good morning ladies gentlemen and we have a little technical problems so it’s going to take about sir just two or three minutes you know you know I to save time and what I emphasize the importance of our time management so we’re gonna complete the situation on 10 sorry period okay so but we’re gonna make tea sessions wonderful in terms of dynamic participation from the floor and also excellence in terms of the speakers to inputs so what I emphasize the importance of time management so speakers who will have 20 minutes or why those designated discussed so will I have 10 minutes and I think they saw I highly expect your wonderful input but I prefer questions to comments and that’s the best way so that we can expect board numbers of participation from the floor and so before we I ask the first speaker and let me just to say something about the importance of this issue and you know this case is a create session and the importance of technical vocational training and education and but under the current theme of th our forum 2011 and I think the two important key words number one is smart education and Centennial line and in Korean we say that before we say this if you leave until the age of 100 and we are you are really extremely lucky but recently someone Siders if you leave until 100 and you lucky today if you are leave until 100 you are unlucky and that is the kind of talk talk and everybody’s nobody dies and so we were somehow ready for leaving Centennial and smart education and then where is the place where this TV et feel intro I think it’s this very important one and everyone everybody knows what does mean that tweet the TGIF TGIF is not American restaurants but team is what Twitter team is what Google and then I miss what iPhone and then f means what faithful so globalization and then you week for us the ITIL evolution so everything is gonna be just under the lifelong learning context same is true with the TV wiki so I think we say we have talking about this very important issue and then I am very happy to say that we have four wonderful speakers and so before I invite that Brenda then and then let me just introduce four wonderful speakers first so that you can appreciate their participation over re and then particularly in terms of the career path I think I found out that there for each of those speakers are very brilliant especially and dr. Brenda Dan next to me and she will be talking about the career path for adult learners developing other vocational skills to improve quality of life here we have two important keywords number one is the adult vocational skills and nice party of life how we can make it combined and systematically and it’s very interesting to learn from one and looking at her career path I think it’s we found a very easy Polly Liam and she’s now currently now is working as a assistant secretary for Obama

administration at the office of vocational and adult education dr Brenda worked under the Clinton elimination – and now under the Obama team Alicia both eliminations she worked and the p40 career path she served as a president the I don’t know what the exact pronunciation of the talk has praised adult and a family Learning Center this community-based and in Road Rhode Island and so wonderful experiences and next speaker is Professor Oh handsome associated professor of education Seoul National University professor Oh is now is also working working as a director of Korea human research develop Research Center at Seoul National University previously he also served as a deputy director Ministry of Education previously and now his name is changed into Ministry of Education Science and Technology in Korean government’s also we have to poor aliens designated discussants and madam victoria keys and professor Jung Hyung Jun and Madam Victoria’s career path has significance I want to emphasize there and she has a 3 Master degrees even if we look at he tears of description of her career very interesting and majors are economics and education and international Phyllis marvelous isn’t there and then she’s now working as a policy analyst Oh a CD and a skills beyond the school and learning for jobs are part of the of her career jobs and professor John and through tucked elite and postdoctoral path of University of Paris and she’s he’s now teaching International Studies at Anzio University and he also provided consultation for the Korean local government too so we have four distinguished speakers this morning and one in common character is all of them our expertise at alias both for the public and international studies so very interesting so highly expecting the wonderful presentation as a recipe of discussants and MC now it’s okay the technical problems are solved okay caught girl thank you so it’s now time to invite dr. Brenda and for her wonderful presentation 20 minutes thank you good morning thank you very much dr. Lee for that very wonderful introduction I want to let everybody know what a pleasure and privilege is for me to be here with all of you at the global human resources conference and I’m really pleased to be joining a distinguished panel of experts on this very important topic of developing adult vocational skills I also want to express my deep appreciation to the sponsors and organizers of this forum and to thank them for their generosity and their hospitality and I hope to have the opportunity to return the kindness one day I want to also bring you greetings from my boss the Secretary of Education Arne Duncan and the Under Secretary Martha Kanter if anyone follows the secretary Duncan’s international communications you will know that he holds and highlights South Korea as an exemplar and holds the country with high esteem especially in the nation’s high regard for the teaching profession and I think it’s very notable that in South Korea teachers are referred to as nation builders I also want to note that the United States is one of the most important partners in educational exchange with South Korea and that you are sending more students to the US per capita than any other country the value of these exchanges to students and our societies are innumerable and we look forward to cultivating opportunities for more students to take part in these experiences I’m proud to be the first assistant secretary for vocational and adult education who is an adult educator prior to coming to the department I was the president of an adult and Family Learning Center in Providence Rhode

