alright let’s get started good evening everyone and welcome I’m Maria Beata Dean of the school of landscape architecture here at the Boston Architectural College where we offer interdisciplinary programs in landscape architecture architecture interior architecture and design studies tonight it is my pleasure to introduce the BA C’s third lecturer David Walker in the student sponsored Italia lecture series of fall 2015 latitudes I want to thank the Italia student representatives randomly and Luca Townsend for their help and hard work in making this lecture series possible David Walker is a design partner with over 30 years of experience working closely with Peter Walker where the two make up an extraordinary father-and-son team of brilliant 21st century landscape architects his fellow of the American Society of landscape architects and the recipient of numerous Design Awards David has led projects of different geographies magnitude and moods he has spent the last 15 years leading many of the large international projects in the firm recent projects include barrett baron guru in Sydney the Novartis headquarters in Basel Switzerland sand zoom electronic headquarters in Seoul Korea and notably the National 9/11 memorial in New York City this memorial is an outstanding project that carries with it appointment program a few years ago of course I took my students to see this work in New York when we looked around and when we looked down the vast scale and depth it was incredibly powerful there we were confronted with the great absence and with the new sublime because the clarity and persistence of his vision are so strong and because his attention to detail is flawless without destruction when experiences the fullness of the moment please extend a warm welcome to David Walker as he presents his lecture entitled landscape and Fester sure transformation of urban centers thank you hi everybody thanks for a big turnout tonight it’s great to be here well I’m not going to spend too much time on the memorial because it’s actually a fairly old project now but I’ll touch on it a little bit that’s a whole lecture in itself but I did want to give you a little bit of more information about our firm we’re a firm of about 45 people mostly Landscape Architects in Berkeley California our our portfolio of work demonstrates our ability to work on large complex sites we work with world renowned architects and corporate and government clients developing clear design strategies that we succeed that can succeed over an extended and long often long planning and construction process we don’t have a sophisticated marketing strategy rather we rely on our past works experience to create a positive design outcome that’s unique to each project and unique site our primary goals designers lies in the success of the built work in that in that regard and the focus of this evenings talk will be to show some of the recent portfolio comprised of many technology based campuses that we do in California mostly as well as the one in Switzerland which I’ll speak more about and some urban examples because we think of urban campuses as important as the you know the sort of high tech green green traditional campuses that are being built for the high-tech world right now I’ll then focus on the project that I’m most excited about because it just was completed about it well as completed in August and it’s called Barangaroo and it’s in Sydney Australia and it’s one of the largest urban renewal projects that we’ve ever undertaken we’ve been working for the past six years to transform Sydney’s old container port into a new harbour site mixed use urban center for the 21st century which is crucial in positioning Sydney this City of Sydney competitive competitively with Hong Kong and Singapore in the Asian Pacific region so I’ll start off with a an image of our office as you can see here we’re again I said we’re about 45 people and maybe 25 landscape architects and it’s really it was really important to us that we find a space large enough where we could be in one

space where we could all hear what each other’s projects are all about and the conversations you know could be heard by people that weren’t even working on the projects and that way we had a we were able to keep the design tight close close and controlled and we could rely on each other’s resources in that regard people who knew about different things there know just in talking distance to each other so this is the main space that we that we work in you can see we’ve got all our computers and desks on one side and then on the right side we’ve got these bays that we use that is all wall space and what we like to do is we like to set up all of our drawings contrary to the way the world is going where everything is computerized in inside of inside a box somewhere we like to we like to track our projects that last a long time take a long time to construct we’d like to track the whole projects on these walls and get a kind of there thereby being able to get a kind of perspective on the project as it goes we can add new information as it comes and that way we think we end up with a better product because it’s not all hidden inside a computer so Maria mentioned the World Trade Center Memorial it’s probably what we’re most famous for and it’s most famous of course for the the two pools that are 200 foot square that marked the where the World Trade Center towers used to stand but it’s also important to talk about the context that it sits in it’s the site is completely planted in the swamp White Oaks and they run all around the two pools they’re there for creating a kind of context that they can this is with one of the earlier sketches earlier sketches and it’s a really a very simple plan that I think was very helpful in being able to navigate the politics and all of the stakeholders in the project over about a decade period and the design is really coops sorry the diamond design is really simple because it’s essentially lines of trees that all line up in the north east west direction this way and then they’re random randomly sliding on that path so that you can’t see the trees don’t line up in