 meters, standing by for touch down Touch down confirmed This is one of those images I want to tell you the next day in hundreds of newspapers this was on a front page including the newspaper in Tehran, which is run by the religious covenant at the front page was that picture Exploration, vision and action come together it unites us It brings us together in a way that pretty much nothing else can because it basically transcends what we can be as humans What we alone can do because the teams come together and lift us to that

For me I don’t know what you’re into I don’t know how you have an impact in your local community, in the world as a whole, but I just want you to remember that Bring together that vision, and that action For those of you who are thinking about [NASA, I’m going to just to note a quick spot By the way this picture of that Cubesat is a picture that it sent down By the way it didn’t drop a single frame, so the entire data came down The Cubesats performed superbly because of the work of the people that did this I couldn’t be more proud of them This is a selfie on the ground You see the instruments that are there In the meantime we actually put the size margin instrument out there on the ground and covered it up The second instrument we placed last week and basically are starting to hammer it into the ground in the next couple of weeks That’s what you can do if you know how to land on Mars As I said, the only team that has ever done is the JPL team for NASA Nobody else in the world has successfully done that It’s because of that work that they do together as a team Ignition sequence start, all engines are a go We have taken tremendous steps We choose to go to the moon, we call the spectators out We have achieved the earth shaking, the breathtaking, the ground breaking- [inaudible 00:51:35] We’ve left a mark in the heavens Our successes build one upon another and amplified as possible It’s time we take the next great leap This is not hypothetical This is not about flags and footprints This is about sustainable science in feeding forward the advance of the human spirit because we are the pioneers, the star sailors, the thinkers, the doers Everyday, every inch, we advance this We are NASA After 60 years, we’re just getting started I want to stop with that slide This was the advertisement for those of you who want to consider coming to NASA We need talent there and of course I tried to make Lesa cry I don’t know whether I was successful anymore A winner is a dreamer who never gives up The transformation of a rafter, whether it’s at NASA That’s where I’m trying to have my impact Whether it’s as an educator, whether it’s as a innovator, somebody who built a company Somebody who works in that community as a politician or otherwise in a hospital Transformation is hard and many times along the way it feels like it’s not going anywhere The moments of triumph that we see are not the most important part of that activity The moments of triumphasy is vision and action coming together in the face of reality Sometimes overcoming challenges that are huge and with it, all of a sudden creating a new reality that nobody else could even think off years ago That’s what I hope I can talk to you about that, what I hope that you will take with you tonight and I thank you for that Thank you Well I just have to thank Dr. Zurbuchen for an incredible job and I don’t know if he knows this, but we’re in the middle of our next big plan Our big plan is to dream big and to convert that into action What a great motivational message for how our vision combined with the action of incredibly passionate individuals can transform our university, the lives of our students I hope you all take note because while we may not be going to the stars, our reach will certainly be to the heavens Thank you so much again, and what a wonderful speech I appreciate it Dr. Zurbuchen has graciously consented to let us ask questions Now there’s going to be some rules

You actually have to ask the question as opposed to making a long comment You get one question, you don’t get a follow up unless he says it’s okay That way we can hear from as many views as possible and really extract everything that we can from this incredible talk and from the vision that he’s brought to NASA as its chief scientist With that, we have microphones set up here If you’re interested in asking a question, please come on down Don’t be shy Interaction’s a good thing What is the current situation in terms of funding from the Trump administration? Do you feel that there, and I know this is a difficult question, that they’re very supportive of the future of NASA or do you feel you’re being constrained now in terms of budget? I like that question It’s actually a good time to ask the question because we just got a budget pass last week When we look at that budget, a budget for science, a budget for NASA is $21.5 billion It’s the largest budget we’ve had for decades The budget for science, is $6.9 billion It’s the largest budget we’ve ever had Basically, and the reason for that is, we can credit or blame on administration They’re the reason that is, is because the government structure, the process in governments, we can all make jokes about it at times, but it works It’s an awkward process There’s a proposed budget and then there’s a big discussion on the hill with the Senate, with the house and at the end, what comes out and what’s being signed into law is the budget The only budget that matters is the one that’s signed In this case, we had some little bit of a break before we got there, but the short and the long is, right now we have a lot of support by a variety of stakeholders What’s really exciting about NASA, we’re really bipartisan It’s really not a case like some of the agencies that do better in one or the other administration I