Island in this capacity I developed a first-hand understanding of how critical the achievement of marketable vocational and technical skills is to individuals ability to provide for themselves and their families and to be fully participating members in our society I also have the great privilege of leaving one of the most dynamic units in the Department of Education our work spans secondary and post-secondary Career and Technical Education Adult Basic Education and English language services for adults correctional education and community colleges which reside at the intersection of Education and Economic Development and are central to many of the Obama administration’s goals for job creation and economic growth one of the building blocks of the Obama administration’s strategy for economic recovery is a historic push to rapidly increase the number of Americans with post-secondary credentials to reinvigorate the higher education sector and prepare the future workforce President Obama has asked every American to commit to at least one year of post-secondary education or training in his or her lifetime and has set an aspirational goal of increasing the percentage of Americans attaining a college degree to 60% by the year 2020 in order to reach these goals the u.s is taking a multi-faceted approach to re-engage in older youth and adult learners and education and training today I’m going to talk about how Career Pathways are being utilized as a mechanism for developing adult of vocational skills and accelerating credentials credentialing I will introduce the Career Pathways model and describe a number of US government programs and policy initiatives designed to increase the number of adults entering and completing post-secondary education in training but first I want to highlight the trends that are driving President Obama’s goal for higher education attainment they fall into three domains the value of credentials employment and skill demands the value of credentials to employers workers in society at large cannot be overstated we know that good paying jobs and high demand industries generally require some form of post-secondary education or training and the earnings premium associated with a post-secondary credential is well established according to one recent study US workers with an associate’s degree earned on average 33 percent more than workers with only a high school diploma or a general education development credential and workers with a baccalaureate degree earn 62 percent more than workers with no post-secondary training or education while a bachelor’s or associate’s degree is linked to higher earnings so our occupational certificates that can be earned in less than two years for example according to one study an occupational certificate earned through just one year of post-secondary study can produce a 20% increase in earnings for women credentials that can be earned in as little as six months are very attractive to working adults and those seeking to get back into the workforce who do not have time or resources to pursue lengthier and more costly post-secondary degrees these benefits of credentials accrue not only to individuals but also to businesses in the form of higher earnings and to state federal and local governments in the form of increased tax revenue each four-year college graduates generates more than six thousand dollars per year on average in state federal local tax revenue than a high school graduate over a lifetime each generates approximately a hundred and seventy seven thousand dollars more in tax revenue on average than those who hold only a high school degree perhaps most importantly we know that credentials provide some insulation for workers from downturns in the economy current Bureau of Labor Statistics data indicate that unemployment rates among workers lacking a high school diploma or a GED are more than three times higher than workers with baccalaureate degrees or higher finally we know that the demand for skilled labor in the United States is projected to gross significantly over the next decade according to the Bureau of Labor Statistics between 2008 and 2018 21 of the 30 fastest growing occupations will

require a post-secondary certificate or degree and nearly two-thirds of all jobs will require some post-secondary education or training these projections signal the development of a labor force that is radically different than it was three decades ago when 72 percent of the workforce had a high school diploma or less it is important to note that not all jobs will require a four-year degree a recent study from the Brookings Institute uses labor market data to project that nearly half of all openings over the next decade will be from middle skills jobs those requiring more than high school but less than a college degree one area where we is seeing a boom in middle skills jobs is in health care which added over half a million jobs during the recession openings for registered nurses and health technologist positions that typically require an associate’s degree are expected to be grow by more than 1 million by 2018 the US needs to make rapid progress in improving individuals access to in success in obtaining post-secondary credentials in order to meet the president’s 2020 goal higher education attainment in the United States which is the percent of American population with a post-secondary credential or degree has remained flat for 40 years in spite of the dramatic economic and social changes during that period currently fewer than 4 and 10 American adults hold an associate’s degree or higher what is more the stagnation and us completion rates compared with other nations increasing success in higher education attainment has diminished the us standing in international rankings over time South Korea is now a world leader in higher education attainment we have much to learn from your extraordinary success because of the diversity in the current educational profile of the u.s. population as well as what we understand about future skills requirements we are focused on building multiple pathways leading a trip leading to a variety of different credentials the advantage of this approach is that it offers a way of reaching individuals across the spectrum of educational attainment from those with very low skills to those with some college but no degree to those with degrees who need additional education to advance in their careers career pathways are one of the primary models that the US government is using to strengthen the pipeline of individuals entering post-secondary education and to increase the employability of low-skilled low income adults the u.s. departments of Education labor and Health and Human Services have recognized the value of this model in integrating services across federal funding streams and we are working to adopt a common definition of Career Pathways which is a series of connected education and training strategies and support services that enable individuals to secure industry relevant certification and obtain employment with an occupational area and to advance to higher levels of future education and employment in that area while there is some variation in the way that different education and training providers will define career pathways for adults there is growing consensus that they should be built on the following core element alignment of secondary post-secondary and workforce development systems rigorous sequential connected inefficient coursework that integrates basic education and skills training multiple entry and exit points comprehensive support services like career counseling alignment with local regional workforce needs an active engagement of employers and targeted industry areas curriculum instruction that is appropriate for adults and uses work as the primary context for learning a focus on secondary and post-secondary industry recognized credentials and sector specific employment also collaborative partnerships that meaningfully engage education business and community stakeholders from this list of design elements I want to underscore a few that are especially important in developing policies that support successful career pathways for adults one is employer engagement Career Pathways are designed with the active engagement of employers in ground and grounded in real time labor market information on local skills demands they are demand driven models that aim to equip jobseekers with the industry