this direction and that’s that was one of the earlier models and this is what I mean by that you can see in the east-west direction lips pushing the wrong buttons in the east-west direction down here they’re they’re all lined up so they create these kind of a lays facing west or east and then when you turn the other direction they become a random forest very simple idea but it’s a very powerful idea that I think succeeded in the end here you can see the trees lined up looking West and here you can see this nighttime shot we’re looking in the opposite direction it becomes a forest of random place trees so of course I’m not going to spend a whole lot of time on this particular project but one of the most important things technical aspects of the project is this system of rainwater collection where we are collecting all the water in these drainage slots that happen between the trees here and it goes down into a drain a chamber that collects all the water sends it down to a tank big storage tank and then it’s recycled back up into the rather sophisticated tree zone here to replant it so all the what it’s it’s zero it needs no water no additional water a couple of the earlier projects I want to show just briefly this is in the Pearl district in Portland Oregon we we want a master plan to create a for the redevelopment of this whole area which was railroad yards in the north end of and the idea was to take this very important street here which they were going they were planning to run a write a light rail down the center and make it an important binder that connects three important squares so we won the master plan of these squares that led out to the river and then we also got to build this particular square which is called Jameson square and that’s this first Square here all these blocks were developing from the South heading towards the north so each part was done by Doulton by a different landscape architect but we did the first one and the reason I like to throw this one is because it’s a many years before we worked on the Barangaroo project and I think you’ll see what I mean when I get to that at the end because we used large granite blocks in this particular instance to create a pool that’s a tidal pool and the pool the water flows out of what was called Tanner spring on this

site originally so the water pours out of the out of the stone wall and fills up a basin every 15 minutes and so it becomes a kind of tidal pool for kids to play in we didn’t realize it was going to be Portland’s favorite pool for small children because the the height of the water never never was higher than 12 inches and so it became a huge magnet for small children and they used it they use it like a beach in the middle of the city we also do a lot of high tech campuses as I mentioned one of our earlier works around 2000 was the working for Steve Jobs on the Pixar campus in Emeryville which was essentially again which is essentially a animation studio parking and then a great private park for the employees that takes up this area and so we set out the landscape based on this LA that runs the whole length and then more naturalistic spaces on either side an amphitheater for the whole company 600 people at the time I think it’s now probably 1,200 people and the kind of green spaces that we created off of off of this LA with the animation studios behind all these spaces were created in order to you know Steve Jobs idea was to create a campus that we tend to keep people on the campus as long as possible and so he created a huge amount of amenities they had swimming pools soccer fields etc the other urban campus I wanted to highlight was the Sony Center in Berlin which we did also around the same time with Helmut Yann and we created the the main space that sits at the bottom of his great tent structure and we traded a a pool at the bottom of it that’s a cantilevered glass reflecting pool that you look up from the theaters the 10 theater metroplex below below subgrade and up into the space and that looks like that it’s like a big piece of jewelry that’s been laid out and just happened to cantilever over the edge of that opening the pavements were pretty interesting at the time we used German cobblestone in the stripe patterns and this is the traditional German cobblestone stone laid in a random way alternating with stainless steel panels most recently a campus for vmware headquarters in palo alto 60 acres a site that actually my father designed in the 60s and then it was it reached its final life and I had the opportunity to look at it again he said oh you just do it I can’t I can’t bear to see you tear that thing down and redo it so we we redid the whole thing we talked we tore out most of the buildings except for these buildings and then we we relayed out a whole bunch of new buildings and then I basically created a campus of quads for that made it a pedestrian oriented space well the main thing that we did was we took all the surface parking lots and put them into these big parking garages so that the cars were immediately out of the picture the traditional campus has you know acres of parking surrounding buildings typically like like the earlier here you see the parking here and then the buildings with some small landscape space in between we did it the other way around we we made it we made the campus completely green before we did that we had to save some of his old trees we had to move some 90 foot sequoias which is one of the things that I love about landscape architecture you always get to do different kinds of activities and this was a really thrilling one of one to try to move these things at first they said you couldn’t do it but obviously they could do it and then we create we created these spaces at the entrance and that gives you a kind of flavor of it a pool that’s a cascade pool that’s I think it’s 600 feet long that organizes all the buildings and then in the the circulation space that’s what that looks like and now finally on the campus front I wanted to show you Novartis because it’s something that I’ve been working on for about 16 years now it’s a pharmaceutical a giant pharmaceutical company in Basel Switzerland and it’s also right on the border of Germany and in France so it’s an incredible opportunity to take a former industrial site that looked like this where they were manufacturing for hundred years manufacturing all kinds of chemicals and drugs and try to figure out how to tear