think NASA, just like what I talked about, I don’t think anything that I said here is in any remote way partisan I think that that’s why people can rally behind that I think that’s what we’re seeing It’s a great vision and we have a lot of support Even if that budget was less, my goal is actually not to talk about the budget in the sense of, could I do more if there’s more budget? Without doubt That’s not my job My job is, and our job here at NASA is, I used to do the absolute best we can for you, the taxpayer I’m also a taxpayer by the way The absolute best I can for the taxpayer and and do the most impact, tell those stories out there and create those transformations that benefit of course the world, but very much benefit the United States and its economic base Thank you Thanks so much, sir Sorry Next question Mine’s more about, the curiosity on how you manage your teams and keeping people so passionate and so precise through years of a project and everything that you talked about that goes into it I can imagine it’s almost an obsession from you, from everybody, but I’m just curious how you keep everybody on the same page The one thing that’s really … I love that question I wish I could give the recipe for it The one thing that I believe and whether it’s at NASA or anywhere else, often we don’t spend enough time talking about the why We really admire dealing with the how and the what We’re talking about details and so forth and we’re not talking about the why I think the one thing about our teams that I’m observing is they understand the why If they go home and talk to their families about what they’re doing When we do our annual survey, that is done in all around government The one place we’re scoring off the charts is the purpose People understand the why If you get the why, that’s the vision If you get the why, make no mistake without the vision, It’s really hard to mark the radar Because sometimes you’re up to here in mud, but you look at the stars You say that’s where we’re going I’m not going to give up now I already passed this and this rock Ambition, it’s that looking at the stars that pulls you forward I think we’re really fortunate at NASA that our community, our people, not just the ones on the inside of the agency, our community and universities at work that they understand the why That’s what I would say is the answer Every once in a while, I think we have a special breed of people too

We have people who are, more recently I have been in meetings Most meetings, nobody would show up I’ve been in meetings even in my own working on a NASA project and we get off that probably the thing, there’s these moments where you’ve got to write this I basically, I had this problem with this instrument, I went to Margaree Miter The panel financed him and I sat there We basically were failing and I remember I paid pizza for everybody and basically just in the room, and basically said, “Look, here’s the problem.” This is going to be really hard The only way we’re going to make this is we’re all pulling together I remember this guy … Every team has a squeaky wheel I actually like the squeaky wheel I want somebody to remind me that what we’re saying may be wrong I want that squeaky wheel, I always have kept them really close to me because sometimes he’d discourage people almost a little bit too much He was all the way at the other side of the room and he basically said, “Of course we’re going to be successful.” He stood up right there because he realized the moment we have to come together It’s not the squeaky wheel moment It’s the moment we’re all pulling together because he realized that the guy in charge, me, he’s not going to be successful if he’s not pulling with it It’s these moments as leaders we never forget when it happened for the first time you recognize it again There’s also a leadership style that comes from that, doing extraordinary risky things There’s a leadership style that comes from that You’re fortunate if you’re on a team like that Some of you have been in the military, and many of the people in the military that I work with, they’re really good at this They get the why, just the same way They pull together and can do amazing things together Thanks for the question It’s all about the why I’m wondering more about personal transformations What was a big obstacle, maybe the biggest obstacle you’ve faced in your career progression and getting through it? When I was kicked out at home, perhaps I grew up in a family that didn’t have any academics I was the first one in my family to graduate I know many of you are graduates I always thought that was a strength that I had, not a weakness, but it took a while to recognize that I had nobody who told me about universities I remember when I was, I did this test Somebody in the middle It was mandatory in school to do a career test What’s the career you should be doing? What came out for me is a mix between scientist and engineer By the way, that’s what I’m not I was, lots of scientists, what do they do? Never met one Engineers, are these the guys on trains? I tried to figure out, and I realized I need to do a higher education I went to my teacher and I told him, “I think I want to go do a higher education.” He tried to talk me out of it, at that moment He could have, by the way, that will happen People trying to talk you out of it I remember, there was a professor at the University of Michigan and so forth, and I went to his town and at the place where he shopped, I dropped off a business card and said many regards I know what it’s not, I should be better than this You see, at the end, so it’s really there early on The one thing that helped me in every case and the counteraction, the things that are really career obstacles that are basically, I was not sure I was ever going to … I barely made it by the way, in