recognized credentials program designs for adults and working learners career pathways programs use pedagogical techniques that meet the needs of adults and non-traditional working learners the curriculum is contextualized in a work related framework and often accelerated so that individuals can Torrent learned can return to work quickly the programs are also designed with support services such as subsidies for child care and transportation that help adults complete their training programs learners are also provided extensive career counseling and job placement services to help them transition successfully from school to work another element is cross agency collaboration Career Pathways models require significant collaboration between the public workforce and economic development systems human service agencies and training and education providers at the federal state and local levels the system’s placed a tremendous emphasis on making it easy for adults and other non-traditional students to transition from work to school back to work as needed career pathways are designed to serve many learners students employers and workers most importantly they provide access to education for individuals of varying ages and skill levels from high school students to returning dislocated workers in need of remedial education to immigrants to those with some college or even a college degree who need further education to advance in their careers the structure content and modes of delivery for Career Pathways will vary by provider occupational area and individuals served nevertheless I thought it would be helpful to offer one example deflecting the sequencing of education and training along a career pathway and the levels of career advancement that can be achieved as an individual acquires ever higher levels of education the u.s. department of departments of Labor and education are integrating support for Career Pathways development into a variety of programs and policy initiatives these are just a few examples of direct support to States and local education and public workforce agencies the Workforce Investment Act is the primary piece of legislation under girding the US public workforce development and adult education systems the law is currently up for reauthorization and we’ve been working very closely with members of the US Congress to ensure that future iterations of the law embodies policies and principles that will strengthen the preparedness of adults for jobs in the 21st century economy will facilitate post-secondary transitions increased credentialing and expand the use of Career Pathways across the education and workforce development systems some of the priorities the Department of Education has established for this new legislation include providing incentives to spur innovation strengthening ties between adult and post-secondary education and between adult education and the public workforce system increasing teacher effectiveness and professionalize in the field of adult education strengthening our accountability systems to incentivize to reward performance we want to also strengthen English language and civics education especially services to immigrant professionals and we want to continue the federal commitment to correctional education my office supports state and local level adult education providers through a variety of research professional development and technical assistance efforts currently we have two major investments to promote career pathways for adults one is entitled policy to performance in this project eight partner states were selected to develop implement and evaluate policies designed to connect adults to learning and training opportunities to meet the demands of the 21st century workforce selected States are receiving customized technical assistance to support them in creating an implementing policy that strengthen strengthens the connection between adult basic education post-secondary education and employment the project is also developing tools and resources that upon its conclusion can and will help all states the second initiative is designing instruction for Career Pathways a three year project focused on developing the capacity of Adult Basic Education providers to deliver instruction that blends college

readiness workplace and basic literacy and numeracy skills to enable low-skilled adults to make better transitions to post-secondary education and training that project includes the development of an inventory of curricula and instructional resources as well as a virtual community of practice for the purposes of professional development a new source of federal funding is the Trade Adjustment Assistance Community College and Career Training Program it is a five hundred million dollar grant program to States state agencies and local education and training providers to support innovations that significantly expand the capacity of community colleges to serve dislocated workers and others requiring fir education in programs leading to industry-recognized credentials this program is designed to meet industry needs while accelerating learn individual learning and improving college retention and employment among several competitive priorities for this program is an emphasis on the use of funds to build career pathways programs that conform to the needs of local and regional employers in closing I want to thank you again for the opportunity to address this group and I’m very much looking forward dr. Lee to our moderated discussion and we’ll be happy to answer any questions that you may have thank you my sincere appreciation for her presentation and it’s not only because of excellence in terms of the qualification of a detailed information but also wonderful early save the time she gave me five minutes boom so I would really appreciate it that means what expecting wonderful dynamic participation from the floor later on right yes sir okay and second speakers by professor and I’ve read a through of beforehand and then one the conclusion was that you yes is a number one the most competitive when it comes to national HIV system and then that Brenda gave us a detailed and the protocol and informations and supporting this kind of conclusion parts so I can see a wonderful connection in between so to save time I shall here and ask for the second speaker professor all and as I told earlier that’s professor or say topic is a talking about the global HRD competitiveness report 2011 and shall we invite dr. war first thank you for the mantel Raider it’s my great honor to report these research findings in this forum this report started last year and this this one is the second revision of the report I’m going to briefly introduce the basic content and final result of the report to 2011 this research is done by Korea human resource Research Center isolation University which is which was funded by the Minister of Education and Technology there are some pre-existing indices to assess and evaluate human resource development system in a country as you may know I am d WF and IPS report was designed to assess the ditional competitiveness and those indices have some component of Education and human resource development system and also there are some typical examples to assess human resource development system in a country which include Talent global competitiveness in China and global talent index in United Kingdom and also there are other examples like you see creativity index UNDP Human Development Index and we see the education ethic events but there are some limitations in all of these indices some of the national competitiveness index is too