it all down and figure out which pieces to keep and how to reorganize the thing as a pharmaceutical only company and build new buildings because most of these buildings were obsolete and out-of-date no longer useful and this is what it looked like it was a an industrial site you know with railroad tracks running down the middles of the streets with chemicals stored everywhere along the edges hardly any trees just all all given up to automobiles and and trains and trucks so this is what it looks like as of a year ago what we did was we took the Main Street along here and we organized all the new buildings along that Main Street it’s a very simple plan and each of these buildings is being done or has been done by a pretty famous architect give you an example of that we’ve got Swiss architects we’ve got sauna from Japan Taniguchi manao etc etc and they’ve kind of gone through just about every sort of blue-chip architect there is the the CEO collects architects and he collects major artworks as I’ll show you so this is the master plan for a 2030 and it’s essentially took the existing infrastructure that existed essentially the creative the streets that existed when the when the site was originally formed because the infrastructure existed and it was going to be difficult to you know build this thing all at once we’ve been at it for 16 years and the infrastructure is an extremely important part of that so we had to figure out which parts could be phased out or needed to stay forever and and figure out how to do each building as it came along this is the Rhine River here this is the border the international border of France that’s Brant French territory and this is this is a Switzerland and then the city of Basel is down here as I said the plans pretty simple fabric Stross was the traditional Main Street that run ran the whole length and this is the headquarter building that sat on it and what we did was we created a south entrance which is a major park with a two-level parking structure underneath that would Park 2,000 cars for the for the campus and then up in France the people in France get to park on on the honest on the surface and so we had to create an entrance here and an entrance here and that’s what it used to look like so how to create a section that would maintain over time as each of these architects would be added what we did was with the master planner Vittorio lumpin Yanni from Milan we came up with the idea that all the buildings would be five storeys and that on fabric Strasse there would be an arcade on one side and on the side a natural arcade made out of a double line of lariat entrance that ran the whole length and connected all the buildings so you had two kinds of experiences one that was outdoor and in the landscape and one that was part of the building experience all the idea behind making a Main Street plan was because they had at this point they had a cafeteria structure that wherever which is where everybody met and it was a high-rise building so the chance meetings that would happen among employees would happen in the elevator which is not a very good place so the idea was to create each of these buildings would have a major restaurant in it or services for the campus and we were trying to get people out onto this Main Street and to use the public space for the for that kind of civic life of the of the company so in Swiss fashion they they made everything out of stone all the sidewalks were made out of this dark stone and then the streets were made out of white stone from Sardinia and all the streets were named after scientists in alphabetical order fabric Strasse was the main main one made a stainless steel inlaid and this is the the character of what that street looks like with the arcade on the right and the the double row of trees on on the other side with the Frank Gehry building in the distance at the North End early on in the process we wanted to create a connection across the international border here for all the people that parked in France they didn’t really have a way in they had to sort of sneak their way around over here through all the industrial site to get in so we said let’s build a tunnel a pedestrian tunnel that connects the two here and then let’s let’s get Richard Serra to do a unique sculpture at one end and and we did and this is a this is what that section looks like it’s essentially come down some stairs across underneath a

train track that needed to be maintained by the Port of Basel and Switzerland and then you come back up and then the sculpture is on the other side and you the campus so at the time we had visited fitra which is just down the street and we said could we do some really nice concrete work and they said well yeah we we actually know the guys that did the concrete work for Ando on his building over at Vitra so we got got them over and they they showed us how to do good concrete and we achieved that and then the funny part about it is like three years later Ando was chosen to do a building right next to this so we were a little bit you know surprised about that and we hope that he ended up liking it and he did but we ended up doing that and this is this is the experience walking down entering the campus through that space and then you’re up into into this sculpture at the southern end one of the first projects we did was to remodel the 1940’s historic headquarters building courtyard so what we did was we created a motif that was a Swiss cross and circular floating canopy of horn beams and a grove of of Siberian birch at the southern end we needed an arrivals Plaza and we call it the forum and it was designed the idea was to take the munster plots in Basel which was essentially a historic space in front of the the church and we wanted to create a space that was that simple if we could find trees that were large enough and plant them