that higher level, barely I’m horrible at languages because of French Because I had a better teacher than my math teacher I barely made it I never had anything less than an A. I failed in math in the exam I wasn’t prepared That’s the biggest, in many ways, if you look back on my career, that’s the biggest step, later would help me and I’m going to turn your course around What helped me, is whenever there was an obstacle, there were mentors next to me who had the best in mind What I would tell any student, do not be worried about asking for help I had a way in every faculty too I still have mentors that I keep right next to me By the way, also mentors who said, “You’re wrong,” that’s a good mentor too The ones who said, “You’re wrong You need to back off.” I remember the first grad student I had, he didn’t do what I wanted He wasn’t as fast than I expected him to be I went through to boss who was really an accomplished guy, a member of the academy, he’s at NASA, frankly at the same job I have now, many years ago He’s my mentor I said, “We need to fire this guy

He’s no good.” He leaned back and he put the shoes up on his desk and he looked at me, he’s, “When we’re having this discussion, I’m just remembering how many times somebody had to give me a break.” He didn’t say, “You’re wrong.” I never forgot that It’s the best lesson He told me no, but he told it to me in a way that I’m, “I’m so dead wrong.” My job as an educator is to make that student successful, not to fire him That’s what he told me He said, I needed that help And of course I knew I did too That’s what he did Mentors, have mentors around you that will help you It’s amazing If you ask for help Surely, with an open heart, how much help you can get, it’s incredible Thank you Thanks I’m an electrical engineering student currently, I wanted to be a robotics engineer for NASA since I was 10 What’s the best advice you could give me past never quitting? First of all, we’re hiring a lot of robotics engineers, and by the way so it’s the entire earth I’m going to pay It’s one of the most needed and most wanted educations right now It’s incredible- I also do cyber security I’ll give you my business card Look, I believe that the way you get hired into an unusual position, you check your boxes You go do your classes, you’ve got to understand what’s there Then you show in projects and you show in activities what you can do Talking to Elon Musk and you don’t necessarily I’m not suggesting you want to work for Elon, but I think he said something really well and he basically said, “Look, the way I hire, I look for somebody who’s extraordinary at what they’re doing In fact, I’m trying to tell myself that I can’t find anybody that does what she is doing or he is doing right now, better than that particular person.” Create excellence in a field by your own initiative What that does, it creates a compelling story that makes you stand out Not Enough people do that That’s what I would do if I want to do that I get there and then, I don’t get turned away Go down some doors Use your network I know somebody who has contacts in NASA, but there’s many more It’s just a lot of opportunity And by the way, don’t go too narrow If you want to work on NASA projects, if that’s what you want to do, you may work for NASA, but you may also work for a company like, I don’t know, Lockheed Martin aerospace, Spacex I already talked about it .. You may work and then create a career evolution towards being a person with a NASA badge Don’t go too narrow too early You need to look at your search, give yourselves more shots on goals, so to say and so that’s what I would do Excel at something, really drive something that has your label on it This is what you did Put that on your resume.It’s incredible how much that does, how many doors it opens I think it makes up for point four GPA, or point five even The reason I did not want to say the calculation I run programs remember, and I’m a geek What I did is, I did a calculation for GPA on experiences and how many job offers per person Basically, people who did that, they basically moved their chances up so substantially that, they’d made up for a lesser GPA, by that alone If you do both You’re golden Great Thank you Of course Hi I saw a Nova program this week that showed the Cubesats and talked about the private rocket companies I wanted to know how NASA is sharing or are they sharing with you, are you sharing technology, are you sharing of the vision and how are you guys working with the private sector on those kinds of things? I love that question The rule will have, the rule we implement is, whenever the private sector can do it, we’re not doing it ourselves Basically to zero though The private sector can do launch vehicles We used to build all the launch vehicles We’re not building launch vehicles anymore except one where we can’t buy it The really ultra heavy one space launch system All the others we’re buying in the open market Cubesats are really interesting Cubesats actually grew out on the outside of NASA In many ways, NASA was actually trying to fight them initially I remember I worked for the academies before I went to NASA, and they got report on Cubesats