much focused on economy or industry and also there are some limitations in in terms of absence of theoretical model over initial D and also some of the measures are heavily rely on corporate executives opinions so there is a need for an alternative or new index to measure human resource development system in a country to assess national competitiveness from an HIV perspective and to measure an HIV competitiveness based on the sound the theoretical model and to live like the full spectrum of hld competitiveness rather than opinions of specific population let me briefly introduce the procedure to develop and validate these indices our research team defined an HIV competitively for competitiveness first and then built a conceptual model and then determine the component of the model and validated a model by using AHP method and then collected the data OECD member countries computed the country’s HIV competitiveness course and finally compared the competitiveness ranking across the countries at the first conceptual and theoretical model of natural human resource development system is very important so we defined NHL D as a system their country has in order to secure develop and utilize these human resources in this definition you can see a three different component securing utilising and developing human resources and these three component should be measured in some ways so we developed the measurement model of a child in each of these system and each of the competitiveness is defined as the cumulative sum of a country’s achievement in each of the factors as well as the interaction among them those four factors include demand and supply condition and supporting systems and environment so three conceptual component were measured by these four factors supply and demand conditions included both quantity and quality these these days polarimeters is becoming more important than quantity in both supply and demand conditions and environment factors include the technology social capital globalization industry and supporting system include investment and institutions all of these soft factors abstracted from the extensive review on previous research and you can see a lot of indicators in different factors and soft factors and I’m going to skip some of the slide supply conditions in supply conditions quantity measures included total phillipe utility rates life expectancy working age population and percentage of population with tertiary education and and color imagers include the pieces scored on Bhagwat top 500 universities color management schools and perceived health status in demand conditions content measures included employment and unemployment rate and also quality measures including number of creative professionals as a percentage of the total population number of technicians and associate professionals as a percentage of the total population Brain Gain gender gap was included in environment echnology a component has fixed mobile broadband internet subscribers per 100 population and number of as estimated Internet users per 100 population and ICT price etc and social capital measures included interpersonal trust confidence in social institutions tolerance and Porter to now and collaboration major included TOEFL score foreign students a number of international meetings international passengers and political caliber ladies and finally industry measures included export and import of creative goods as percentage of total trading goes and university industry collaboration in research and development supporting

system is composed of investment and institutions and first investment included public and private expenditure on education and government business expenditure on research and development the last one is institution and these indices include the intellectual property protection duration of compulsory education public expenditure on active labor market policy and also full-time raid equivalent paid maternity leave was included we used the several criteria to select the indicators the forest and most important one was international comparability and accuracy reliability relevance timeliness coherence and accessibility and clarity was used to select indicators and there are a lot of resources way we used to measure each country’s competitiveness ranking and and I want to skip this slide in each sub factors individual factors do not have the same impact on the system so we made a lot of effort to put weight on individual indicators we used analytical hierarchy process which is called iehp and this method is widely used to determine the weight to be given to each of the criteria to be considered in making a choice so we invited 17 professors and researchers in the field of economics technology management public administration and policy corporate strategies education policy lifelong education woman’s studies etc and they were asked to provide a pairwise comparisons for every set of factors of factors and indicators and relative we’ll calculate based on key status guideline as you can see weights given to the factors and sub factors a little bit different among four factors demand the conditions have has more influence or impact on the system and and also the qualitative component in supply and demand conditions has have more influence on the system and supporting system has influence on the system like you can see weight of each of the 45 indicators ranged from 9% to 0.25 percent and indicators with high weights include number of creative professionals as a percentage of total population number of world top 500 University public expenditure on education an intellectual property protection and Brain Gain then we computed the competitiveness score the first step was to create a standardization we used the min/max method the minimum score was 1 and maximum score was 7 and then we imputed the missing values we interpolated most recent data if available and also replaced the missing values with alternative ones gained from the regression and the final in the final step we reuse the weighting system multiplying standardised imputed values and weight derived from AHP so these are the final result based on these analysis as you can see the Switzerland ranked first Sweden United States Netherland the field and Denmark Norway Canada Iceland United Kingdom Australia and usually the Germany was in order so and I keep going to give you a little bit more moment to take a look at the slide Korea ranked 23rd and in the previous ranking Korea was 21st and the the ranking was not changed a lot but you know I I was a little bit surprised to see Korea’s ranking was not so high because many many scientists emphasized Korea’s economic development or socio cultural change which depend was determined by education and human resource but these days these days Korea’s human resource development