that would make the space so we did we found these pin oaks up and up near Amsterdam and we floated them down on the river and landed them on the site and we had our instant you know monster plots and it has fabulous fall color and it’s the place where people meet it’s sort of surrounded by all the pharma headquarter people and of course the artwork at either end we’ve got the Richard Serra on one end and a Jenny Holzer at the other end every new building that came onto the project had a had a major artist associated with it great client okay so Barangaroo this is a project that we started about six years ago we were really lucky to land this one it just finished about three weeks ago so this lecture is will this part of the lecture is a little bit about more about construction because I’ve been doing this for a while but now I know I know I’ve got some of the new final pictures in here that shows what it looks like so I need to change the lecture around so that it starts with the the finished project and then and then move it but bear with me on this one because it’s about it’s really about the construction of this former container port so this is our site it’s 22 hectares and it’s right on the edge the western edge of Sydney this area is what they call the rocks and it’s where the first fleet landed in Sydney it’s the historic district and then the downtown grew roughly to the south on this line the Sydney Opera House was put in in the 70s Harbour Bridge earlier than that and so there are all these important points mrs macquarie’s chair the botanic gardens over here and we had this point to redevelop as a as a as a new headland as well as the development of a major business center for about 22,000 workers so this is the comparison of the site before when we first got there and the master plan for how to how to develop the site it’s not completely done what we’ve done is we’ve created we’ve finished this project and they’ve they’ve completed one building by Richard Rogers over here and two more are going to open next year the center section isn’t complete yet but this is essentially these are essentially the three parts the the reserve which is very naturalistic the central central Barangaroo which is is going to be a mixed-use where half of it is open space on the water but of a more Civic nature and then the other half is going to be lower rised lower development more civic and quality that relates more to the context of the rocks and then the central business district was just going to expand into Barangaroo south and that’s where all the heavy heavy buildings would are the tall buildings would go great history on this site we didn’t have anything to know how to rebuild a headland which was part of the brief this is a this is the earliest known painting that was painted in 1824

by by one of the sailors from England and this is what Barangaroo used to look like we had old maps that look like this that showed what the headland was supposed to originate what the form of the headland originally was supposed to be and we also had the idea that this was sacred ground for the Aboriginal indigenous culture along with these other headlands and Goat Island that sits in the middle so this this idea of recreating a headland on the northern edge fell out of Paul former prime minister called Paul Keating’s mind a long time ago and he was really our champion for getting this done here you can see an older map of what Sydney used to look like with Miller’s point on the edge great history of industrialization really of the site Miller’s point was a town centre at one point but all those yellow areas were demolished to make way for the shipping shipping worms and ultimately the container port so it was really destroyed in the 20th century earlier 20th century it became finger wharves and industrial uses and the headland itself had been actually taken apart and used for the building blocks to build all the heritage buildings in Sydney and this is this shows you what was left this is this is the cliff face that’s 20 metres tall and it used to come all the way out here the other important aspect of this project was that it was the last the last non-connected part of Sydney’s foreshore this whole area and so the brief was really make sure that we had continuous and broad civic access along that water for an edge as I mentioned before the rocks is the first settlement and the central business district is to the lower part of the slide and so that’s really how we thought about developing developing the land all the high-rises would be adjacent to the CBD and the lower buildings would be north of that line we studied all the connections back into Sydney it’s a very topographically complicated city so we had to find ways to connect back across those clip phases how to connect the site and how to how to connect make all those connections connect to this continuous line a foreshore that would connect what had not been connected for a hundred years there’s our master plan and so you can see the headland we created a a cove here we call the northern Cove that separates the headland from the development so that can be come up here shap central Barangaroo that’s half half landscape and half lower buildings and then these are the high-rise buildings here these are being done by Richard Rogers and this one’s being done by wilkinson air and Renzo Piano are doing these three towers as this is some of the early renderings that show what that that is going to look like quite an urban setting on the South Side central as I mentioned is really a park land for that’s going to be heavily programmed for Civic uses festivals all kinds of events on the water’s edge more Civic in nature than the naturalistic headland and these are the renderings that we we did a year ago that show what that might look like so this this image shows that the northern Cove and the headland and then that’s how we separated the the urban part from the more naturalistic part so the construction of Barangaroo reserve again back to this image that was our guiding principle you know we didn’t we’d really had no photographs or anything to work from we did have some geologists and that could explain the geomorphology of the head the typical headlands and City and that was really useful and we studied those shapes in in our computer models and tried to identify using using this map here that identified the outline of the shape what that might have looked like and what we discovered was that headlands are quite steep on the south in sydney they’re steep to the south and on the western side and then they become quite gentle and they sloped down gradually to the north so that’s the model that we work with and this is how it was going to fit on the land we had to a lot of engineering feats to try to make this happen because this was a deepwater port with caisson edges that ran the whole length it had to be somehow removed and then have the naturalistic edge put back in along this