and it was really clear that most of the progress was on the outside of NASA Then we adopted on the inside It’s a classic disruptive Innovation Story It’s actually worse than our regular spacecraft, but you could do many more It’s almost that kind of thing What we’re doing with Cubesats is first of all, we’re actually investing in that We’re actually helping the companies that are there to build those Cubesats If there’s a company out there that has a business model like imaging New York, Planet Spire, Digital Globe, companies like that, that image the earth with small spacecraft, we actually create acquisitionals in which we buy those data and make it available for science What we’re trying to do is not build Cubesats that are just as good that are out there in the private sector We’re trying to be a customer We’re trying to be a customer, whether it’s for launch vehicles like we already said, but also for small spacecraft and Cubesats In some cases we’re actually trying to help them launch so they can get out there and using our space station we supply, we actually help them launch for less money Because we want them to be successful in the US NASA is a really important part of our economy We’re trying to grow entire commercial sectors Last year alone, $3.5 billion was invested in space in diluted funding of the, venture capital and similar type of funds That’s because the world sees that yes, the government is a customer, but so are others We don’t want to be the only customer, because if we’re the only customer, it makes no sense Because we don’t control what we’re doing and we’re paying for it It’s like, that’s not good news for the taxpayer We want to be one of several customers, and then we want to buy services What we’re really trying to do is learn how to do it I’m not saying it’s easy, because what we have to do basically, walk up to one of our really good employees and basically say, “Hey, you used to do this, we’re done, we’re buying it in the private sector.” Of course it doesn’t work like that, black and white, but you sense that no matter how we say it, that’s how our great employees here think and that’s really a challenge That’s what change looks like By the way, that’s how success looks like When I’m at Kennedy, and I drive over to base and I look of course to NASA towers and I realize there’s four companies there now that are building launchers, that just makes me feel so good There’s no country in the world that is like this in which the private sector is so healthy We went from something like 20% market share of the international launch market to close to 80% That’s because of the private companies I’m really proud of that, and I’m proud that NASA is as a customer for that kind of market Nowadays big data and artificial intelligence are very hot topics, especially for the other organizations who owns a big data They always claims they can achieve better performance than human beings NASA, apparently you have gotten a lot of data and you have gotten a lot of experts When it comes to critical missions, will you rely on artificial intelligence or human being, which one … How you balance this kind of thing? We’ll always rely on both, because we need that judgment Artificial intelligence is a really critical, or however you call it, deep learning, it’s a really critical element Frankly, from where I’m sitting, we’re spending quite a lot of time trying to figure out how we can boost it The simple reason for that is that I feel that there’s more, and then I’m not the only one, by the way, I’m not even the most important one Our science community, our international community feels that there’s a lot more opportunity to have impact with the data that we have right now More discoveries that are there We just, sometimes there are data sets where we’re only looking at a small fraction of the data just because the human life span is too short Do you know what I mean? You pick out a data set and you don’t look left and right and sometimes left and right are the big discoveries I don’t think of artificial intelligence as something that’s totally separated from the human right at the end I think of it as an extension of our experience to create scale through our experience, and also to touch the data in new ways that we can do with a spatial scale or a temporal scale of a grad student, for example We think it’s important There are philosophic discussions one can have about artificial intelligence as it comes to robots We’re not there yet Eventually, that’s a discussion we need to have, but right now it’s really about data

analysis and science discovery That’s where I see a tremendous value Thank you Thanks Hi, I’m a preschool teacher and so I know that the young Kiddos that I work with are going to be entering a workforce of jobs that don’t even exist yet I’m just curious if you have an idea about what may be the most important skills, instill in them or support them as they begin to explore their world Oh, it’s great to hang out with pre-scholars Sometimes I wish my kids were still there They’re teenagers now It’s like, “They used to be so easy.” Anyway To do the things that we need to do, and things, by the away also in other domains that are critical, like finding cures for big illnesses and so forth I think there’s at least two fundamental characteristics that anybody needs to bring to the table The first one is, that they learn something really well I actually don’t really care what it is Many people think about STEM I think about STEM all the time, but not everybody needs to be a STEM person I actually think we need artists that are really critical I’m not just saying it because of you I actually think many times I, do you see these slides? That’s because we have an artist There’s no way a scientist can do slides like this Because the communication of what we’re doing is better done through the tools of art than the tools of science They can put any equation off there, that you want I cannot touch it There’s something, they’re really good at something, but the other thing is that they’re able to work together What that requires is a recognition of the importance of diversity in all dimensions That sounds, really, wow, that’s like, “Why did you bring that in?” There is nothing that’s more important in decision-making around the table When I’m at the top of the table, and I make a decision for $1 billion investment, yes or no, I don’t want group think I want people who will push each other I