system competitiveness is relatively decreasing I think I’m going to briefly introduce each soft factors ranking in first one is supply conditions United States and Canada United Kingdom was were the top three countries in supply conditions and Switzerland the Netherlands and Sweden were the top three countries in demand conditions in environment factors the ax marks which land Sweden ranked top three in supporting systems Finland Sweden Iceland ranked the top three in his component and from this four slide I think you can imagine which continent and which countries showed the more competitiveness in hig system we divided 30 34 OECD member countries into three groups 11 12 11 countries so first group was named strong countries and second in mediary and third week countries through these three groups show the show the big difference in in each component as you can see the demand side quantity and quality measures show the biggest difference and also social capital through the big difference and also I divided or Tschida member countries into three three categories by GDP per capita and the first group first agree to large the second medium and third small economies you know large economic groups show the strength in demand and also technology social capital and also in every aspect large accompany showed more score in a child competitiveness for comparison purpose I compared the top five and bottom five countries you can see the biggest difference quantity and quality aspect of demand aside and also social capital and investment now let me show this chart in a different way there are several areas which show the biggest difference and demand aside difference noticeable and also in supply-side polity is colored showed more difference in quantity and also industry investment show the difference and these the comparison between top 5 and rank 6 2 or 15 countries there are little difference but you can see large difference in the area poverty measures in demand aside and also industry you can see the same chart in a different way so demand and industry show the difference let’s take a look at the Korea country profile dotted line means the OECD average so in the area of investment technology and Industry show the relatively high score but other areas show the role ending in Korea’s profile let’s take a look at the ranking of Korea you know some technology and investment show the high higher ranking than any other areas Korea ranked 8th in technology area and went third in investment other but quality measures in demand Korea ranked 32nd in social

capital 33rd and globalization 31st and institutions 32nd you know these four areas ranked almost bottom of the OECD member countries I calculate the correlations with other competitiveness indices what what is global human resource development competitiveness index you can see the numbers and also our research team identified the ranking in 2005 and compared it what the 2011 based on the same criteria and the correlation is relatively increasing in 2011 and I compared and made this discharge based on HRD competitiveness index and economy size among among large economy countries Canada Denmark Finland Netherlands Norway Sweden Switzerland the United States showed strong competitiveness in a childís system and Australia Ireland Luxembourg showed intermediately come in nature the system even though Korea is in the intermediate Li computing group you know Korea’s actual ranking was 23rd so it is almost bottom of the median group there are some changes in HRT competitiveness between 2005 and 2011 you know in the third column you can see a ranking change I’m not going to explain all details of this slide but you can take a look at some changes in countries rankings based on based on the categorizing the countries into three groups in terms of HRD competitiveness and economic size some of the countries is is advancing in terms of HRD competitiveness which is named in this chart advancer and some countries are staying without showing any change in HRD competitiveness score which is called in discharge ordinary countries and some countries show show the low hld competitiveness which is called the lag or countries in this chart among strong competitiveness competitive group Switzerland Sweden Norway was advancer and Nader on the field and the Deemer Canada was ordinary group and United States competitiveness in HIV system is decreasing and also intermediate comparative group Roxanne Brooke Austria was adventure and island was lager Korea was one of the legarre countries and among weak competitiveness group Italy Greece Spain was the medium economy and then they two countries also what the ordinary countries and Spain was the leg based on this analysis I’m going to finalize my research report the US Canada and few countries in Northern Europe are the most competitive when it comes to a niche healthy system North American countries especially the United States occupy an unrivaled position as Perez supply conditions of human resource development system and European countries occupy high positions in various aspect of HRD system relatively well Korea and Japan which are assumed to have competitive advantages partly due to their natural emphasis on education occupy relatively low positions among