red line so we had to figure out how to do that these were some of the early early sort of simple renderings that got people to understand what we were trying to do basically extending the the cliff face of Miller’s point out this way and there you can see that the gentle slope to the north coming becoming a steeper slope to the south basically following the clues of the existing cliff face the other important thing that we with the was part of our brief was to create a cultural space underneath the park the idea was to make a space that ultimately will become an indigenous cultural cultural center right now they don’t have the funding for this exactly but we have the space and the idea was to make the park really become the facade of the of the space of the architecture there is no real architectural statement here but the park is the facade and to make that happen or make that exciting rather than just being an underground sort of cave space we left uh we left a slot along the edge of the cliff that allowed sunlight to wash that cliff face the entire length so how do you build a a headland we looked at the headlands we we spent a lot of time looking at headlands and the thing that was the most interesting was that when you look at them from outside they’re solid in their plantings but when you get on the inside they’re quite delicate and and they provide all kinds of views looking out the steepness of the slope was very important to the natural headlands and we couldn’t we didn’t feel that we could get enough of a headland feeling by using the natural angle of repose at 1 in 3 which is this line right here so we had to devise a way of making 1 meter tall retaining walls that would steep in that slope and give you more of a sense of what a what the headlands look like around around sydney and then we planted those walls so that you couldn’t see them we spent a lot of time on the on the plant typology which change as you move around from south to north and all on looking for character looking to create the character of the existing bushes that are around sydney which is what this image shows however we’re in the middle of a major metropolitan center so it had to all be done to code and it need to be able to be accessible by you know ten thousand people a day so we couldn’t exactly do this this sort of naturalism a lot of people thought you could at the beginning but we said we use the term naturalistic rather than natural and I think that caught on and allowed us to keep going with what we were we were doing in the middle of the city so again here’s the plan of the headland and this is this represents what we actually built what we’ve completed the cultural space which is cut through this cross-section here is in this area here and that’s the cliff those are the cliff openings that wrap all the way around there’s a two-level garage underneath all of that which is where we excavate all the stone to create the new foreshore and these are some of the early renderings that we used to convince people the promenade as you can see in this lower image was essentially marked by this 1836 wall which wrapped around the entire foreshore marking that 1836 line of what the foreshore used to look like and it was done in a architectural way reminiscent of the early stonemasons of Sydney so it was more architectural and character but then the the foreshore was made out of these great blocks and I’ll show you what that is and then and then the bush was on the other side this is a the northern slope from the water looking back up and then from the top of the slope looking back down at the Sydney Harbour Bridge there was some bush there was a walk that we call the bush walk that runs through the middle of the bush so you could experience the the ecology of the bush landscape as you walk around sort of mid level then the next problem that we nobody had any idea how to do was how do you create a naturalistic foreshore so again we went out to the same places and we looked and instead of looking at the the plant ecology we started looking at the sandstone basis of all these things and we noticed that these skirts of sandstone as we call them were places where fishermen and families and kids and all kinds of people were out and enjoying the the the foreshore fishing and doing all kinds of things out there so we say well how do we how do we do that so luckily we found while we were looking at quarries and realizing that things come in block shapes and there’s a maximum size that you can get them we found this place in Sydney that had this natural geological strike angle where