want people who have different backgrounds that are bringing up different viewpoints and that’s what I’m talking about The biggest challenge I would argue that I’m facing sometimes in some environments and it’s not in our team, our team is really in that It’s that recognition that we need to have, that diversity of opinions bringing together and building the teams that can do this Those are the two things The recognition of that I think by these two things mean that there’s a common vocabulary, a common set of experiences that really matters I tell you what worries me, and I frankly I’m interested in your opinion and others Because what really worries me is that, even though we’re getting off at the high time of science I gave you a few examples There’s many more I could talk for hours with equally exciting and with highlights We are not managing to get a common understanding of what science even is in a public discourse Recently I bumped into a colleague in one of our NASA facilities and he asked me whether the earth is flat, and I thought it’s a joke It was not By the way, I’m perfectly fine and people don’t know these things, but I’m, we’ve really failed somewhere that, that discussion is a real discussions over me I think part of it is also, how’s the learning? How to talk about science How to show what science means, or show what innovation means How it manifests itself, how it feels, in a way that perhaps we haven’t been as successful as we should have That’s in a discipline, but the ability working with these and mind puzzle How did we miss a such a large fraction of our great country and elsewhere that just really don’t understand what this actually is because it’s so great to work on it Thanks for the work you do It’s really important Thank you I see two more people lined up Do you think you have two more in you? Oh, yeah Of course Okay We’re going to start up top, come down to the bottom and then we’re going to let Dr.Zurbuchen continue his evening Let’s hear from you Thank you very much for speaking to us this evening You talked about vision that has been coupled with action that has already produced transformation Can you share with us some visions that NASA is currently acting on to produce future transformation?

I mentioned one of them, James Webb space telescope as something that we’re nowhere near transformation We’re still in integration and tests We’d like to learn about the origin of the Universe, the beginning of the universe We’d like to learn about life elsewhere I didn’t talk much about that That telescope is actually the best tool we’re currently developing worldwide, atmospheres of some planets, only few By the way, we didn’t know that there’s not many exoplanets when it all started The whole science program is changing That’s that The other vision is really focused on bringing the humans out of lower earth orbit towards the moon and Mars Really learning how to do that, and through that opening up new ways of exploring the solar system, new ways of exploring our environment and transcending the boundaries that we have here Those are only two of the visions One more in the science, one more in the human exploration, that keeps us awake at night My question is, what is the relationship moving forward with NASA and the US military? Just as broad as you want to be, beyond just national security We feel they’re really complimentary to the science activities in this country On the one side the purpose of, the activities of the military is about national defense and now understanding situational awareness We’re about the stuff that you just saw here, exploration We’re about that, and there’s tremendous wisdom, I believe in United States to have both of the agencies We shared the same workforce in many ways Basically, some of these activities that we’re working on here, they’re only possible because of developments that happen over there Some of the development that happen over there are only possible because of things we do Many of the companies actually really love to work on both because of the fact that for all the obvious reasons, you talk more about one than the other part of the business space For us, they are distinct and they are different in that purpose They are the same workforce, half at the same, at their heart, which is to really, in many ways demonstrate extent, what this country can do and strengthen the economies that the economy that is here and also inspire in the case of NASA They relate to each other but not in a direct way I don’t spend half of my time, if you want, with that other space We do have things where we overlap, but, not many hours per week It’s really two complimentary parts with the same workforce Both of them Well, I just want to say I’m so inspired You’ve talked to us about taking risks You’ve talked to us about vision You’ve talked to us about the actions that someone has to take You’ve talked to us about failure and collaboration and things that are really important in order for NASA to, in some ways expand our understanding and our natural curiosity about the universe around us And to offer more options for how humans will exist in the future I’m just going to submit to you that as an institution of higher education, we do exactly the same thing We explore, we discover, we use our curiosity and our imagination to create more possibilities for humans in the future It’s nice to know that we’re United in this quest and it’s great that you’ve served as such an exemplar and such a motivator for an audience that I know is hungry for this discourse Thank you so much Dr. Zurbuchen How about a big round of applause? You’ve also set an incredibly high bar for the next presidential lecture series, and I just hope we can do something that can at least hang in there with you Thank you again Thanks Neal Really appreciate it