OECD member countries 23rd and 22nd respectively countries which are strong in competitiveness in terms of HIV system have a relatively high GDP per capita countries with which awake in HIV system have relatively low GDP per capita most of the countries with high GDP per capita are either advancers war or Daenerys on the other hand most countries with low GDP per capita are either Ordinaries or Leger’s thank you very much [Applause] thank you and your presentations particularly I think it is a failure in terms of you produced one way of indices production so designing and contouring procedures and particularly the energy power I think it’s a fight valued and we appreciate that and well you can throw with two presentations of our one is about excellent example of cases of USA and with a specific focus on path Career Pathways and the second one is a trying to relate national HR deal with national competitiveness and theoretically speaking and maybe it’ll be super focus Eve maybe some in the sense maybe we can have expert cuts dynamic exchange between the presentations and you a unified front for later on but beforehand and we’re gonna have a to excellent designated speakers and the first Jericho to OECD policy analyst first I found the two presentations very very interesting and I would just like to add a few thoughts very briefly my own perspective on these issues is based on the experience we have at the OECD from policy reviews of vocational education and training over the past five years we have conducted we have finished reviews of secondary level vocational education and right now we are at the beginning of a cycle of reviews of post-secondary level of vocational education overall we are preparing reports on 22 countries and these include the United States which we will work with next year and also Korea we’re actually in the middle of preparing on the Korean review right now I would like to say a few words about the importance of basic skills in particular literacy and numeracy in the development of vocational skills this is very much related to the issue of better access and Career Pathways which is a policy objective in the United States of course if you do a vocational occupation you need good literacy and numeracy skills for example if you’re a carpenter you need some trigonometry to be able to calculate certain angles now you might think this is really obvious why is she talking about it why I am talking about it because there is huge variation across obesity countries in the attention paid to these skills if you go to the United States you will find that there is a lot of attention paid to literacy and numeracy if you talk to high schools or community colleges their program contains a strong element of literacy numeracy and in community colleges they systematically screen entrance to identify people who might have weaknesses and they also provide them with support with specifically designed programs called remedial or developmental education to help them catch up with this it is remarkable how different the situation is in many European countries and in their vocational programs if you go to Europe in quite a few countries you will find that it’s very vocational focused and there is very limited and sometimes almost no content focusing on literacy and numeracy skills also if you talk to

the teachers in these institutions they will actually say well you know yes you’re right there are some problems there are many students who have very weak literacy and numeracy skills so then you ask of course so what do you do about it and sometimes very often actually they will say well you know they should have learned this earlier they should have learned this in primary education or secondary we we can’t do anything about it and this is really a problem because that means that in many countries it’s very difficult to catch up with some with what some students didn’t learn maybe at their initial stages of Education and this becomes an obstacle when they want to acquire vocational skills later on as adults now in Korea this doesn’t seem to be really a problem because you have very good results in literacy and numeracy in fact we heard also mentioning Pisa scores as an indicator of human resource development Pisa measures literacy reading and mathematics among fifteen year olds and Korea is one of the best performing countries in if you compare it to the OECD and the students who have weak weak skills there are relatively few of them so you’re doing very well on this front now of course it’s no not so very rosy because there are also some challenges in fact in Korea probably the bigger challenge for vocational education and training is to make it maybe more vocational to make it less academic linked it more closely to the labor market needs established better links with employers and this is a major challenge in Korea now of course achieving a balance between vocational content and some literacy numeracy is not so easy and also another thing that is not so easy is to convince some of the adults who came to learn of course how to do an occupation to go back and do some maths but they didn’t come to do maths in the end and one response one potential response is a very promising relatively new approach called contextual education which is widely used in the US but also we’ve seen it in in a number of European countries now the objective of this approach is to teach for example maths in the context of an occupation so for example you wouldn’t teach the Pythagorean theorem just on a blackboard but in a carpentry class when you’re talking about how to use a t-square you would also explain it in that context and that actually helps a number of students to understand it better and make a bit more sense of it now is it all this easy of course not there is always a but it’s not so easy to do it and I would like to use the words of a school principal we talked to in Texas who said you know doing really good contextual education it’s like getting pandas to mate it doesn’t just happen it takes a lot of time a lot of patience and a lot of energy so just to sum up what I’ve said it literacy and numeracy skills are very important as foundations to vocational skills and maybe they’re not receiving enough attention in some countries while in some other countries maybe some programs are a bit too academic and it’s the vocational content that’s lacking so to finish I would like to and finish with two questions really and that might make you think and maybe picked up in the discussion do you think that literacy numeracy receive insufficient attention in vocational programs what do you think that actually the there’s a risk in focusing too much on those general skills because it drives resources and attention away from the Occupational content and risks making vocational programs a bit too academic so thank you very much for your attention and I very much look forward to the discussion images jr. on to general ornithologist I was in Alameda check out 10 may see chaga anime plop hiss tampura hyung go get Casey macho someone should have a Smita swing in Tujunga couch on double wages general a tunnel in there Yoshi go big or you can watch Angad it all cooks levodopa distro