the stones actually fell in prehistoric earthquakes and landed in these kind of geometric patterns and we said well that’s that’s pretty interesting we could take these blocks and we could figure out how to how to do that maybe so that’s that’s how we began to pursue that but we said how could we make these blocks you know they look so industrial how can we make them weather quickly so we did some tests with a water jet blasting and in ten minutes you can take us a square block like that and turn it into a naturalistic block like this so we thought we were really we really might be able to do this now so we made some models that showed you know how you put these blocks together high tide low tide all different kinds of situations and then we that built up to a first prototype that we did on the land just so that the contractors could figure out how to how they actually could could make this thing and use the equipment to move the blocks around and then the construction began so I think this was in August 2013 and we started at the north and we started making it took a whole year to rebuild the the foreshore all the way around to here and this is where we started and you can see in this image that all of the stone that was being quarried out of the center of the site was being moved to make the new foreshore along this whole one kilometre edge and that’s the Senate that’s the carpark level of the the cultural facility that would be ultimately there and this is that’s that’s the future cultural facility we’ve made maquettes scale stones made out of the the actual material so the guys out in the with the machines could figure out how how do you actually lift these things they didn’t know how to do that safely and then they started cutting and this is the most amazing part was that the way they cut sandstone is with these big machines that have 10-foot diameter blades two of them and the two blades run in one direction and then they run every five meters in this direction and then they use a kind of a big forklift and they lift these five meter blocks out and here we are inspecting the first blocks that came out of the site eventually that grew into a stockpile that on site that looked like this and each one of these blocks was designed to fit a specific space they were all processed on site and then moved you know 200 metres into into place making it one of the most sustainable kind of operations you could do because we eliminated thousands of truckloads through the city of Sydney by doing this and then the construction began this is this area of lips this area we spent a lot of time on because we didn’t know how to they didn’t know how to do it we didn’t know how to do it so we tore it up and redid it twice because if we got it right the first time then the rest of it would go easily and this is what the first bits look like it was built behind the caisson so that the way of action of the harbor wouldn’t affect the guys in scuba gear and we thought we had something pretty good because the whole idea was to make a place that where people could get out on the water there aren’t too many foreshores in the world where you that actually are magnets for people coming right down to the water and I think that’s what we’ve done for the entire length of this foreshore it changes every time you’re out there depending on the tide so then after we got through with that first bit we just show you a couple pictures of how they saw cut the caissons and then lifted them out with these huge barges and then we had a foreshore that was actually on the harbor and that’s when we really got excited because we started to see the wave action and the tidal fluctuation happening on the on the edge and then planting the edge which really added a lot to it we had pre grown a lot of these trees these were actually some big specimens but all that all the 75,000 plants and trees were pre grown two years before they were needed up in a nursery up north and then brought down and this is one year’s growth because it took three years to build we had the opportunity to build we had to start on the north and work our way and so this these were planted for one year during the construction and they were they took off like crazy we had a great soil scientist who made sure the new soils that we put in were fantastic and it really it really showed because the trees doubled in size in a year I mean while we’re busy doing tons of prototypes for the 1836 wall you can see up on the top here one of the first prototypes and then some prototypes in place and then the final final first bits this was tremendously exciting to get down there and work with some really expert stonemasons how to do the the

amphitheater shoreline which was a more architectural civic quality foreshore edge this is just a prototype of what that looks like to the rock outcroppings that would happen up on the headland how do how do we do a an artificial rock outcropping if you will I mean we had a we had trouble with that idea just in itself but well so we did it anyway but we also did some that were not so naturalistic which got us in trouble actually these got us in trouble because they were they had a Celtic reference and that was not so great for the Aboriginal council but we think we got them to agree to it we built some fantastic staircases that ran up the side of the bush that were made out of sandstone heritage grade sandstone and then flanked with the same blocks that we used on the foreshore running up the side of the of the of the headland the cultural center was starting to take shape this is the the way you enter in your automobile when you’re heading into the carpark from the north again the cliff face exposed to the space as it’s formulating the walls the car parks below this now so they’re they’re getting ready to put the roof over and then the park would go over the top of that here you can see the headland rising up against the the shape of the the cultural facility below northern Cove quite advanced shot from the north and then in December of 2014 they finished the roof and then the park just went like crazy for eight months the last eight months and they just they they finished it up really fast as soon as they got this major piece of infrastructure complete and that’s what it looks like from the inside cliff face has exposed that whole length the foreshore walk coming along see some of the blocks lots of different experiences along the foreshore we have the foreshore has places where it goes right down into the water and then we have places that we call beaches like here where people can get out on the in a green area next to the next to the water like this the northern Cove and you can see the development of Barangaroo South happening at the same time down here there’s a huge pier a big pier that sticks out in the northern Cove that’s designed for events and this northern Cove has about a 2,000 person capacity to enjoy those events we have an elevator that takes you from the top of the headland all the way down through the cultural facility and connects all the levels and creates the accessibility at the northern and the southern end so this is a this is a shot that basically shows how we use that geologic strike angle of those images that I first showed you where everything is running in 1:1 geologic direction and this is our northern foreshore and then here’s some of the finished finished work from last week what those edges look like along the harbor and you can see how people are starting to get down into the onto the rocks and get close to the water one of the last things that we did and this is sort of a story about sandstone so one of the last great things that I got to experience was the creation of these entry markers and by this time all the guys working on the job were so excited about it that they were really putting out and so they said yeah you need a 1 meter by one meter by six meter set of three columns sure we can do that so they they scratch their heads but they figured out how to do it and then they had to figure out how to move it and they had to figure out how to put it upright but they all along they were so proud of the challenge I mean nobody really knew whether they could do this and that’s what those entry columns look like at the edge of the city and here’s what it looks like entering into the park and these are some of the finished works here northern Cove here you can see all the layers from the top of the headland looking down at the bush walk which has a court and wall that runs its entirety and then the promenade and the water these were from the opening second day it was raining so there were not a lot of people out there and then we created all kinds of access through the through the bush landscape so that people could walk up and through it including our grand staircase this is the northern Cove again

thousands of ways to enjoy this foreshore because every every combination of stone is different with planting I think everybody will find their favorite spot to enjoy a Sydney Harbor so what’s interesting is in the last couple of weeks they’re throwing a whole series of parties in in Sydney and they’re getting they’re getting tens of thousands of people out to enjoy this thing and they’re having all kinds of events they’ve got yoga events up on the top of the bluff okay just people out everywhere they’ve got they’re holding parties and ceremonies with their Aboriginal Council fireworks cultural space events they had an event at nighttime with a whole bunch of different dancing groups and every now and then you’ll see a few Aborigines running around I don’t know if they’re real but they but look but they’re there just for your entertainment I guess and I’ll leave you with these last couple of shots this is a sort of the before and after from the three-year journey to construct this thing from a rectangular container deep water container port to something that’s naturalistic for the people of Sydney and it was quite a transformation and that’s that’s pranker I hope you can all go to Sydney someday and see it that’s it what you guys are working on coastal provenance like that are you guys considering rising tides at all yes good question every I think everybody’s thinking about that now and I have to say I don’t know where where the science is actually is coming worldwide it seems to be developing over the length of this project but it all tends to be in the 1 meter range additional rise by 2100 which is what people are generally using for development and so we said all the promenade is a meter higher than they then they they would have been you know if they were if they were built without sea level rise and the developers are doing the same thing because of course they have to protect their investment and their underground car parks and so forth so yeah it’s a it’s a very important thing to consider unfortunately you know I you think well what happens after 2100 but that’s that’s all you can do it all you can think about at this point in time ironically parts of the city are lower than that like for instance the road behind Barangaroo is a meter lower than the foreshore promenade so the water coming off of the city actually it’s going down to a low a lower area than the than the foreshore the new foreshore is going to be so it’s kind of a funny thing about what you’re protecting you’ve got to somehow get the water off of off of the cities I think we have the same problem in San Francisco and Boston you can protect on the new shoreline edges that you do but what happens how do you get the water out from back behind so these are all really interesting problems and there isn’t really great legislature yet that goes across property boundaries things like that but I think that we’re gonna be seeing that certainly developed in our lifetime we used the Sydney Opera House as the as the model they had very good studies for protecting their National Monument like that and so we follow the the data that they were using well we we didn’t we didn’t really I think they were consulted we didn’t really consult with them too much we had public meetings throughout the process but there wasn’t tailored specifically to them so they were basically brought along the journey and they tended to believe that they owned it and because the press that the state government was putting out was very positive in that direction I was really surprised when the opening happened how how powerful that was because it’s gonna be very popular that they’ve done this