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questions I know because of those because Just’s cable so wonderful issue points so whatever Anderson III can see there’s some stones here and I as I said earlier they so we’re gonna make a diss session is a wonderful place for learning process so any kind of dumb questions welcome okay please and microphone please thank you my name is Peter kochenko from the University of Illinois this is both for dr. Dan and professor Oh the discussion about national competitiveness needs to include in my mind a discussion of the role of higher education as well as vocational education just as we require a vocational education to be contextual and applied so I think there is an important role for higher education to be inclusive of workforce needs students come to higher education not just to be generally educated and broaden their minds but also to learn very specific work skills so the distinction between vocational education and academic education is a slippery one and I think we need to look at higher education more broadly and require that higher education also include contextual and workforce related components some schools do of course the professional schools but many don’t thank you and so far we have had a two excellent questions and I think it’s a that both of them require Heights our number would be needs for response later on ok and then the people I closed and anybody’s oh ok ok I can stop please go ahead excuse me but so far we have two hands and after you and the new approaches will develop later on or Dhoni and the Soutine and they come and go Sukumar smashing and a collaborative h- oh so horror matru Sun angle piranha 30 or so diamond a green Aragon way none from Dino much mangy gray dingy the Hong Kong yeah amoral grant Hong Kong gong show be and almost holding hands hanging children there rhomboid a czar or she did not be yeah come on out angie present second bomb the one child once hello all all in january the nominal box america recipe hun encourage sterilizer or ultra woman just hope you enjoy my the recall general value warranty engine again Jake Yoho WH on mangina from Mongolia Solomon’s like this unknown author if they are not help of emergency yeah thank you and people I asked for the lady to give us a question and let me just encourage you of a feedback from the floor and beforehand and so I I’d like to ask anybody wants to ask any questions if not and maybe after having the madam gave us a question and I close because those respondents are required a lot of much minutes for response so here yes okay nobody so after these ladies asking questions and then I crossed okay okay pretty square there are nicely cut and socio some kind of Judah and so yes only Utah young children own twenty projected return so how in Nanjing invita Chico Denarius on their cousin come on Jake kwang-ho song thirty Tiago Terrapin yeah Kiwanis and solar panels angered a teacher a church in America oh she is on center Casamance Amita Kukoc an elder Asuka attended really Magnussen is hookah Anagha jacuzzi saya sendiri karmani series in tourism tire bahagia saw Cheney Bernhard one order Howard samhita could the Iranian song the dirtiest are chiku what I saw atashi keep huggy huggy Wilson none

King Johnny audience women and girls me de pacheco not Hurley how good no I don’t know tangelo song it unknown Krong God you look like to see case ok to overdo Jessup daniel-san 39th on the retire her go you know each other I do go I don t know monitor Ogawa its auto-ship tell you it changed – under Yan Chun secretary Ortega I’m a nun oh don’t go Keegan and so chill upon you O Chickasaw to two options or younger sister car no way she can take on Lima go Sookie I was single me de you get a hundred some protected against Amita okay thank you and so far we have had four questions from the floor and we have for some Christians or by designated and the commentators and so I think the say those Christians are not specified in terms of the specific instance by any person sport but since we have four speakers here and so I think we say to save time I’m not going reiterated at all each questions so whatever they are and each speakers we can start from the the doctor then first and then in that way and would you please respond worry about and you think that’s important too as a insert to any specific essence and people hand and we we have for now I think it’s my time Kruk say that so now i have ten twenty two and then means we have nine minutes before are we close so I think we’re so expecting excellence in terms of time management as I said earlier so think about that sorry I wanted to respond to Victoria’s question about the need for increasing literacy and numeracy skills in terms of folks and getting on a career pathway we have a huge problem in the United States we have over 93 million adults who have basic or below basic literacy skills and we find that it’s very important to make sure that they attain those basic skills but not to do it in a separate track not to do the academic program and then do the vocational and so I really wanted to underscore her point about the contextualized learning and how important it is particularly for adults to accelerate their path their academic programs so you can’t just do the academic routes and then go on to the vocational and we’re really focusing on making sure that we’re designing efforts that combine academic and vocational so that folks acquire the necessary literacy and numeracy skills and are able to fully participate in the economy and just to go to Peter’s point we’re not also suggesting that vocational education is only at the secondary level but actually in the United States it’s very important that it’s banned both the secretary and the post-secondary educational level because we really are in fact focused on making sure the folks have industry recognized credentials or degrees so that they can again be fully participants in the economy I could go on but I would like to leave with time for my my other colleagues to respond I’m happy to it this time later thank you thank you and she’ll go to the 7 and I think it’s a professor wall okay I’m I’m going to try to answer the discussant question first he raised the issue of more diverse indicators with more diverse indicators it’s very hard to include more countries you know when we started to develop this measure we included more than 65 indicators what mean which meant that we only can be can could compared less than 10 were 15 countries so like I said international comparability was the first criteria to select indicators so we wanted to compare we the countries because basically OECD countries database is quite reliable and widely comparable in in the global level and also there are some issues in giving weight you know some of you may know that I am the IPS or any other type of the national competitiveness report have some