and I mentioned that one marker where we did those Celtic stones that was a real problem they threatened to cut those down but we planted some trees in it as we were planning to do and and made it softer a lot of the criticism that we had along the way because this thing was so intensely watched was because things weren’t complete yet so we had to we had to tell people to just wait you know wait until we’ve got things planted and complete I don’t know if that answers your question but yeah it looked like a lot of prototyping and problem-solving took place during the construction process was that was that planned into that did that create any difficulties as far as selling the idea to the stakeholders well that’s a good question the reason there was so much prototyping happening was because this when we did the design for the first two years with our local partners in Sydney it was then novated to a general contractor who who took all of the all of the design team except for ourselves the government retained us under their wing to make sure that it came that the design was the design goals were being met and the rest of the team went over to the contractor side which made it a little bit difficult because the contractors are there to make money luckily we had a site that was so remarkable in terms of its location on the harbor and we had an amazing group of expert craftsmen that the momentum started building after the first year where where the prototyping became very important just to understand how this thing would could actually be achieved and we had really good good cooperation in that regard we we couldn’t draw all these things and so the prototyping was a really important part of making sure that that was that was could be seen for the outcome that was all that was all drawn into our documents that we needed a certain number of prototypes so it was specified anybody else and your project in Palo Alto you said that the project had finished it had reached its final light what what does that mean for a project for a landscape project oh this is the this is a VMware campus in Palo Alto it was formerly a it was syntax and then it was Roche so it was a biopharmaceutical company and the campus had been designed in the 60s and most of the trees were at the end of their life they my father planted our design the original campus for them and he planted a lot of quick growing trees redwoods and poplars and that kind of thing willows and so most of those things were that were that at the end of their life their useful life and so were the buildings the buildings were outdated except for a few and so the only trees that we really had to had to consider saving were the redwoods and the Heritage Oaks that were on site so that’s always a tricky thing when you’re trying to insert a whole building program into a landscape with a lot of topography and an existing trees that becomes your number one problem is how do you fit these things in without without killing the trees we had to move some how much see do you have in the architecture of the buildings that go around how they are going to look in the development of your landscape um I like to have as much as I can the memorial we had a lot of say we were working with Michael arid who was a a young young architect didn’t have a lot of experience and so we got some experience we got Davis Brodie bond on on the team and or seasoned architects and you know we like to work very collaboratively with the architects my best my favorite my favorite collaborations are ones where you know the landscape has as much say as the architecture not as much say but at least some say about what the what the final concept would be so if you’re an early that’s that’s what we like to do that Novartis campus you know that tunnel that we designed underneath next to the future Ando building we designed that whole thing ourselves we’ve done some architecture but we’re not really allowed to do architecture we’re not trained as architects so well when we work overseas we have better luck at this because then you can break all the rules hi my question is regarding the 9/11 memorial you said you had swamp White Oaks planted there was there a particular reason for that type of

species yes well as you can imagine for three I think it’s 300 in something oaks or trees and we wanted it one species because it needed to be it needed to have that cathedral-like character and it need to it needed to have a context that would set those those pools and so I think if you did you know a whole bunch of different species he would it would be a lot harder to achieve that we originally had some leery attender ins in the in the open grove where the lawn is but those were ultimately decided that they shouldn’t happen so it all ended up being the swamp white oak how we ended up with this white womp this swamp white oak was a long story we must have talked to everybody in New York we talked to the Botanic Gardens we talked to Battery Park City all the experts that we could find and and people within the city as well and there isn’t a tree that you know will pass any of everybody’s tests but except maybe glad it’s iya but the swamp white oaks were the best one we we were building that forum at Novartis with those pin oaks and we thought that’s the look that we want if we could use pin oaks that would be great but that had a slightly more difficult situation the the swamp swamp white oaks were a little stronger for the future David thank you for a wonderful lecture and I do have a follow-up question to your comment about getting in early with the architects in your opinion do you think there is a shift occurring in the discussions and in the dialogue of of these collaborations I’m not sure that there’s a shift I’m not sure that there is a shift actually I think architects are moving into this realm a lot more the landscape realm a lot more and a lot of them you know as you know that a lot of the firms in the country are consolidating into giant firms and a lot of the firms are becoming more and more multidisciplinary so a landscape firm like ourselves which is sort of a boutique firm of 45 people we’re sort of an anachronism now and there you know most of the firms are really large now or or smaller and I think it’s going to be harder in the future to get in and get in early I think we’ve been successful with our portfolio our successes and that’s the way we sell our work is what the outcome is so people see that and they realize that maybe they can’t do it themselves the architects realize they can’t do it themselves we’re always trying to try to share the fee you know with them