difficulty in putting some weight on their indicators so only one report particularly IPS report used the method AHP and but in their report details of the process was not described so we I don’t know on what kind of process they used to put to the the country ranking so in our report we reported the process very in very details and and I think at at this point AHP is is the only reliable way to getting some type of weight for this type of index and also populations influence on the system will be increasing because many advanced countries have lower low birthrate and I think but it takes time at the moment in five or ten years influence of the population growth will show its impact very slowly so in twenty or thirty years later I think China or India or any other countries who whose population is more than the regular size will have more influence on the system and the relationship between economic crisis and HIV system is very tricky question because you know these days which one is the deep independent variable education world economy but I think these two factors are interacting in a very different way in a very different countries for the case of Korea I think education play the key role in developing economic and social status so I think if one country has strong and sound system of human resource development its impact will show in the near future not the current status yes what I thought and and also peer raised the question about the role of higher education I think in knowledge driven society higher education played a key role in developing Society in the Roman so I made my best effort to include more in which reflect roll over higher education so number of professionals in in the category of creative jobs were top 500 university numbers are quite important and those indicators were put higher weight compared to any other indicators and and for another questions why Korean people prefer stable job like public officers or professional career I think economy condition is in Korea is not good many college students won’t go to the area or public service or a professional job and they stay at university to prepare for the exam for a very long time so these days less and less college students graduate in four years you know so but I think that’s thought that’s the natural way to respond to the change of labor market but the problem is that if we create more jobs more professional and secure jobs in the market college students will reply in the same way so I think Korean government did a lot of effort to create the sound labor market these days but still we have a higher rate of unemployment rate of college students so I think labor market condition will play the key role in with in getting getting

good human resource and staying in the market thank you very much okay and now this I am facing one difficult problems as I promised but trying to my best to NT session on time person now we have only less than two minutes and at the close but we have to another respondents to very various important questions released by you so I want to broke my promise and trying to extend five more minutes but with the Euro prior concerns if you say there’s no then I will end right on time any objection of course not thank you I appreciate that so we’re gonna end this session by ten and thirty five okay thank you and then people I asked for two other respondents but let me just invite dr. dan because she just asked me to at least one or two and a specification yes I wanted to respond to the woman the question who asked about women we have a program in the States or had a program on dislocated worker women a dislocated women’s program and there are a number of common elements that you can look at it I’m happy to share some information about that program but part of the effort and encouraging women to come back to work is to provide them with the support services that they need to even convene a cohort where they will learn together and support each other as they go through the transition it’s very hard for them to come back to school and many times they don’t even know what opportunities are available so I think if you can create a sense of community and provide additional support for the women as they’re returning back to work that that there that’s a really way to a strong way to encourage them to go into career and vocational education and I’m happy to talk further with you about it but I also just wanted to respond to this gentleman I wanted to know what the metrics are in terms of the the Career Pathways programs and the common metrics are do the folks get employed what are their earnings and they employed in the career areas that they had were trained for and also we we also look at whether they enroll in post-secondary education as a result of the training and continue their education thank you Thank You Brenda okay now it’s time to recast so madam Victoria to respond and I think it’s you so many questions are waiting for you right okay wait here please I try to be brief first I’d like to respond to the question about France well I’m afraid I would disappoint you because France did not pass it was not one of the countries we have reviewed at this stage so I cannot talk about France but what I can say is the experience from 16 countries and that’s that employers have a crucial role you cannot have a good vocational education and training system without engaging employers you just must get employers and board and this can happen through various ways there you can advise a ministry they can offer web-based training opportunities to students in vocational programs they can participate in the development of curricula but this is really really a crucial things and a key recommendation that we gave to many countries now also I would like to respond to the question about whether in other countries also people prefer general academic routes to vocational routes well in many OECD countries you would see that yes it’s often a second choice for students to go to vocational tracks and parents prefer the academic training education for their children but this is not always the case and does not have to be always the case in fact if you go to countries for example Switzerland you will see that vocational training enjoys a very high status and many young people want to go into those programs they don’t go there because of their bad grades they really want that kind of training so it is possible to have people want to go to those programs but you need those grams to be very good and that part we realize on the role of employers thank you please professor PIM please play okay yes yeah okay thank you thank you to save time and you’re just contributed and so we’ve gone through with all the important points and some questions and responses so far as you all of us know

that importance of TV et in the year of a centennial and so I think it’s a but two presentations are talking about the global HRD indicators and indices measurement and methodological I think Lisa’s is quite is a meaningful but also we can have looms for further development ESL as a United States cases our path and we are the understand that the USA experience of quite significant in a sense that somehow we have to CD some the widespread by the other developing countries too and also we see the emphasize the importance of paid importance of basic skills but at the same time we note notice that the importance of balancing between basic education and other adult education not only the high education but also low education too and also how we or we see the excellent the so-called consider ins with the education and vocational occupation competence development and we have a lot of important points we shared given the ton short period of time but so I’m really wondering the different thing is that we didn’t tell away some too much quite much detail about that but we can we can leave that kind of no charts since we can’t have one other okay wonderful questions for next year and so I really appreciate the you wonderful participations and also presentation by four speakers and I welcome your wonderful it begins to toast four speakers please thank you okay we close this session here thank you